Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parthenolecanium persicae
(peach scale)

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Datasheet

Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parthenolecanium persicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peach scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The invasiveness of P. persicae is probably of little economic importance except in vineyards. Therefore it is probably only potentially important in wine-growing areas where it has not yet been recorded. It is noteworthy that it is not considered a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.
TitleAdults
CaptionParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.
Copyright©Lesley Ingram/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.
AdultsParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.©Lesley Ingram/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.
TitleAdults
CaptionParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.
Copyright©Lesley Ingram/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.
AdultsParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); adults. USA.©Lesley Ingram/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius)

Preferred Common Name

  • peach scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Eulecanium cecconi Leonardi
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) berberidis Shrank
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) magnoliarum Cockerell
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) spinosum Brittin
  • Lecanium (Palaeolecanium) persicae (Fabricius)
  • Lecanium (Parthenolecanium) berberidis Shrank
  • Lecanium (Parthenolecanium) magnoliarum Cockerell
  • Lecanium genistae Signoret
  • Lecanium mori Signoret
  • Lecanium sarothamni Douglas
  • Parthenolecanium thymi Danzig

International Common Names

  • English: European fruit scale; European peach scale; grapevine scale; grape-vine scale; greater vine, scale; Parthenolecanium persicae; vine scale, greater
  • Spanish: cochinilla del melocotonero; cochinilla grande del duraznero; cochinilla morena
  • French: lécanie du pêcher

Local Common Names

  • Chile: conchuela grande cafe de la vid
  • Denmark: ferskenskjoldlus
  • Germany: Schildlaus, Pfirsich-
  • Italy: cocciniglia del pesco; lecanio del pesco
  • Netherlands: perzikdopluis
  • Turkey: avrupa kosnili

EPPO code

  • LECAPE (Parthenolecanium persicae)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page The invasiveness of P. persicae is probably of little economic importance except in vineyards. Therefore it is probably only potentially important in wine-growing areas where it has not yet been recorded. It is noteworthy that it is not considered a pest in California, USA, which appears to have a suitable climate and grows many vines. It is almost certainly not particularly invasive, as it is almost unknown on 'wild' plants.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Parthenolecanium
  •                                         Species: Parthenolecanium persicae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Chermes persicae Fabricius, 1776: 304. Type data: Europe: on Amygdalus persicae. Syntypes, female. Notes: Type material lost (Zimsen, 1964).

Coccus persicorum Sulzer, 1776: 112. Type data: Germany: on peach. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903: 191. Notes: Type material probably lost (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Coccus costatus Schrank, 1781: 589. Type data: Austria: on twigs of Amygdalus persicae. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903: 191. Notes: Depository of type material unknown (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Coccus clematidis Gmelin, 1790: 2220. Type data: Europe: on Clematis sp. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1912: 363. Notes: Type material probably lost (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Coccus berberidis Schrank, 1801: 146. Type data: Austria: on Sauerdorns [=Berberis] sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1912: 370.

Coccus persicae Fonscolombe, 1834: 207. Change of combination.

Lecanium persicae Bouché, 1844: 296. Change of combination.

Lecanium berberidis Walker, 1852: 1073. Change of combination.

Lecanium cymbiformis Targioni-Tozzetti, 1868: 730. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 231.

Lecanium persicochilense Targioni-Tozzetti, 1868: 731. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 221.

Lecanium elongatum Signoret, 1873: 404. Type data: France: Landes, Mont-de-Marsan, on laurier-cerise [=Prunus laurocerasus]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1977: 91.

Lecanium genistae Signoret, 1873: 405. Type data: France: Alpes-Maritimes, on 'genet epineux'. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1912: 370.

Lecanium mori Signoret, 1873: 407. Type data: France: Albertville and Savoie, on Morus alba. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Sulc, 1932: 101.

Lecanium rosarum Signoret, 1873: 427. Misidentification.

