Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Puccinia coronata
(crown rust)

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Datasheet

Puccinia coronata (crown rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Puccinia coronata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crown rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Puccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.
TitleSymptoms on Avena sp.
CaptionPuccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.
Copyright©M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Puccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.
Symptoms on Avena sp.Puccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.©M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Puccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.
TitleSymptoms on Avena sp.
CaptionPuccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.
Copyright©M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Puccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.
Symptoms on Avena sp.Puccinia coronata on Avena sp. Note the presence of Puccinia graminis on the stem.©M. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
Puccinia coronata (crown rust) on barley leaf. The pustules are oblong and yellow-orange in colour.
TitleSymptoms on barley
CaptionPuccinia coronata (crown rust) on barley leaf. The pustules are oblong and yellow-orange in colour.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Puccinia coronata (crown rust) on barley leaf. The pustules are oblong and yellow-orange in colour.
Symptoms on barleyPuccinia coronata (crown rust) on barley leaf. The pustules are oblong and yellow-orange in colour.NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
TitleTeliospores
Caption
CopyrightM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus
TeliosporesM. Fawaz Azmeh/University of Damascus

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Puccinia coronata Corda

Preferred Common Name

  • crown rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Aecidium alaterni Maire
  • Aecidium cathartici Schumach.
  • Aecidium frangulae Schumach.
  • Aecidium rhamni J.F. Gmel.
  • Aecidium rhamni-alipnae DC.
  • Aecidium rhamni-infectoriae Unamuno
  • Puccinia alpinae-coronata Mühletahler (1911)
  • Puccinia alpiniae-coronata Mühlet. (1911)
  • Puccinia coronata f. holci Kleb.
  • Puccinia coronata var. avenae W. P. Fraser & Ledingham
  • Puccinia coronata var. bromi W. P. Fraser & Ledingham
  • Puccinia coronata var. calamagrosteos W. P. Fraser & Ledingham
  • Puccinia coronata var. intermedia Z. Urb.
  • Puccinia coronata var. lolii Beeynck (1853)
  • Puccinia coronata var. sertata Rabenh. (1858)
  • Puccinia lolii Niels (1875)
  • Puccinia mediterranea Trotter
  • Puccinia pumilae-coronata H. K. G. Paul
  • Puccinia sertata Preuss (1848)

International Common Names

  • English: crown rust of oats; leaf rust of oats; oat crown rust
  • Spanish: roya coronada
  • French: rouille couronnée
  • Russian: koronchataya rzhavchina

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kronenrost

EPPO code

  • PUCCCO (Puccinia coronata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Puccinia
  •                                 Species: Puccinia coronata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUrban and Marková (1994)
EgyptPresent, WidespreadAbdelal (1981)
EthiopiaPresent, WidespreadDmitriev (1983); Dmitriev and Daiesa (1983)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadHarder and Haber (1992)
MoroccoPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sebesta et al. (1997)
South AfricaPresentNiekerk et al. (2001)
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadHarder and Haber (1992)
TunisiaPresentHammami et al. (2007)

Asia

ChinaPresentLiu XiaoMei and Pu JinJi (2004)
-HainanPresentLiu XiaoMei and Pu JinJi (2004)
-JilinPresentLiu ShuYan et al. (2003)
GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Suzdalskaya et al. (1980)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadAhmad (1973)
IranPresentAbbasi and Hedjaroude (2004)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadBrodny (1988); CABI (Undated);
JapanPresent, WidespreadKatsuya et al. (1976); Horie (1985); Kono (1985); CABI (Undated)
-HokkaidoPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
KazakhstanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Turafin & Drushkeldinov, 1992
MongoliaPresentSchmiedeknecht and Puncag (1987)
PakistanPresentIqbal et al. (2008)
UzbekistanPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Narkalov et al., 1980

