Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Puccinia horiana
(white rust of chrysanthemum)

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Datasheet

Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia horiana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white rust of chrysanthemum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Teliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleTeliospores - line drawing
CaptionTeliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Teliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Teliospores - line drawingTeliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia horiana Henn.

Preferred Common Name

  • white rust of chrysanthemum

International Common Names

  • Spanish: roya blanca del crisantemo; roya japonesa del crisantemo
  • French: rouille blanche du chrysanthème; rouille japonaise du chrysanthème

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Japanischer Chrysantheme Rost; Mehliger: Chrysantheme Rost; weisser Chrysanthemenrost

EPPO code

  • PUCCHN (Puccinia horiana)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia horiana

Description

Top of page Telia hypophyllous, rarely epiphyllous, compact, pinkish-buff to white, 2-4 mm diameter. Teliospores pedicellate, up to 45 µm long, pale-yellow, oblong to oblong-clavate, slightly constricted, 30-45 x 13-17 µm, with thin walls, 1-2 µm thick at sides, commonly thicker (4-9) µm at apex. Teliospores germinating in situ. Basidiospores hyaline, slightly curved, broadly ellipsoid to fusiform, 7-14 x 5-9 µm.

For more details see Hennings (1901), Baker (1967) and Punithalingam (1968).

Distribution

Top of page

P. horiana originated in Japan and has spread to other Far Eastern countries, to South Africa, and from there to Europe. Walker (1983) critically reviewed the distribution data. Outbreaks of white rust have also been observed in Ontario, Canada (JSW Dickens, Central Science Laboratory, UK, personal communication, 1994).

P. horiana is mostly a greenhouse pest in more temperate areas. It is considered a quarantine pest in many countries and is subject to rigorous eradication programmes when detected. Distributions can therefore vary from year to year and the National Plant Protection Organization should be consulted for the most up-to-date distribution information for a specific region. 

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 236).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distribution2013Dheepa et al., 2015; Sriram et al., 2015
-KarnatakaPresent2013Sriram et al., 2015
-Tamil NaduPresent2013Dheepa et al., 2015
IsraelEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyRestricted distributionGöre, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014

Africa

MoroccoAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; CFIA, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; CFIA, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
USATransient: actionable, under eradicationCABI/EPPO, 2008; NAPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; NAPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresent, few occurrencesMassachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, 2008
-MichiganPresent, few occurrencesNAPPO, 2008
-New JerseyEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-OregonEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaTransient: actionable, under eradicationCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresent, few occurrencesVirginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2009
-WashingtonEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ChileRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PeruPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UruguayPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaRestricted distribution1964CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumWidespread1964CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
CyprusEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresent, few occurrencesJorgensen, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
FinlandEradicated1997CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadGrouet and Allaire, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-France (mainland)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2008
GermanyWidespread1968CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GreeceRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-CretePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GuernseyPresentEPPO, 2014
HungaryPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IrelandEradicated1976CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distribution1964Malta & Gullino, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Italy (mainland)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008
-SicilyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
LatviaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaAbsent, confirmed by surveyCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014; IPPC, 2016
LuxembourgAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsRestricted distribution1964NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; Boerema and Vermeulen, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NorwayEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PolandRestricted distributionZamorski, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
RomaniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SpainEradicatedCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresent, few occurrences1960Akesson, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandRestricted distribution1964CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distribution1963CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ScotlandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
UkraineTransient: actionable, under eradicationCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Restricted distribution1964Dordevic, 1983

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCatley, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandRestricted distribution1965CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Until 1963, P. horiana was confined to China and Japan, where it is presumably important, although little seems to be published concerning it (Yamada, 1956). However, it has since spread rapidly on infected imported cuttings and is now a feared and serious disease in nurseries in Europe, frequently causing complete loss of glasshouse chrysanthemum crops. Severe outbreaks occurred in England and Denmark, and these were at first successfully eradicated. The disease was similarly contained in France following an initial outbreak in 1967, but appeared again in 1971, and has since spread rapidly throughout the country causing extensive losses. At the present time, white rust is established in most western European countries, and statutory measures have been abandoned in these.