Lecanium sarothamni Douglas, 1891: 65. Type data: England: Hereford, on Sarothamnus scoparius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903: 192.

Lecanium (Eulecanium) mori Cockerell, 1896: 332.

Lecanium berberidis Maskell, 1897: 311. Misidentification.

Lecanium magnoliarum Cockerell, 1897a: 5. Type data: USA: California, San Jose, Japanese Nursery, on Magnolia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, US National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909: 441.

Lecanium berberidis major Maskell, 1898: 238. Type data: Australia: Victoria, Melbourne, on Vitis vinifera. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, Hodgson & Miller, 1997: 201. Notes: Type material probably lost (Deitz & Tocker, 1980).

Lecanium magnoliarum Cockerell, 1898: 145. Type data: USA: California, San Jose, on Magnolia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909: 441.

Lecanium (Eulecanium) magnoliarum Cockerell & Parrott, 1899: 236.

Lecanium (Eulecanium) berberidis Cockerell & Parrott, 1899: 237.

Coccus mori Kirkaldy, 1902: 106. Change of combination.

Eulecanium magnoliarum hortensiae Cockerell, 1903: 19. Type data: France: Nice, on Hortensia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, US National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1957: 351.

Lecanium (Eulecanium) persicae Reh, 1903: 409.

Coccus elongatus Fernald, 1903: 168. Change of combination.

Coccus genistae Fernald, 1903: 168. Change of combination.

Eulecanium berberidis major Fernald, 1903: 182. Change of combination.

Eulecanium cecconi Leonardi, 1908: 178. Type data: Italy: Vallombrosa, on Menispermum canadense. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento di Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1912: 211.

Lecanium cecconi Sanders, 1909: 46. Change of combination.

Lecanium nigrofasciatum Borg, 1919: 37. Misidentification.

Lecanium cymbyformis Leonardi, 1920: 306. Misspelling of species name.

Lecanium persicae Green, 1928b: 23. Notes: Author incorrectly cited as "Geoffroy".

Lecanium (Parthenolecanium) persicae Sulc, 1932: 75.

Palaeolecanium costatum Lindinger, 1935: 136. Change of combination.

Palaeolecanium persicae Lindinger, 1935: 138. Change of combination.

Lecanium (Eulecanium) spinosum Brittin, 1940b: 420. Type data: New Zealand: Ngongotaha, on Wisteria sp., 4 January 1934. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 208. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Synonymy by Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 207.

Parthenolecanium persicae Borchsenius, 1957: 350. Change of combination.

Lecanium persicae goidanichi Kawecki, 1962: 17. Type data: Italy: Western Alps, Cueno, on Pinus sylvestris and on Viscum album. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Warsaw: Museum of the Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland. Described: female and first instar. Synonymy by Kosztarab & Kozar, 1988: 223. Notes: Syntypes include first and second instar larva.

Parthenolecanium thymi Danzig, 1967: 152. Type data: Russia: Primorye Territory, Zmeinaya Hill in Artemovka River valley, near Lesnoi Kordon, on Thymus serphyllus. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1980a, b: 272.

Lecanium berberidis Boratynski, 1970: 66.

Lecanium persicae persicae Kawecki, 1971: 258. Change of status.

Parthenolecanium persicae spinosum Ben-Dov, 1993: 224. Change of combination.


Description

Top of page Adult female (terminology after Hodgson, 1994):

- Unmounted material: highly variable; not strongly convex, elongate oval with a medial longitudinal ridge. Young adult females usually yellowish with brown markings or mottling, becoming uniformly brown with age.

- Mounted material: elongate oval, with distinct stigmatic clefts; up to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide.

