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Datasheet

Puccinia horiana
(white rust of chrysanthemum)

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Datasheet

Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia horiana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white rust of chrysanthemum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms. September 2010.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms. September 2010.
Copyright©Sallaha (2007)/via Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms. September 2010.
Field symptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms. September 2010.©Sallaha (2007)/via Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on florist's daisy (Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. (pro sp.)). July 2009.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on florist's daisy (Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. (pro sp.)). July 2009.
Copyright©Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on florist's daisy (Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. (pro sp.)). July 2009.
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on florist's daisy (Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. (pro sp.)). July 2009.©Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptom on chrysanthemum leaf. Pyin Oo Lwin, Myanmar. June 2014.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptom on chrysanthemum leaf. Pyin Oo Lwin, Myanmar. June 2014.
Copyright©Ko Ko Maung/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptom on chrysanthemum leaf. Pyin Oo Lwin, Myanmar. June 2014.
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptom on chrysanthemum leaf. Pyin Oo Lwin, Myanmar. June 2014.©Ko Ko Maung/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on ventral side of arctic daisy leaf (Dendranthema spp.). October 2010.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on ventral side of arctic daisy leaf (Dendranthema spp.). October 2010.
Copyright©Penn State Department of Plant Pathology & Environmental Microbiology Archives, Penn State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on ventral side of arctic daisy leaf (Dendranthema spp.). October 2010.
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Symptoms on ventral side of arctic daisy leaf (Dendranthema spp.). October 2010.©Penn State Department of Plant Pathology & Environmental Microbiology Archives, Penn State University/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Telia on leaf.
TitlePustules
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Telia on leaf.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Telia on leaf.
PustulesPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Telia on leaf.©Florida Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustule micrograph. November 2002.
TitlePustule
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustule micrograph. November 2002.
Copyright©John W. Dooley, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustule micrograph. November 2002.
PustulePuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustule micrograph. November 2002.©John W. Dooley, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on dorsal side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on dorsal side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).
Copyright©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on dorsal side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on dorsal side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on ventral side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on ventral side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).
Copyright©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on ventral side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Sign of infection on ventral side of leaf (chrysanthemum sp.).©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms on ventral side of leaf. September 2010.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms on ventral side of leaf. September 2010.
Copyright©Sallaha (2007)/via Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms on ventral side of leaf. September 2010.
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Field symptoms on ventral side of leaf. September 2010.©Sallaha (2007)/via Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustules on leaf, Intercepted in quarantine at SFO. November 2002.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustules on leaf, Intercepted in quarantine at SFO. November 2002.
Copyright©John W. Dooley, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustules on leaf, Intercepted in quarantine at SFO. November 2002.
SymptomsPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); White rust pustules on leaf, Intercepted in quarantine at SFO. November 2002.©John W. Dooley, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores. October 2012.
TitleAsexual Spores
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores. October 2012.
Copyright©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores. October 2012.
Asexual SporesPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores. October 2012.©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores, note scale. October 2012.
TitleAsexual Spores
CaptionPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores, note scale. October 2012.
Copyright©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Puccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores, note scale. October 2012.
Asexual SporesPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum); Asexual Spores, note scale. October 2012.©Cesar Calderon, Cesar Calderon Pathology Collection, USDA APHIS PPQ/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Teliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleTeliospores - line drawing
CaptionTeliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Teliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Teliospores - line drawingTeliospores of P. horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia horiana Henn.