P. horiana is an EPPO A2 quarantine pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1982) and is also of quarantine significance for IAPSC, JUNAC and NAPPO. Once established, chrysanthemum white rust is extremely difficult and costly to eradicate. The intensification of chrysanthemum production, with high plant densities in humid glasshouses, provides an ideal environment for the fungus. For many years, the UK and Ireland in particular have maintained phytosanitary measures against the disease, subjecting it to statutory control wherever found. The justification for this policy was argued in terms of cost-effectiveness by Lelliott (1984) and Pemberton (1988). Now that the UK has abandoned this policy, it is not clear whether other countries will find it necessary or opportune to maintain measures, especially if they import potted plants or cut flowers of chrysanthemums from infested countries in significant numbers. If importation is limited to planting material, exclusion might be a more realistic policy.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Chrysanthemums are the only host, especially the florists' cultivars; these are widely cultivated in glasshouses.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeMain
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest

Symptoms

Top of page On Leaves

Following infection, pale-green to yellow spots, up to 5 mm diameter, develop on the upper surface. The centres of these spots become brown and necrotic with ageing. On the corresponding lower surface, raised, buff or pinkish, waxy pustules (telia) are found. As the spots on the upper surface become sunken, so these pustules become quite prominent and turn whitish when basidiospores are produced. Telia are occasionally found on the upper leaf surface. Severely attacked leaves wilt, hang down the stem and gradually dry up completely.

On Bracts and Stems

Sori sometimes develop when crops are excessively affected.

On Flowers

Infection has been recorded as necrotic flecking with occasional pustules (Dickens, 1970).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Biology and Ecology

Top of page P. horiana is an autoecious rust. The bicellular teliospores germinate in situ to produce unicellular basidiospores which are dispersed in air currents. No other spores are known. High humidity, and a film of moisture, appear to be necessary for the germination of both teliospores and basidiospores. Teliospores are capable of germination as soon as they are mature; germination and discharge of basidiospores occur between 4 and 23°C and, at the optimum temperature of 17°C, discharge of basidiospores starts within 3 h. Basidiospores can germinate over a wide temperature range and, at 17-24°C, either surface of the leaf may be penetrated within 2 h. Thus, only 5 h of wetness is sufficient for a new infection to become established. Within the leaf, abundant, hyaline, intercellular hyphae are produced with intracellular haustoria. The incubation period is normally 7-10 days, but short periods of high temperatures (over 30°C) can apparently prolong the period to 8 weeks.

Transmission

The disease is normally carried on infected cuttings and plants (including cut flowers) of glasshouse chrysanthemums.

There are reports that dispersal by wind can occur over distances of 700 m and more but, because the basidiospores are very sensitive to desiccation at less than 90% RH, long-distance spread would only be likely during very wet periods. Natural spread is hence unlikely over long distances; it is limited even between glasshouses (or else it would never have been possible to contain the disease at all).

The ability of the fungus to overwinter outdoors is unknown. In experiments, teliospores in sori on detached leaves survived for 8 weeks at 50% RH but, at higher humidities or when buried in dry or moist compost, they only survived for 3 weeks or less. It would, therefore, appear that infected debris is not likely to be important in the carry-over of the disease.

Some chrysanthemum cultivars appear to be more susceptible than others and there is evidence that there is more than one pathotype of the fungus. For more information, see Water (1981).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page P. horiana is now a feared and serious disease in nurseries, frequently causing complete loss of glasshouse chrysanthemum crops.