- Dorsum: derm membranous when young, becoming mildly sclerotised when old. Dorsal setae of two sizes: rather large, stout, blunt spines: present in a more or less double line medially anterior to anal plates extending as far forward as mouthparts; much smaller, rather blunt, spines: rather sparse throughout rest of dorsum. Dorsal pores of two types, present throughout. Preopercular pores circular, moderately large, with a rough surface: present in a small loose group of about 20 to 26 pores just anterior to the anal plates. Dorsal tubular ducts absent. Dorsal tubercles normal, large and convex; total of 24 to 42 around submargin. Pocket-like sclerotisations probably present (included in illustration by Gill, 1988). Ano-genital fold with two pairs of long setae along anterior margin and two pairs of shorter setae laterally. Anal ring with eight setae present.

- Margin: marginal setae long, slender, curved and pointed, in a single band; with about 8 to 12 setae on each side between stigmatic areas. Stigmatic clefts distinct, each with three stigmatic spines, all sharply spinose and about as long as the marginal setae; each median spine slightly longer than laterals and generally slightly curved.

- Venter: pregenital disc-pores each with mainly ten loculi; fairly abundant around genital opening, becoming progressively less frequent across preceding abdominal segments; with large groups also present mesad to each coxa. Ventral microducts abundant in a submarginal band and near labium, much less frequent medially, particularly on abdomen. Ventral tubular ducts of three types: small duct: present in small submarginal groups between antennae; a slightly larger duct, with outer ductule rather longer than the first type, with a large terminal gland: rather sparse, intermixed with the third type; and large duct, with an inner ductule as wide as or wider than outer ductule: present in a broad submarginal band extending from anterior to each antenna to near anal cleft. Ventral setae: submarginal setae in a double row. Antennae eight- or nine-segmented (rarely six- or seven-segmented). Legs normally developed; each with a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis; claws rather long and narrow with a distinct denticle; claw digitules broad and similar.

Note: despite its taxonomic history (i.e. large number of synonyms), this species is quite distinctive, and can be separated from all other known Parthenolecanium species by the presence of large numbers of dorsal tubercles around the submargin and the ventral submarginal band of tubular ducts, each with a broad inner ductule. For a key to separate the most common species of this genus, see 'Similarities to other species'.

The immature stages of Parthenolecanium species are not particularly well known and few have been described to modern standards of description. However, those of P. persicae were described and illustrated very accurately by Boratynski (1970); they were also described by Brittin (1940a), but in rather less detail. Schmutterer (1954), Dziedzicka (1968) and Gonzalez (1989) have described the immature stages of some of the other species (including Parthenolecanium corni). As on the adult female, the third-instar nymphs have ventral tubular ducts with the inner ductule as broad as the outer ductule (probably unique to P. persicae), whereas the second-instar nymphs have four pairs of dorsal tubercles submarginally (dorsal tubercles are rare on second-instar nymphs); whether these characters would separate these nymphs from other Parthenolecanium species is uncertain. [The various nymphal stages can be identified by the number of antennal segments (Brittin, 1940a; Boratynski, 1970). First-instar: six-segmented, with apical segment longer than third segment; second-instar: six segmented, with third segment longer than apical segment; third-instar: seven-segmented and adult female: eight-segmented].

Distribution

Top of page In the Distribution table, the records of El-Minshawy and Moursi (1976) for Egypt are referred to as "Parthenolecanium persicae (Coccus elongatus)". These are two different insect species (see Ben-Dov, 1977). It seems likely that these records, and perhaps some of the others from Egypt, actually refer to C. elongatus (the long brown scale, now known as Coccus longulus) rather than P. persicae. Because of the complexity of the taxonomy of what was originally the genus Lecanium, many of the early records in the distribution table of this datasheet need confirmation.