Preferred Common Name

  • white rust of chrysanthemum

International Common Names

  • Spanish: roya blanca del crisantemo; roya japonesa del crisantemo
  • French: rouille blanche du chrysanthème; rouille japonaise du chrysanthème

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Japanischer Chrysantheme Rost; Mehliger: Chrysantheme Rost; weisser Chrysanthemenrost

EPPO code

  • PUCCHN (Puccinia horiana)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia horiana

Description

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Telia hypophyllous, rarely epiphyllous, compact, pinkish-buff to white, 2-4 mm diameter. Teliospores pedicellate, up to 45 µm long, pale-yellow, oblong to oblong-clavate, slightly constricted, 30-45 x 13-17 µm, with thin walls, 1-2 µm thick at sides, commonly thicker (4-9) µm at apex. Teliospores germinating in situ. Basidiospores hyaline, slightly curved, broadly ellipsoid to fusiform, 7-14 x 5-9 µm.

For more details see Hennings (1901), Baker (1967) and Punithalingam (1968).

Distribution

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P. horiana originated in Japan and has spread to other Far Eastern countries, to South Africa, and from there to Europe. Walker (1983) critically reviewed the distribution data. Outbreaks of white rust have also been observed in Ontario, Canada (JSW Dickens, Central Science Laboratory, UK, personal communication, 1994).

P. horiana is mostly a greenhouse pest in more temperate areas. It is considered a quarantine pest in many countries and is subject to rigorous eradication programmes when detected. Distributions can therefore vary from year to year and the National Plant Protection Organization should be consulted for the most up-to-date distribution information for a specific region. 

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 236).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

KenyaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, Intercepted only
South AfricaPresent, Localized
TunisiaPresent, Localized

Asia

BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaPresent, Localized2013
-KarnatakaPresent2013
-Tamil NaduPresent2013
IndonesiaPresent
IsraelAbsent, Eradicated
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
KazakhstanAbsent
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrences
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, Localized
UzbekistanAbsent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent, Localized1964
BelgiumPresent, Widespread1964
BulgariaPresent, Localized
CroatiaPresent, Widespread
CyprusAbsent, Eradicated
CzechiaPresent, Localized
DenmarkPresent, Few occurrences
EstoniaAbsent, Eradicated
FinlandAbsent, Eradicated1997
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent, Widespread1968
GreecePresent, Localized
-CretePresent
GuernseyPresent
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences
IrelandAbsent, Eradicated1976
ItalyPresent, Localized1964
-SicilyPresent
LatviaPresent, Localized
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
LuxembourgAbsent, Formerly present
NetherlandsPresent, Localized1964
NorwayAbsent, Eradicated
PolandPresent, Localized
PortugalPresent, Few occurrences
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresent, Localized
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent
SerbiaPresent, Localized
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, Localized1964
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent, Localized
SpainAbsent, Eradicated
-Canary IslandsAbsent, Eradicated
SwedenPresent, Few occurrences1960
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized1964
UkrainePresent, Transient under eradication
United KingdomPresent, Localized1963
-EnglandPresent, Localized
-Northern IrelandPresent, Localized
-ScotlandPresent, Localized

North America

CanadaPresent, Transient under eradication
-British ColumbiaPresent, Few occurrences
-OntarioAbsent, Eradicated
MexicoPresent, Few occurrences
United StatesPresent, Transient under eradication
-CaliforniaAbsent, Eradicated
-ConnecticutAbsent, Eradicated
-MassachusettsPresent, Few occurrences
-MichiganPresent, Few occurrences
-New JerseyAbsent, Eradicated
-New YorkAbsent, Eradicated
-OregonAbsent, Eradicated
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Transient under eradication
-VirginiaPresent, Few occurrences
-WashingtonAbsent, Eradicated

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent, Localized1965

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent, Localized
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent, Few occurrences
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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Until 1963, P. horiana was confined to China and Japan, where it is presumably important, although little seems to be published concerning it (Yamada, 1956). However, it has since spread rapidly on infected imported cuttings and is now a feared and serious disease in nurseries in Europe, frequently causing complete loss of glasshouse chrysanthemum crops. Severe outbreaks occurred in England and Denmark, and these were at first successfully eradicated. The disease was similarly contained in France following an initial outbreak in 1967, but appeared again in 1971, and has since spread rapidly throughout the country causing extensive losses. At the present time, white rust is established in most western European countries, and statutory measures have been abandoned in these.