Diagnosis

Top of page

Alaei et al. (2009) successfully detected Puccinia horiana using a conventional, nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The fungus can be positively identified on the basis of symptoms and morphological features. Numerous other rust fungi have been reported on chrysanthemums, but they can be distinguished by their teliospore shape, size, surface ornamentation and colour (Punithalingam, 1968). For more information see Stahl (1964), Baker (1967) and Firman and Martin (1968).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Chemical Control

Preventive spraying with fungicides is effective but costly (Water, 1981). Active ingredients found useful include oxycarboxin, triforine, benodanil, triadimefon, diclobutrazol, dibitertanol and propiconazole. Rattink et al. (1985) experimented with systemic fungicides in the nutrient recirculating system of chrysanthemums grown on rockwool. Dickens (1990), using a similar set of fungicides, found that only propiconazole had sufficient eradicative activity to be useful in a statutory campaign. However, in subsequent work Dickens (1991) found that myclobutanil and hexaconazole also had good eradicative activity. For more details on fungicidal control also see Zamorski (1982), Dickens and Potter (1983) and Krebs (1985).

Biological Control

Srivastava et al. (1985) suggest that Verticillium lecanii, used for biological control of aphids on glasshouse chrysanthemums, will also control P. horiana.

Host-Plant Resistance

Some chrysanthemum cultivars are resistant and breeding for resistance continues (Rademaker and de Jong, 1985, 1987). Grouet (1984) has reviewed white rust control in general.

Phytosanitary Measures

EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) that planting material of chrysanthemums should come from a place of production regularly inspected and found free of disease for 3 months beforehand. The fungus should also be absent from the immediate vicinity of the place of production. For cut flowers, visual inspection is sufficient. Veenenbos (1984) outlined the pre-export inspection and control system used to provide this guarantee in the Netherlands. Such systems are now viewed in that country as less and less acceptable from an environmental standpoint, because they depend heavily on intensive use of plant protection products and also interfere with biological control systems in glasshouses. For the few countries where the disease is still absent, these arguments tend to support continued exclusion.

References

Top of page

orevic Lj, 1983. The occurrence of white rust of Chrysanthemum in the vicinity of Belgrade. Zastita Bilja, 34(1):169-172

Akesson I, 1983. Horticultural pests and diseases in Sweden 1982. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 47(1/2):5-7

Alaei H; Baeyen S; Maes M; Höfte M; Heungens K, 2009. Molecular detection of Puccinia horiana in Chrysanthemum × morifolium through conventional and real-time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 76(2):136-145. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T30-4TNWGRN-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2009&_rdoc=5&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234932%232009%23999239997%23857268%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4932&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=17&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=15d16f4a8f84ccf8a7d85d8c5f67b5e8

Baker JJ, 1967. Chrysanthemum white rust in England and Wales 1963-66. Plant Pathology, 16:162-166.

Boerema GH; Vermeulen H, 1964. Puccinia horiana, the Japanese rust, also in Dutch chrysanthemum houses. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 19:697.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Puccinia horiana. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 403.

Catley A, 1987. Outbreaks and new records. Australia. Outbreak of chrysanthemum white rust in Australia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(3):99

CFIA, 2008. 2008 Plant Protection Survey Report. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Food Inspection Agency. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/surv/sit2008e.shtml#puchor

Dheepa R; Renukadevi P; Kumar SV; Nakkeeran S, 2015. First report of chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana) in India. Plant Disease, 99(9):1279-1280. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Dickens J; Potter R, 1983. Chrysanthemums: spraying for white rust. Grower, 100:18, 35, 37.

Dickens JSW, 1970. Infection of chrysanthemum flowers by white rust (Puccinia horiana). Plant Pathology, 19:122-124.

Dickens JSW, 1990. Studies on the chemical control of chrysanthemum white rust caused by Puccinia horiana. Plant Pathology, 39(3):434-442

Dickens JSW, 1991. Evaluation of some newer fungicides, in comparison with propiconazole, against chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana). Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars 12. Annals of Applied Biology, 118(supplement):32-33.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1982. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 5. EPPO Bulletin, 12(1). unnumbered.