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sebesta et al. (1997)
BelarusPresentCABI (Undated);
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentUrban and Marková (1994)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadChinkova (1966); Chinkova (1978); CABI (Undated)
CroatiaPresentChinkova (1978)
CzechiaPresentJiráková and Hanzalová (2008); CABI (Undated)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadUrban and Marková (1994); CABI (Undated);
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentKOSTIC (1959); CABI (Undated)
DenmarkPresentHeard and Lewis (1976); Sebesta and Harder (1983); CABI (Undated)
EstoniaPresent, WidespreadDmitriev (1994); Namaju¯nas (1994); CABI (Undated);
FinlandPresentUlvinen et al. (1981)
FrancePresent, WidespreadMansat and Betin (1979); Šebesta et al. (1996)
-CorsicaPresentUrban and Marková (1994)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadSebesta and Harder (1983)
GreecePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pantidon & Henderson, 1970
HungaryPresent, WidespreadSebesta (1997)
ItalyPresentSebesta (1990)
LatviaPresentNamayunas (1979); Sebesta and Harder (1983); Namaju¯nas (1994)
LithuaniaPresentChinkova (1978); Namayunas (1979); Namaju¯nas (1994)
MontenegroPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Klenová and ?ebesta (2006)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wijk et al., 1985
NorwayPresentUrban and Marková (1994)
PolandPresent, WidespreadMazaraki (1979); Šebesta et al. (1984); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresentSebesta and Harder (1983)
RomaniaPresentUrban and Marková (1994)
RussiaPresentSebesta and Harder (1983)
-Central RussiaPresent, WidespreadZhukova (1982); Sebesta and Harder (1983)
-Russian Far EastPresent, WidespreadBogachkov et al. (1990)
-SiberiaPresent, WidespreadBogachkov et al. (1975); Bogachkov et al. (1990)
SerbiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Klenová and ?ebesta (2006)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sebesta et al. (1997)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadSebesta (1993); CABI (Undated)
SpainPresent, WidespreadSalazar and Martinez (1973); CABI (Undated)
-Canary IslandsPresentUrban and Marková (1994)
SwedenPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sebesta et al. (1997)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadSchmidt (1980); Fried (1983)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Yatsuh & Dobrovetska, 1994
United KingdomPresentWilson and Henderson (1966); Potter (1987)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ManitobaPresent, WidespreadChong and Seaman (1994)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadChong and Seaman (1994)
-QuebecPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Briere et al., 1994
-SaskatchewanPresent, WidespreadChong and Seaman (1994)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadBrinkman et al. (1985)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadRoberts and Fowler (1994)
-CaliforniaPresentLeonard et al. (2005)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadRoberts and Fowler (1994)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadRoberts and Fowler (1994); CABI (Undated)
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadKalton and Richardson (1994)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadKalton and Richardson (1994); CABI (Undated)
-IowaPresent, WidespreadMichel and Simons (1977); Michel and Simons (1985); Kalton and Richardson (1994)
-KansasPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Roonez et al., 1994
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadRoberts and Fowler (1994)
-MinnesotaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated);
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadRoberts and Fowler (1994)
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kephart, 1990
-NebraskaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Jin et al. (1992)
-New JerseyPresent, WidespreadRose-Fricker et al. (1995); CABI (Undated)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadWallace and Bellinder (1993)
-North CarolinaPresentMurphy et al. (2002)
-North DakotaPresentLeonard (2003)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadKalton and Richardson (1994); CABI (Undated)
-South DakotaPresentReeves and Hall (1985)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadMcDaniel (1973)
-WisconsinPresent, WidespreadReich and Brinkman (1984)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadKochman (1975); Oates et al. (1983)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadRose and Scattini (1994)
-South AustraliaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Barr & Hoffo, 1994
-TasmaniaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1994)
-Western AustraliaPresent, WidespreadMcLean (1994)
New ZealandPresent, WidespreadArmstrong and Rumball (1976); White (1988)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadBrinkman et al. (1985)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadCoelho (1972); Martinelli et al. (1994); Martinelli et al. (1994a)
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, WidespreadCoelho (1972); Picinini and Fernandes (1994)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNerbass Junior et al. (2010)
ChilePresent, WidespreadBrinkman et al. (1985); Tollenaar (1985)
UruguayPresent, WidespreadBrinkman et al. (1985)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / mycelium present
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Inflorescence / premature ripening
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / early senescence

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abbasi M; Hedjaroude GA, 2004. On the taxonomy of Puccinia coronata s.l. in Iran. Rostaniha, 5(1):Pe89-Pe107, En33-En40.