The distribution of P. persicae appears to be restricted mainly to the vine-growing areas of the world, although not always of economic importance in many of the areas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentKozar et al., 1996
ArmeniaPresentTer-Grigorian, 1954; Ter-Grigorian, 1956; Ter-Grigorian, 1966; CIE, 1979
AzerbaijanPresentCIE, 1979
ChinaPresentCui Shi Ying et al., 1997; Tang, 1977; Wang, 1980; Yang, 1982; Tang, 1991
-HubeiPresentCui Shi Ying et al., 1997
-HunanPresentHu et al., 1992
-ShanxiPresentXie, 1998
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCIE, 1979
IndiaPresentRamakrishna Ayyar, 1921; Varshney, 1985; Shafee et al., 1989
-Indian PunjabPresentGreen, 1908
IranPresentBodenheimer, 1944; CIE, 1979; Kozar et al., 1996
IsraelPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
JapanPresentShinji, 1935; Kawai, 1972; Kawai, 1980
-HonshuPresentDanzig, 1980a; Danzig, 1980b
-ShikokuPresentDanzig, 1980a; Danzig, 1980b
KazakhstanPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
Korea, Republic ofPresentDanzig, 1980a; Danzig, 1980b; Paik, 1978
PakistanPresentAli, 1971; CIE, 1979
Sri LankaPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
TaiwanPresentTakahashi, 1932; Tao, 1978
TajikistanPresentCIE, 1979
TurkeyPresentCIE, 1979; Ulgenturk and Toros, 2000
TurkmenistanPresentBustshik, 1960; CIE, 1979; Potaeva, 1993
UzbekistanPresentCIE, 1979

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
EgyptPresentGreen, 1925b; Hall, 1926; Ezzat and Hussein, 1969; El-Minshawy and Moursi, 1976; CIE, 1979; Nada et al., 1990
MauritiusPresentMamet, 1949
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentCarnero Hernandez & Perrez Guerra, 1986; Ben-Dov, 1993
TunisiaPresentCIE, 1979
ZimbabwePresentHall, 1935

North America

CanadaPresentCIE, 1979
-Nova ScotiaPresentCIE, 1979
-OntarioPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCIE, 1979
-QuebecPresentCIE, 1979
MexicoPresentSalazar Torres & Solis Aguilar, 1990
USAPresentCIE, 1979
-AlabamaPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-CaliforniaPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov, 1993
-ColoradoPresentCIE, 1979
-District of ColumbiaPresentKosztarab, 1996
-FloridaPresentCIE, 1979
-GeorgiaPresentKing, 1903; CIE, 1979
-HawaiiPresentKirkaldy, 1902
-IdahoPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
-IndianaPresentKosztarab, 1996
-MarylandPresentCIE, 1979; Kosztarab, 1996
-MassachusettsPresentCIE, 1979; Kosztarab, 1996
-MississippiPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-MissouriPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-MontanaPresentHamon and Williams, 1984
-New JerseyPresentCIE, 1979; Kosztarab, 1996
-New MexicoPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
-New YorkPresentCIE, 1979; Kosztarab, 1996
-North CarolinaPresentWatson et al., 1994
-OhioPresentCIE, 1979; Kosztarab, 1996
-OregonPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-PennsylvaniaPresentCIE, 1979; Kosztarab, 1996
-Rhode IslandPresentKing, 1903; Kosztarab, 1996
-South CarolinaPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-TennesseePresentLambdin and Watson, 1980
-TexasPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-UtahPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
-VirginiaPresentKosztarab, 1996

South America

ArgentinaPresentLizer y Trelles, 1922; CIE, 1979
BrazilPresentCIE, 1979; Soria and Conte, 2000
-Rio Grande do SulPresentGomes Costa, 1949; Oliveira and Romani, 1975; CIE, 1979
-Santa CatarinaPresentHickel, 2004; Hickel, 2004
-Santa CatarinaPresentHickel, 2004; Hickel, 2004
ChilePresent Invasive CIE, 1979; Gonzalez, 1983; González, 1985
UruguayPresentCIE, 1979
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1979