P. horiana is an EPPO A2 quarantine pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1982) and is also of quarantine significance for IAPSC, JUNAC and NAPPO. Once established, chrysanthemum white rust is extremely difficult and costly to eradicate. The intensification of chrysanthemum production, with high plant densities in humid glasshouses, provides an ideal environment for the fungus. For many years, the UK and Ireland in particular have maintained phytosanitary measures against the disease, subjecting it to statutory control wherever found. The justification for this policy was argued in terms of cost-effectiveness by Lelliott (1984) and Pemberton (1988). Now that the UK has abandoned this policy, it is not clear whether other countries will find it necessary or opportune to maintain measures, especially if they import potted plants or cut flowers of chrysanthemums from infested countries in significant numbers. If importation is limited to planting material, exclusion might be a more realistic policy.

Hosts/Species Affected

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Chrysanthemums are the only host, especially the florists' cultivars; these are widely cultivated in glasshouses.

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Post-harvest

Symptoms

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On Leaves

Following infection, pale-green to yellow spots, up to 5 mm diameter, develop on the upper surface. The centres of these spots become brown and necrotic with ageing. On the corresponding lower surface, raised, buff or pinkish, waxy pustules (telia) are found. As the spots on the upper surface become sunken, so these pustules become quite prominent and turn whitish when basidiospores are produced. Telia are occasionally found on the upper leaf surface. Severely attacked leaves wilt, hang down the stem and gradually dry up completely.

On Bracts and Stems

Sori sometimes develop when crops are excessively affected.

On Flowers

Infection has been recorded as necrotic flecking with occasional pustules (Dickens, 1970).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Biology and Ecology

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P. horiana is an autoecious rust. The bicellular teliospores germinate in situ to produce unicellular basidiospores which are dispersed in air currents. No other spores are known. High humidity, and a film of moisture, appear to be necessary for the germination of both teliospores and basidiospores. Teliospores are capable of germination as soon as they are mature; germination and discharge of basidiospores occur between 4 and 23°C and, at the optimum temperature of 17°C, discharge of basidiospores starts within 3 h. Basidiospores can germinate over a wide temperature range and, at 17-24°C, either surface of the leaf may be penetrated within 2 h. Thus, only 5 h of wetness is sufficient for a new infection to become established. Within the leaf, abundant, hyaline, intercellular hyphae are produced with intracellular haustoria. The incubation period is normally 7-10 days, but short periods of high temperatures (over 30°C) can apparently prolong the period to 8 weeks.

Transmission

The disease is normally carried on infected cuttings and plants (including cut flowers) of glasshouse chrysanthemums.

There are reports that dispersal by wind can occur over distances of 700 m and more but, because the basidiospores are very sensitive to desiccation at less than 90% RH, long-distance spread would only be likely during very wet periods. Natural spread is hence unlikely over long distances; it is limited even between glasshouses (or else it would never have been possible to contain the disease at all).

The ability of the fungus to overwinter outdoors is unknown. In experiments, teliospores in sori on detached leaves survived for 8 weeks at 50% RH but, at higher humidities or when buried in dry or moist compost, they only survived for 3 weeks or less. It would, therefore, appear that infected debris is not likely to be important in the carry-over of the disease.

Some chrysanthemum cultivars appear to be more susceptible than others and there is evidence that there is more than one pathotype of the fungus. For more information, see Water (1981).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

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P. horiana is now a feared and serious disease in nurseries, frequently causing complete loss of glasshouse chrysanthemum crops.

Diagnosis

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Alaei et al. (2009) successfully detected Puccinia horiana using a conventional, nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol.