Abdelal HR, 1981. Acetyl salicylic acid as a promising fungicide for controlling certain fungi. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 13(1/2):19-22

Ahmad ST, 1973. Breeding oats for high yield and for resistance to crown rust in India. Euphytica, 22(2):351-356

Ahmad ST; Yadava RBR, 1978. Effect of crown rust infection on the chlorophyll contents of Avena species. Forrage Research, 4(2):177-179.

Anikster Y, 1984. The formae speciales In: Bushnell WR, Roelfs AP, eds. The Cereal Rusts Vol. I. Orlando, USA: Academic Press, 115-130.

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Anon., 1992. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), var. Jackaroo. Application no. 90/119. Plant Varieties Journal, 5(1):9-11.

Anon., 1994. Variety Groza 50. Application no. 93/196. Plant Varieties Journal, 7(2):23-25.

Anon., 1995. Registration of Brown oat. Crop Science, 35(1):297.

Armstrong CS; Rumball W, 1976. Rust incidence and heading of overseas ryegrass cultivars in New Zealand. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, 37(2):208-214

Arthur JC; Fromme FD, 1920. Dicaoma on Poaceae. N. Amer. Fl., 7(4-5):277-341.

Barnett PA; Mitchel WJP, 1982. Control of crown rust in oats in the Mannowatu. Proceedings Thirty-fifth New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conf., 242-244.

Barr AR; Hoppo TM, 1994. Registration of Australian winter cereal cultivars. Avena sativa (oats) cv. Bandicoot. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(5):700.

Bassett IJ, 1958. A Survey of the European Buckthorn and Common Barberry in Southern Manitoba, 1957. Sci. Serv. Bot. Plant Pathol. Div. Ottawa, Canada: CIDA.

Bogachkov V; Shirokov A; Meshkov V, 1975. Infection of initial and hybrid material of oats by crown rust. Nauch. Trudy Sibirskogo NIISKH, 23:35-41

Bogachkov VI; Smishchuk NG; Miroshnichenko AI; Shirokov AI; Maslenkova LI, 1990. Source material and the breeding of midseason varieties of oats resistant to diseases in western Siberia. Selektsiya i semenovodstvo zernofurazhnykh kul'tur v Sibiri i na Dal'nem Vostoke., 21-33; 4 ref.

Brieze SC; Kusralappa AC; Mather DE, 1994. Screening for partial resistance to an isolate of crown rust (Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae) race 264 in oat cultivars and breeding lines. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(1):49-55.

Brinkman MA; Daniel ME; Skands HL; Schrickel DJ; Weaver SH, 1985. Breeding oat cultivars suitable for production in developing countries - 1984.Madison, USA: University of Wisconsin.

Brodny U, 1988. Physiologic races of oat crown rust identified in Israel during 1976-1980. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10(1):53-56

Brodny U; Wahl I; Rotem J, 1988. Factors conditioning dominance of race 276 of Puccinia coronata avenae on Avena sterilis populations in Israel. Phytopathology, 78(2):135-139

Brown MR, 1937. A study of crown rust, Puccinia coronata Corda in Great Britain. 1. Physiologic specialization in the uredospore stage. Annals of Applied Biology, 24:504-327.

Brown MR, 1938. A study of crown rust, Puccinia coronata, in Great Britain. 2. The aecidial hosts of P. coronata. Annals of Applied Biology, 25:506-527.