Europe

AustriaPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1979
BulgariaPresentTschorbadjiew, 1939; CIE, 1979
CroatiaPresentMasten, 2007; Milek, 2009
CroatiaPresentMasten, 2007; Milek, 2009
CyprusPresentGeorghiou, 1977; CIE, 1979
Czech RepublicPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentZahradník, 1977; CIE, 1979
DenmarkPresentKozarzhevskaya and Reitzel, 1975; CIE, 1979
FrancePresentBalachowsky, 1933; CIE, 1979; Foldi, 2000
-CorsicaPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
GermanyPresentCIE, 1979; Hoffmann and Schmutterer, 1999; Schönfeld, 2015
GreecePresentKozár, 1985
GuernseyPresentCIE, 1979
HungaryPresentKozár, 1976; CIE, 1979; Kozár and Sugonyaev, 1979; Kozár, 1980
IrelandPresentCIE, 1979
ItalyPresentCIE, 1979; Longo et al., 1995; Fortusini et al., 1996; Montá et al., 2001
-SardiniaPresentMelis, 1930; Marotta, 1987
-SicilyPresentCIE, 1979; Marotta, 1987
MacedoniaPresentCIE, 1979
MaltaPresentBorg, 1932; CIE, 1979
MoldovaPresentKozar and Ostafichuk, 1987
NetherlandsPresentCIE, 1979
NorwayPresentCIE, 1979
PolandPresentCIE, 1979
PortugalPresentSeabra, 1941; Neves, 1936; CIE, 1979; Carvalho et al., 1996
-MadeiraPresentCIE, 1979; Vieira et al., 1983
RomaniaPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
Russian FederationPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
-Central RussiaPresentDanzig, 1980a; Danzig, 1980b
-Russian Far EastPresentSharkov, 1988
-Southern RussiaPresentDanzig, 1980a; Danzig, 1980b; Sugonyaev & Babaev, 1978; Kiritchenko, 1928; Babaev and Tanasiichuk, 1971; Bazarov et al., 1975; Hadzibejli, 1983; Pellizari, 1997; Ben-Dov et al., 2001; Yasnosh et al., 2001
-Western SiberiaPresentBen-Dov et al., 2001
SerbiaPresentGraora, 2008; Graora, 2008
SerbiaPresentGraora, 2008; Graora, 2008
SpainPresentGomez-Menor Ortega, 1960; Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1946; Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1958; CIE, 1979; Martin Mateo, 1984
SwedenPresentCIE, 1979
SwitzerlandPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov, 1993
UKPresentGreen, 1925b; Newstead, 1900; CIE, 1979
-Channel IslandsPresentGreen, 1925a; CIE, 1979
UkrainePresentKiritchenko, 1928; CIE, 1979
-Krymskaya OblastPresentCIE, 1979
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCIE, 1979

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCIE, 1979
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1979; Ben-Dov et al., 2001
-QueenslandPresentBrimblecombe, 1962; CIE, 1979
-TasmaniaPresentCIE, 1979
-VictoriaPresentFroggatt, 1915; Buchanan, 1977; CIE, 1979
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentTakahashi, 1936
New ZealandPresentKirkaldy, 1902; Green, 1929; CIE, 1979; Hodgson and Henderson, 2000

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page Even though it was first described from Europe, it is considered that it may have originally evolved in the Far East (Danzig, 1980a, b). The timing of its introduction into the areas where it is currently known is unclear. In most instances, if not all, it appears to have been present for at least 50 years.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page The most likely method of introduction would be on plants, particularly vine cuttings and small vine plants. It is not a high phytosanitary risk. The regions where it is listed as a quarantine pest (if any) are unknown.

Habitat

Top of page P. persicae is now almost cosmopolitan in distribution, but appears to favour warm areas (Danzig, 1980a, b). It is not known from where it originated, but Danzig (1980a, b) suggests nemoral and subtropical forests of East Asia. It is most common in eastern Europe, where it is of greatest economic importance. Because the site of its geographic origin is unknown, little can be suggested regarding its 'natural' habitat, but it is most common on the woody parts of trees and shrubs, mainly of cultivated plants.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page P. persicae appears to be of most economic importance in southern Russia, western Asia and perhaps Chile and Brazil.