Detection and Inspection

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The fungus can be positively identified on the basis of symptoms and morphological features. Numerous other rust fungi have been reported on chrysanthemums, but they can be distinguished by their teliospore shape, size, surface ornamentation and colour (Punithalingam, 1968). For more information see Stahl (1964), Baker (1967) and Firman and Martin (1968).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

Preventive spraying with fungicides is effective but costly (Water, 1981). Active ingredients found useful include oxycarboxin, triforine, benodanil, triadimefon, diclobutrazol, dibitertanol and propiconazole. Rattink et al. (1985) experimented with systemic fungicides in the nutrient recirculating system of chrysanthemums grown on rockwool. Dickens (1990), using a similar set of fungicides, found that only propiconazole had sufficient eradicative activity to be useful in a statutory campaign. However, in subsequent work Dickens (1991) found that myclobutanil and hexaconazole also had good eradicative activity. For more details on fungicidal control also see Zamorski (1982), Dickens and Potter (1983) and Krebs (1985).

Biological Control

Srivastava et al. (1985) suggest that Verticillium lecanii, used for biological control of aphids on glasshouse chrysanthemums, will also control P. horiana.

Host-Plant Resistance

Some chrysanthemum cultivars are resistant and breeding for resistance continues (Rademaker and de Jong, 1985, 1987). Grouet (1984) has reviewed white rust control in general.

Phytosanitary Measures

EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) that planting material of chrysanthemums should come from a place of production regularly inspected and found free of disease for 3 months beforehand. The fungus should also be absent from the immediate vicinity of the place of production. For cut flowers, visual inspection is sufficient. Veenenbos (1984) outlined the pre-export inspection and control system used to provide this guarantee in the Netherlands. Such systems are now viewed in that country as less and less acceptable from an environmental standpoint, because they depend heavily on intensive use of plant protection products and also interfere with biological control systems in glasshouses. For the few countries where the disease is still absent, these arguments tend to support continued exclusion.

References

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orevic Lj, 1983. The occurrence of white rust of Chrysanthemum in the vicinity of Belgrade. Zastita Bilja, 34(1):169-172

Akesson I, 1983. Horticultural pests and diseases in Sweden 1982. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 47(1/2):5-7

Alaei H; Baeyen S; Maes M; Höfte M; Heungens K, 2009. Molecular detection of Puccinia horiana in Chrysanthemum × morifolium through conventional and real-time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 76(2):136-145. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T30-4TNWGRN-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2009&_rdoc=5&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234932%232009%23999239997%23857268%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4932&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=17&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=15d16f4a8f84ccf8a7d85d8c5f67b5e8

Backer, M. De, Alaei, H., Bockstaele, E. van, Roldan-Ruiz, I., Lee, T. van der, Maes, M., Heungens, K., 2011. Identification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 130(3), 325-338. doi: 10.1007/s10658-011-9756-8

Baker JJ, 1967. Chrysanthemum white rust in England and Wales 1963-66. Plant Pathology, 16:162-166.

Boerema GH; Vermeulen H, 1964. Puccinia horiana, the Japanese rust, also in Dutch chrysanthemum houses. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 19:697.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Puccinia horiana. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 403.

Cao ZhiMin, Li ZhenQi, Zhuang JianYun, 2000. Uredinales from the Qinling mountains. Mycosystema, 19(2), 181-192.

Catley A, 1987. Outbreaks and new records. Australia. Outbreak of chrysanthemum white rust in Australia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(3):99

CFIA, 2008. 2008 Plant Protection Survey Report. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Food Inspection Agency. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/surv/sit2008e.shtml#puchor

Demers, J. E., Crouch, J. A., Castlebury, L. A., 2015. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Puccinia horiana and P. chrysanthemi on chrysanthemum. Plant Disease, 99(2), 195-200. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-14-0632-RE

Dheepa R; Renukadevi P; Kumar SV; Nakkeeran S, 2015. First report of chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana) in India. Plant Disease, 99(9):1279-1280. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Dickens J; Potter R, 1983. Chrysanthemums: spraying for white rust. Grower, 100:18, 35, 37.