Firman ID; Martin PH, 1968. White rust of chrysanthemums. Annals of Applied Biology, 62:429-442.

Grouet D, 1984. Mise au point sur les possibilités actuelles de lutte contre la rouille blanche du chrysanthFme. Revue Horticole, 251:33-36.

Grouet D; Allaire L, 1973. White rust of chrysanthemum: evolution and control. Horticulture Francaise, No.30:1-7

Göre ME, 2008. White rust outbreaks on chrysanthemum caused by Puccinia horiana in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 57(4):786. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hennings P, 1901. Some new Japanese rusts. Hedwigia, 40:25-26.

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jorgensen HA, 1964. Japanese chrysanthemum rust, a dangerous disease discovered in Denmark. Gartner Tidende, 80:234-235.

Krebs KE, 1985. Chrysanthemum white rust can be controlled. Gb + Gw, 85(3):69-73

Lelliott RA, 1984. Cost/benefit analysis as used in the United Kingdom for eradication campaigns against alien pests and diseases. EPPO Bulletin, 14(3):337-341

Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, 2008. Pathogen Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust detected in Massachusetts. Massachusetts, USA: Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources/UMass Extension Agriculture and Landscape Program. http://www.massnrc.org/PESTS/linkeddocuments/pestalerts/CWR_Sep2008.html

Matta A; Gullino G, 1974. New or little known diseases of flowering and ornamental plants in Italy. II. White rust of chrysanthemums. Informatore Fitopatologico, 24(12):47-50

NAPPO, 2008. Phytosanitary Alert System: Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) in Connecticut and Michigan - United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=344&keyword=puccinia%20horiana

Pemberton AW, 1988. Quarantine: the use of cost/benefit analysis in the development of MAFF plant health policy. In: Clifford BC, Lester E, eds. Control of Plant Diseases: Costs and Benefits. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 195-212.

Punithalingam E, 1968. Puccinia horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Rademaker W; Jong J de, 1987. Types of resistance to Puccinia horiana in chrysanthemum. Acta Horticulturae, 197:85-88.

Rademaker W; Jong Jde, 1985. Japanese rust: how susceptible or resistant is the chrysanthemum? Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 40(45):49.

Rattink H; Zamorski C; Dil MC, 1985. Spread and control of white rust (Puccinia horiana) on chrysanthemums on artificial substrate. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 50(3b):1243-1249

Sriram S; Chandran NK; Rajiv Kumar; Reddy MK, 2015. First report of Puccinia horiana causing white rust of chrysanthemum in India. New Disease Reports, 32:8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032008

Srivastava AK; Defago G; Kern H, 1985. Hyperparasitism of Puccinia horiana and other microcyclic rusts. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 114(1):73-78

Stahl M, 1964. Puccinia horiana, white rust of chrysanthemum, a new rust fungus in Germany. Nachrichtenblatt des Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 16:180-182.

UK CAB International, 1989. Puccinia horiana. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 4):Map 403.

Veenenbos JAJ, 1984. The "green corner"; a pre-export inspection system for chrysanthemum cut flowers and pot plants in the Netherlands. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 14:269-371.

Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2009. Pest Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust. Virginia, USA: Virginia Cooperative Extension and Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. http://www.sepdn.org/DesktopModules/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=3210

Walker J, 1983. Distribution and spread of Puccinia horiana and its absence from Australia at present. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 81(3):664-667

Water JK, 1981. Chrysanthemum white rust. EPPO Bulletin, 11(3):239-242

Yamada S, 1956. Experiments on the epidemiology and control of chrysanthemum white rust, caused by Puccinia horiana. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 20:148-154.

Zamorski Cz, 1982. Effectiveness of fungicides in the control of white rot (Puccinia horiana P. Henn). Acta Agrobotanica, 35(2):251-256

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