P. persicae has a fairly wide host range (most authors describe it as being polyphagous), but in most parts of its geographic range it is only of minor importance, attacking ornamentals. In Europe, western Asia and parts of South America, it is a fairly important pest of grapevines and fruit trees.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeUnknown
Acacia caffra (cat-thorn)FabaceaeUnknown
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)FabaceaeUnknown
Acacia melanoxylon (Australian blackwood)FabaceaeUnknown
Acer negundo (box elder)AceraceaeUnknown
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)FabaceaeMain
AmpelopsisVitaceaeMain
AnnonaAnnonaceaeUnknown
Aristotelia (windberry)GelechiidaeUnknown
Asplenium nidus (bird's nest fern)AspleniaceaeMain
Berberis canadensis (American barberry)BerberidaceaeUnknown
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)BerberidaceaeMain
Berberis vulgaris (European barberry)BerberidaceaeUnknown
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeUnknown
CaraganaFabaceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeMain
ClematisRanunculaceaeUnknown
Clematis vitalba (old man's beard)RanunculaceaeMain
CotoneasterRosaceaeUnknown
Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeMain
Cytisus hirsutusFabaceaeMain
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)FabaceaeUnknown
DaphneThymelaeaceaeMain
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeMain
Diospyros lotus (Date plum tree)EbenaceaeMain
ElaeagnusElaeagnaceaeUnknown
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)ElaeagnaceaeUnknown
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive)ElaeagnaceaeMain
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeMain
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree)SalaciaMain
Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia)AraliaceaeMain
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeMain
Forsythia (golden bells)OleaceaeMain
Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeMain
GleditsiaFabaceaeUnknown
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Hedera (Ivy)AraliaceaeUnknown
Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn)ElaeagnaceaeMain
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeUnknown
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
Maclura pomifera (osage orange)MoraceaeUnknown
Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape)BerberidaceaeMain
Mallotus japonicusEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Menispermum canadense (common moonseed)MenispermaceaeMain
Mespilus germanica (medlar)RosaceaeUnknown
Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeUnknown
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeMain
Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeMain
ParthenocissusVitaceaeUnknown
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
PittosporumPittosporaceaeUnknown
Platanus orientalis (plane)PlatanaceaeUnknown
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeUnknown
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeMain
Prunus dulcis (almond)RosaceaeMain
Prunus laurocerasus (cherry laurel)Main
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeUnknown
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet firethorn)RosaceaeMain
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeUnknown
Ribes (currants)GrossulariaceaeUnknown
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Robinia (locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeUnknown
Rubus amoenusUnknown
SophoraFabaceaeMain
Tamarix (tamarisk)TamaricaceaeMain
Ulmus thomasii (rock elm)UlmaceaeMain
Urochloa brizantha (palisadegrass)PoaceaeUnknown
Viburnum tinusCaprifoliaceaeMain
Vitis amurensis (amur grape)VitaceaeUnknown
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)VitaceaeMain
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
WisteriaFabaceaeUnknown
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)FabaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Populations of P. persicae tend to build up rather slowly (probably over a season or two) and so the damage depends to some extent on the size of the host plant. Clearly, smaller plants can only withstand small populations and so will show symptoms sooner. If populations are allowed to grow unchecked, they will eventually kill the host, especially ornamental shrubs. P. persicae is sap sucking, feeding on the phloem sap, and is therefore a producer of honeydew. This will be worst when young adult females are present and can cover all parts of the plant underneath the infestation; the honeydew will become infected by sooty mould and, if this is on the leaves, it will reduce photosynthesis. The main symptom will be dieback of colonised branches. On most hosts, this will probably be preceded by early senescence and leaf-fall.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Stems / dieback
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus thymi Parasite
Aphobetus lecanii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blastothrix hungarica Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Calymma communimacula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheiloneurus formosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus Predator
Chilocorus bipustulatus Predator
Coccophagus caridei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus cowperi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus fraternus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus japonicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus semicircularis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia aurantii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eunotus cretaceus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eunotus obscurus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Holcocera iceryaella Predator Adults/Nymphs
Leucopis alticeps Predator
Metaphycus dispar Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus insidiosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus timberlakei Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Microterys sylvius Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Microterys temporarius Parasite
Microterys xanthopsis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Pachyneuron muscarum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Rhyzobius forestieri Predator

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal

Wind dispersal of first-instar nymphs is the main 'natural' method of dispersal.