Dickens JSW, 1970. Infection of chrysanthemum flowers by white rust (Puccinia horiana). Plant Pathology, 19:122-124.

Dickens JSW, 1990. Studies on the chemical control of chrysanthemum white rust caused by Puccinia horiana. Plant Pathology, 39(3):434-442

Dickens JSW, 1991. Evaluation of some newer fungicides, in comparison with propiconazole, against chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana). Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars 12. Annals of Applied Biology, 118(supplement):32-33.

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 1992. Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 210-212.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1982. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 5. EPPO Bulletin, 12(1). unnumbered.

Firman ID; Martin PH, 1968. White rust of chrysanthemums. Annals of Applied Biology, 62:429-442.

García Velasco, R., Zavaleta-Mejía, E., Rojas Martínez, R. I., Leyva Mir, S. G., Fuentes Dávila, G., Simpson, J., 2007. Pathogenic and molecular variability of Puccinia horiana Henn. isolates. (Variación patogénica y molecular de aislamentos de Puccinia horiana Henn). Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, 30(3), 223-234. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/src/inicio/HomRevRed.jsp?iCveEntRev=610

Gonzalez, M., S., Montealegre, A., J., 1981. Notes on Chilean Uredinales. V. Puccinia horiana P. Henn. on Chrysanthemum spp. (Notas sobre Uredinales chilenos. V. Puccinia horiana P. Henn. sobre Chrisanthemum spp). Agro Sur, 9(1), 65-66.

Griesbach, J. A., Milbrath, G. M., Thomson, T. W., 1991. First occurrence of chrysanthemum white rust caused by Puccinia horiana on florists' chrysanthemum in Oregon. Plant Disease, 75(4), 431. doi: 10.1094/PD-75-0431F

Grouet D, 1984. Mise au point sur les possibilités actuelles de lutte contre la rouille blanche du chrysanthFme. Revue Horticole, 251:33-36.

Grouet D; Allaire L, 1973. White rust of chrysanthemum: evolution and control. Horticulture Francaise, No.30:1-7

Göre ME, 2008. White rust outbreaks on chrysanthemum caused by Puccinia horiana in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 57(4):786. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hennings P, 1901. Some new Japanese rusts. Hedwigia, 40:25-26.

Hieatsuka, N. , 1957. Three species oí Chrysanthemum-rusts in Japan and its neighbouring districts. Sydowia, 1, 34-44 pp.

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jorgensen HA, 1964. Japanese chrysanthemum rust, a dangerous disease discovered in Denmark. Gartner Tidende, 80:234-235.

Kaneko, S., Thu Quang Pham, Hiratsuka, Y., 2007. Notes on some rust fungi in Vietnam. Mycoscience, 48(4), 263-265. doi: 10.1007/s10267-007-0354-8

Krebs KE, 1985. Chrysanthemum white rust can be controlled. Gb + Gw, 85(3):69-73

Lelliott RA, 1984. Cost/benefit analysis as used in the United Kingdom for eradication campaigns against alien pests and diseases. EPPO Bulletin, 14(3):337-341

Margina, A., Zheljazkov, V., 1996. Fungal pathogens from Uredinales on some medicinal and aromatic plants in Bulgaria and their control. In: Acta Horticulturae [International symposium on medicinal and aromatic plants, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 27-30 Aug. 1995], (No. 426) [ed. by Craker, L. E., Nolan, L., Shetty, K.]. 333-343.

Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, 2008. Pathogen Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust detected in Massachusetts. Massachusetts, USA: Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources/UMass Extension Agriculture and Landscape Program. http://www.massnrc.org/PESTS/linkeddocuments/pestalerts/CWR_Sep2008.html

Matta A; Gullino G, 1974. New or little known diseases of flowering and ornamental plants in Italy. II. White rust of chrysanthemums. Informatore Fitopatologico, 24(12):47-50

NAPPO, 2004. Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR): Limited Infestation in California. http://test-aws.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/chrysanthemum-white-rust-cwr-limited-infestation-california

NAPPO, 2006. Chrysanthemum White Rust, Puccinia horiana, Found in Pennsylvania - United States. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/chrysanthemum-white-rust-puccinia-horiana-found-pennsylvania-united-states

NAPPO, 2007. Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) in California - United States. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-reports?keyword=Puccinia%20horiana&oprID=256

NAPPO, 2008. Phytosanitary Alert System: Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) in Connecticut and Michigan - United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=344&keyword=puccinia%20horiana

Negrean, G., Anastasiu, P., 2006. Invasive and potentially invasive parasite neomycetes from Romania. In: Plant, fungal and habitat diversity investigation andconservation , Bulgaria: Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. 514-519. http://cachescan.bcub.ro/2008_05_28/577245%20Negrean,%20Anastasiu,%20Invasive%20and%20potentially%20invasive%20parasite.pdf

O'Keefe, G., Davis, D. D., 2012. First confirmed report that Puccinia horiana, causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, can overwinter in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease, 96(9), 1381. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0400-PDN

Pemberton AW, 1988. Quarantine: the use of cost/benefit analysis in the development of MAFF plant health policy. In: Clifford BC, Lester E, eds. Control of Plant Diseases: Costs and Benefits. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 195-212.

Pitta, G. P. B., Cardoso, R. M. G., Hennen, J. F., 1977. Occurrence of white rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.) of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp.) in Sao Paulo State. (Occorrencia da ferrugem branca (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.) do crisantemo (Chrysanthemum spp.) no Estado de Sao Paulo). Summa Phytopathologica, 3(1), 75-80.

Punithalingam E, 1968. Puccinia horiana. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 176. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Rademaker W; Jong J de, 1987. Types of resistance to Puccinia horiana in chrysanthemum. Acta Horticulturae, 197:85-88.

Rademaker W; Jong Jde, 1985. Japanese rust: how susceptible or resistant is the chrysanthemum? Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 40(45):49.

Rattink H; Zamorski C; Dil MC, 1985. Spread and control of white rust (Puccinia horiana) on chrysanthemums on artificial substrate. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 50(3b):1243-1249

Shivas, R. G., Suyoko, S., Raga, N., Hyde, K. D., 1996. Some disease-associated microorganisms on plants in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25(1), 36-49. doi: 10.1071/AP96008

Sriram S; Chandran NK; Rajiv Kumar; Reddy MK, 2015. First report of Puccinia horiana causing white rust of chrysanthemum in India. New Disease Reports, 32:8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032008

Srivastava AK; Defago G; Kern H, 1985. Hyperparasitism of Puccinia horiana and other microcyclic rusts. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 114(1):73-78

Stahl M, 1964. Puccinia horiana, white rust of chrysanthemum, a new rust fungus in Germany. Nachrichtenblatt des Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 16:180-182.

UK CAB International, 1989. Puccinia horiana. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 4):Map 403.

Veenenbos JAJ, 1984. The "green corner"; a pre-export inspection system for chrysanthemum cut flowers and pot plants in the Netherlands. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 14:269-371.

Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2009. Pest Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust. Virginia, USA: Virginia Cooperative Extension and Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. http://www.sepdn.org/DesktopModules/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=3210

Walker J, 1983. Distribution and spread of Puccinia horiana and its absence from Australia at present. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 81(3):664-667

Water JK, 1981. Chrysanthemum white rust. EPPO Bulletin, 11(3):239-242

Yamada S, 1956. Experiments on the epidemiology and control of chrysanthemum white rust, caused by Puccinia horiana. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 20:148-154.