Cagas B, 1978. The host range of crown rust (Puccinia coronata Corda var. coronata). Ceska Mykologie, 32(3):174-181

Cagas B, 1984. Differences in virulence of the population of crown rust (Puccinia coronata var. coronata f.sp. festucae) in Czechoslovakia. Ceska Mykologie, 38(1):31-38

Cagas B; Rogalewicz V, 1985. Resistance sources in Festuca pratensis against crown rust. Proc. Eucarpia Gen. Resources Sec. Int. Symp., Prague, March 27-29. Prague, Czechoslovakia: RICP, 53-61.

Chester KS, 1946. The nature and prevention of the cereal rusts as exemplified in the leaf rust of wheat. Waltham, Massachussetts, USA: Chronica Botanica, 269.

Chinkova C, 1966. Materiali varchu florata na razdete v Balgaria. Izv. Bot. Inst., 16:265-271.

Chinkova C, 1978. Materiali varchu florata na razdete v Balgaria. Fitologia, 10:50-62.

Chong J; Seaman WL, 1994. Incidence and virulence of Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae in Canada in 1993. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(4):335-340

Coelho ET, 1972. Survey of physiological races of crown rust (Puccinia coronata var. avenae) in oats in the south of Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Agronomia, 7:43-48

Dietz SM, 1923. The role of the genus Rhamnus in the dissemination of crown rust. USDA Bulletin, 1162:1-19.

Dinoor A, 1977. Oat crown rust resistance in Israel. In: Day PR, ed. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 287:357-366

Dmitriev AP, 1983. Rusts on wheat and oats in Ethiopia. 1. Distribution and biology. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 17(4):323-328

Dmitriev AP, 1994. Population dynamics of Puccinia coronata Cda and the structure of immunological variability of oats. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 28(4):48-55

Dmitriev AP; Daiesa T, 1983. Wheat and oat rusts in Ethiopia. II. Genotype composition of crown and stem rusts of oats. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 17(6):504-508

DnOliveira B, 1940. Notas sobre a prodacao de fase aecidica de algunas ferragens dos cerrais em Portugal. Rev. Agron., 28:201-208.

Eriksson J, 1908. Neue Studien über die Spezialisierung der grasbewohnenden Kronenrostarten. Arch. Bot., 8(3):1-26.

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Frey KJ; Browning JA; Simons MD, 1979. Management systems for host genes to control disease loss. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 39(1):10-21

Fried PM, 1983. The rust situation in Switzerland, 1981 and 1982. Cereal Rusts Bulletin, 11(1):39

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Hayward MD, 1977. Genetic control of resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata Corda) in Lolium perenne and its implications in breeding. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 51(2):49-53

Heard AV; Lewis GC, 1976. Effect of crown rust on the nutritive value of perennial ryegrass. Grasslands Research Institute Hurley Annual Report, 1976. Hurley, UK: Grasslands Research Institute, 39.

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Horie Y, 1985. New summer crop cultivars (II). New cultivars registered by the Min. Agric. For. and Fish. in 1984. Tall fescue. Japanese Journal of Breeding, 35:84-85.

Hpgermark U, 1981. Control of crown rust (Puccinia coronata) of oats with triadimefon. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 45(3):90-93

Hurley RH; Clarke BB; Meyer WA; Kopec DM; Funk CR, 1987. Registration of Rebel II tall fescue. Crop Science, 27(5):1086.

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Isawa K; Nishihara N, 1975. Influence of diseases on the chemical composition and nutritive value of forage crops. 2. Qualitative and quantitative damage of Italian ryegrass infected with crown rust. Bulletin of the National Grassland Research Institute, 6:87-94

Jin Y; Steffenson BJ, 1992. Puccinia coronata var. hordei Jin et Steff. var. nova: morphology and pathogenicity on grasses. Vortr. Pflanzenzuecht. Bonn, 24:57-59.