Agricultural Practices

Moving cuttings or plants between fields or farms (i.e. of vines) might disperse it.

Movement in Trade

None recorded.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page

P. persicae is mainly a minor pest, but it has occasionally been important on vines and deciduous fruit trees. Outbreaks have been recorded in Australia (Froggatt, 1915), Egypt (Hosny, 1943), and Chile and Peru (Gonzalez, 1983; Foldi and Soria, 1989) where it is considered to be a key pest in vineyards. It is common in vineyards in France, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland, and also in the Caucasus, although rarely of economic importance (Pellizari, 1997).

Uses

Top of page

It probably does not have any uses. However, in many geographic areas, honeybees collect honeydew from scale insects to make honey (Kunkel, 1997). Other species of Parthenolecanium have been implicated as a source of sugar (e.g. Parthenolecanium rufulum, Parthenolecanium corni and Parthenolecanium fletcheri), but not P. persicae.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page This scale insect can be detected almost entirely visually. What will be noticed first will probably be the sooty mould associated with the honeydew; in addition, ant activity may be obvious if they are attending the colony. If the population is small, then careful searching of the younger stems and underside of the leaves will indicate whether the pest is present. The exact place of search may depend on the time of year, the younger instars in the summer being found on the leaves and the older nymphs and adults on the stems and twigs.

The above sites would also apply when inspecting for phytosanitary reasons, but it should be born in mind that the first-instar nymphs (present in May to June in the northern hemisphere) will be very small and hard to detect. The main 'crop' that might be affected would be vine cuttings and plants.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page A key to most genera within the family Coccidae can be found in Hodgson, 1994.

Key to some Parthenolecanium sp. (modified after Gill, 1988):

1. Dorsal tubercles usually absent 2
Dorsal tubercles usually present 3

2. Dorsal tubular ducts frequent medially on dorsum; with about 40 marginal setae around anterior margin between anterior stigmatic areas; apparently restricted to oaks and related plants in the Fagaceae. P. quercifex (Fitch).
Dorsal tubular ducts absent; with about 20 marginal setae around the anterior margin between anterior stigmatic areas; apparently restricted to conifers. P. fletcheri (Cockerell).

3. Submarginal ventral tubular ducts with inner ductule shortened and as broad as outer ductule; with more than 12 dorsal tubercles on each side (often far more); with hair-like or bristle-like marginal setae. P. persicae (Fabricius).
Submarginal ventral tubular ducts with inner ductule elongate and much thinner than outer ductule; with 13 or fewer dorsal tubercles on each side; with stout, straight, spine-like marginal setae 4

4. With numerous, easily discernible dorsal tubular ducts present throughout dorsum, including anal lobe area. P. pruinosum (Coquillett).
Dorsal tubular ducts few or absent. P. corni (Bouché).


Prevention and Control

Top of page

Biological Control

Parasites and predators usually keep P. persicae near or below the economic threshold. When there is a heavy infestation, light mineral oil treatments or organophosphate products can be applied at the end of the winter against the overwintering nymphs (Pellizari, 1997). The control of ants in infested vineyards aids in preventing outbreaks (Gonzalez, 1983). Control measures are rarely necessary except in vineyards. In a field experiment, fenitrothion, trichlorfon, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam controlled P. persicae efficiently in vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Afonso et al., 2004).

Phytosanitary Measures

These may be important in the transport of vine cuttings and plants.

IPM Programmes

Some IPM programmes are being developed in Italy (Monta et al., 2001) and Chile (Gonzalez, 1983).

References

Top of page

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