Zamorski Cz, 1982. Effectiveness of fungicides in the control of white rot (Puccinia horiana P. Henn). Acta Agrobotanica, 35(2):251-256

Distribution References

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Backer M De, Alaei H, Bockstaele E van, Roldan-Ruiz I, Lee T van der, Maes M, Heungens K, 2011. Identification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 130 (3), 325-338. DOI:10.1007/s10658-011-9756-8

BOEREMA G H, VERMEULEN H, 1964. Japanese rust, Puccinia horiana, also in Dutch chrysanthemum nurseries. (Puccinia horiana, de "Japanse roest" ook in Nederlandse chrysantenbedrijven.). Vakbl, Bloemist. 697.

CABI, EPPO, 2008. Puccinia horiana. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 403. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20083091287

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Charumas V, Chirdchoothai P, Jonglaekha N, 1988. Tests of some fungicides for control of white rust of chrysanthemum caused by Puccinia horiana P. Henn. 14-19. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=TH8920263

Cook R T A, 2001. First report in England of changes in the susceptibility of Puccinia horiana, the cause of chrysanthemum white rust, to triazole and strobilurin fungicides. Plant Pathology. 50 (6), 792. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2001.00615.x

de Jong J, Rademaker W, 1986. The Reaction of Chrysanthemum Cultivars to Puccinia horiana and the Inheritance of Resistance. Euphytica. 945-952. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00028604?LI=true

Demers J E, Crouch J A, Castlebury L A, 2015. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Puccinia horiana and P. chrysanthemi on chrysanthemum. Plant Disease. 99 (2), 195-200. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-14-0632-RE

Dheepa R, Renukadevi P, Kumar S V, Nakkeeran S, 2015. First report of chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana) in India. Plant Disease. 99 (9), 1279-1280. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0241-PDN

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fedorenko V, Pylypenko L, 2012. Quarantine and invasive species in Ukraine. Progress in Plant Protection. 52 (4), 1156-1164. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2012/PPP_52_4_67_Fedorenko_V.pdf

García Velasco R, Zavaleta-Mejía E, Rojas Martínez R I, Leyva Mir S G, Fuentes Dávila G, Simpson J, 2007. Pathogenic and molecular variability of Puccinia horiana Henn. isolates. (Variación patogénica y molecular de aislamentos de Puccinia horiana Henn.). Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana. 30 (3), 223-234. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/src/inicio/HomRevRed.jsp?iCveEntRev=610

Gonzalez M S, Montealegre A J, 1981. Notes on Chilean Uredinales. V. Puccinia horiana P. Henn. on Chrysanthemum spp. (Notas sobre Uredinales chilenos. V. Puccinia horiana P. Henn. sobre Chrisanthemum spp.). Agro Sur. 9 (1), 65-66.

Göre M E, 2008. White rust outbreaks on chrysanthemum caused by Puccinia horiana in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 57 (4), 786. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Grasso S, Rosa R La, 1983. White rust infections of Chrysanthemum in Southern Italy. (Infezioni di ruggine bianca del crisantemo nell'Italia meridionale.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 33 (4), 71-73.

Griesbach J A, Milbrath G M, Thomson T W, 1991. First occurrence of chrysanthemum white rust caused by Puccinia horiana on florists' chrysanthemum in Oregon. Plant Disease. 75 (4), 431. DOI:10.1094/PD-75-0431F

Grouet D, Allaire L, 1973. White rust of chrysanthemum: evolution and control. (La rouille blanche du chrysantheme: evolution et methodes de lutte.). Horticulture Francaise. 1-7.

Hieatsuka N, 1957. Three species oí Chrysanthemum-rusts in Japan and its neighbouring districts. Sydowia. 34-44 pp.

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jorgensen HA, 1964. Japanese chrysanthemum rust, a dangerous disease discovered in Denmark. In: Gartner Tidende, 80 234-235.