Jin Y; Steffenson BJ; Oberthur LE; Baenziger PS, 1992. Puccinia coronata on barley. Plant Disease, 76(12):1283

Jiráková H; Hanzalová A, 2008. Crown rust pathotypes determined on oats in the Czech Republic from 2004 to 2006 and reaction to oat cultivars. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 44(2):60-65. http://www.journals.uzpi.cz/web/CJGPB.htm

Jondle RJ, 1974. Studies on the association between grain yield and crown rust reaction loci in several genetic backgrounds of Avena sativa. Dissertation Abstracts International-B, 35(5):2024B.

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Katsuya K; Kashima M; Sato S, 1976. Physiologic specialization of oat crown rust, Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae identified in Japan, 1972 to 1974. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 42(3):317-319

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Klenová H; ?ebesta J, 2006. Inheritance and efficiency of crown rust resistance in the line Pc 50-4 (Avena sterilis L.). Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 42(1):9-14. http://www.cazv.cz

Kochman JA, 1975. Environmental and host effects on infection of oats by the stem and crown rust fungi. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 41(2):49-50.

Kochman JK; Brown JF, 1975. Development of the stem and crown rust fungi on leaves, sheaths, and peduncles of oats. Phytopathology, 65(12):1404-1408

Kolb FL; Brown CM; Hewings; D, 1995. Registration of nBrownnoat. Crop Science, 35:279.

Kono A, 1985. Effect of culture filtrate of oat leaf surface fungi on the germination and invasion of crown rust urediniospore. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, 32(2):289-298

Konovalova NE; Shchekotkova TV, 1972. Crown rust (Puccinia coronata Cda f.sp. secalis) of buckthorn (Rhamnus pallasii) in the Transcaucasus. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 6(4):353-355.

Konovalova NE; Shchekotkova TV, 1978. On the pcidial host of crown rust of rye. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, 13(4):623-625

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Kryzanek R; Sebesta J, 1974. Effect of rusts on the content of free amino acids and oligosaccharides in oat kernels. Ochrana Rostlin, 10(3):187-191

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Leonard KJ, 2003. Regional frequencies of virulence in oat crown rust in the United States from 1990 through 2000. Plant Disease, 87(11):1301-1310.

Leonard KJ; Huerta-Espino J; Salmeron JJ, 2005. Virulence of oat crown rust in Mexico. Plant Disease, 89(9):941-948. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Leslie J, 1986. New releases (Oats). South Dakota Farm Home Research, 37(2):20-21.

Liu ShuYan; Xu Bing; Sun YanHui; Zhang JinHua; Liu XueMin, 2003. A new disease caused by Puccinia coronata Corda var. coronata on Poa sp. in Jilin Province. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 25(4):365-366.

Liu XiaoMei; Pu JinJi, 2004. Preliminary report on diseases in turf grasses. Pratacultural Science, 21(6):73-74.

Luig NH, 1985. Epidemiology in Australia and New Zealand In: Roelfs AP, Bushnell WR, eds. The Cereal Rusts Vol. II. Orlando, USA: Academic Press, 301-328.

Luke HH; Barnett RD; Pfahler PL, 1975. Inheritance of horizontal resistance to crown rust in oats. Phytopathology, 65(5):631-632

Maclean DJ; Scott Kj; Tommerup CA, 1971. A uninucleate wheat infecting strain of the stem rust fungus isolated from axenic culture. Journal of General Microbiology, 65:339-342.

Mansat P; Betin M, 1979. Selection of Italian ryegrass for resistance to crown rust under artificial conditions. Annales de l'Amelioration des Plantes, 29(3):337-347

Mansat P; Betin M, 1984. Selection of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata Corda). Results of crosses between improved populations under artificial conditions, consequences. Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 70(5):595-601

Martinelli JA; Federizzi LC; Bennedetti AC, 1994. Effect of oat cultivars mixtures and seed treatments on the restriction of leaf rust disease progress. Summa Phytopathologica, 20(2):113-115

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