Kaneko S, Thu Quang Pham, Hiratsuka Y, 2007. Notes on some rust fungi in Vietnam. Mycoscience. 48 (4), 263-265. DOI:10.1007/s10267-007-0354-8

Lindquist J C, Merlo P A, 1970. Chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana) in Argentina. (La roya blanca ("Puccinia horiana") del crisantemo ("Chrysanthemum" spp.) en la Argentina.). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia. 46 (2), 177-183.

Margina A, Zheljazkov V, 1996. Fungal pathogens from Uredinales on some medicinal and aromatic plants in Bulgaria and their control. In: Acta Horticulturae [International symposium on medicinal and aromatic plants, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 27-30 Aug. 1995.], [ed. by Craker L E, Nolan L, Shetty K]. 333-343.

Matta A, Gullino G, 1974. New or little known diseases of flowering and ornamental plants in Italy. II. White rust of chrysanthemums. (Malattie delle piante da fiore e ornamentali nuove o poco note in Italia. II. Ruggine bianca del Crisantemo.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 24 (12), 47-50.

NAPPO, 2004. Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR): Limited Infestation in California., http://test-aws.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/chrysanthemum-white-rust-cwr-limited-infestation-california

NAPPO, 2006. Chrysanthemum White Rust, Puccinia horiana, Found in Pennsylvania - United States., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/chrysanthemum-white-rust-puccinia-horiana-found-pennsylvania-united-states

NAPPO, 2007. Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) in California - United States., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-reports?keyword=Puccinia%20horiana&oprID=256

NAPPO, 2007a. Chrysanthemum White Rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn) Found in Connecticut., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-reports?oprID=286

NAPPO, 2008. Phytosanitary Alert System: Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) in Connecticut and Michigan - United States. In: Phytosanitary Alert System: Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) in Connecticut and Michigan - United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=344&keyword=puccinia%20horiana

Negrean G, Anastasiu P, 2006. Invasive and potentially invasive parasite neomycetes from Romania. In: Plant, fungal and habitat diversity investigation andconservation, Bulgaria: Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. 514-519. http://cachescan.bcub.ro/2008_05_28/577245%20Negrean,%20Anastasiu,%20Invasive%20and%20potentially%20invasive%20parasite.pdf

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

O'Keefe G, Davis D D, 2012. First confirmed report that Puccinia horiana, causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, can overwinter in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease. 96 (9), 1381. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0400-PDN

Pitta G P B, Cardoso R M G, Hennen J F, 1977. Occurrence of white rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.) of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp.) in Sao Paulo State. (Occorrencia da ferrugem branca (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.) do crisantemo (Chrysanthemum spp.) no Estado de Sao Paulo.). Summa Phytopathologica. 3 (1), 75-80.

Shivas R G, Suyoko S, Raga N, Hyde K D, 1996. Some disease-associated microorganisms on plants in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 25 (1), 36-49. DOI:10.1071/AP96008

Sriram S, Chandran N K, Rajiv Kumar, Reddy M K, 2015. First report of Puccinia horiana causing white rust of chrysanthemum in India. New Disease Reports. 8. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032008 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.032.008

USA, Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, 2008. Pathogen Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust detected in Massachusetts. In: Pathogen Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust detected in Massachusetts. Massachusetts, USA: Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources/UMass Extension Agriculture and Landscape Program. http://www.massnrc.org/PESTS/linkeddocuments/pestalerts/CWR_Sep2008.html

Vakalounakis D J, 2008. First record of Puccinia horiana on Dendranthemamonfolium in Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 27 (43864), 259-260. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.1997.tb00644.x

Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2009. Pest Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust. In: Pest Alert: Chrysanthemum White Rust. Virginia, USA: Virginia Cooperative Extension and Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. http://www.sepdn.org/DesktopModules/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=3210

Zamorski Cz, 1982. Effectiveness of fungicides in the control of white rot (Puccinia horiana P. Henn). (Skuteczność fungicydów zwalczaniu białej rdzy złocienia (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.).). Acta Agrobotanica. 35 (2), 251-256.

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