Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parthenolecanium corni
(European fruit lecanium)

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Datasheet

Parthenolecanium corni (European fruit lecanium)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parthenolecanium corni
  • Preferred Common Name
  • European fruit lecanium
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché, 1844)

Preferred Common Name

  • European fruit lecanium

Other Scientific Names

  • Coccus rosarum Snellen van Volenhoven in De Graaf et al., 1862
  • Coccus tiliae Fitch, 1851
  • Eulecanium corni corni (Bouché); Schmutterer, 1952
  • Eulecanium fraxini King, 1902
  • Eulecanium guignardi King, 1901
  • Eulecanium kansasense (Hunter) King, 1902
  • Eulecanium rosae King, 1901
  • Eulecanium vini (Bouché) Cockerell, 1901
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) armeniacum Craw; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) assimile Newstead; Reh, 1903
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) aurantiacum Hunter, 1900
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) canadense Cockerell; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) caryarum Cockerell, 1898
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) corylifex Fitch; Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) crawii Ehrhorn; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) cynosbati Fitch; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) fitchii Signoret; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) kingii Cockerell, 1898
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) lintneri Cockerell & Bennett; Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) maclurarum Cockerell, 1898
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) ribis Fitch; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) rugosum Signoret; Cockerell, 1896
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) tarsale Signoret; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899
  • Lecanium (Eulecanium) vini Bouché; King & Reh, 1901
  • Lecanium adenostomae Kuwana, 1901
  • Lecanium armeniacum Craw, 1891
  • Lecanium assimile Newstead, 1892
  • Lecanium canadense Cockerell; Cockerell, 1898
  • Lecanium caryae canadense Cockerell, 1895
  • Lecanium corni Bouché, 1844
  • Lecanium corni robiniarum Marchal, 1908
  • Lecanium coryli (Linnaeus); Sulc, 1908 (misidentification)
  • Lecanium corylifex Fitch, 1857
  • Lecanium crawii Ehrhorn, 1898
  • Lecanium cynosbati Fitch, 1857
  • Lecanium fitchii Signoret, 1874
  • Lecanium folsomi King, 1903
  • Lecanium juglandifex Fitch, 1857
  • Lecanium kansasense Hunter, 1899
  • Lecanium lintneri Cockerell & Bennett in Cockerell, 1895
  • Lecanium maclurae Hunter, 1899
  • Lecanium obtusum Thro, 1903
  • Lecanium persicae crudum Green, 1917
  • Lecanium pruinosum armeniacum Craw; Tyrell, 1896
  • Lecanium rehi King in King & Reh, 1901
  • Lecanium ribis Fitch, 1857
  • Lecanium robiniarum Douglas, 1890
  • Lecanium rugosum Signoret, 1874
  • Lecanium tarsalis Signoret, 1874
  • Lecanium vini Bouché, 1851
  • Lecanium websteri King, 1901
  • Lecanium wistariae Signoret, 1874
  • Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché); Borchsenius, 1957
  • Parthenolecanium coryli (Linnaeus); Sulc, 1932 (misidentification)

International Common Names

  • English: brown scale; European fruit scale; fruit scale, European; peach scale; yew scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla de la vid
  • French: lécanie de la vigne; lecanium de la vigne; lecanium du cornouiller

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: hornskjoldlus
  • Finland: kanukkakilpikirva
  • Germany: Eiben Napfschildlaus; Gemeine Napfschildlaus; Grosse Obstbaum Schildlaus; Reben Schildlaus; Taxus Napfschildlaus; Zwetschgen Napfschildlaus
  • Italy: cocciniglia del corniolo; lecanio del nocciuolo
  • Netherlands: Gewone Dopluis; Taxusdopluis; Wijinstokdopluis
  • Norway: hornskjoldlus
  • Sweden: skoeldlus, vanlig
  • Turkey: kahverengi kabuulu biti
  • USA: brown apricot scale; brown elm scale; brown fruit scale; New York plum scale

EPPO code

  • LECACO (Parthenolecanium corni)
  • LECAJU (Lecanium juglandifex)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Parthenolecanium
  •                                         Species: Parthenolecanium corni

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
ArmeniaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
AzerbaijanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
ChinaPresentTang and Li (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-ShanghaiPresentJu RuiTing et al. (2005)
-ShanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-XinjiangPresentYang Sen et al. (2008)
GeorgiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhagat et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (1999); Irfan Illahi et al. (2012)
IranPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
IsraelPresentBen-Dov et al. (2000)
JapanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
KazakhstanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
KyrgyzstanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
MongoliaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
North KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
PakistanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
South KoreaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
SyriaPresentNHM (1943); CABI and EPPO (1999)
TajikistanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
TurkeyPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
TurkmenistanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
UzbekistanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
AustriaPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
BelarusPresentSupranovich and Matveichyk (2004)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
BulgariaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
CroatiaPresentMasten (2007)
CyprusPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sisman and Ülgentürk (2010)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993)
DenmarkPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
FinlandPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
FrancePresentKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-CorsicaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
GreecePresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
ItalyPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
LithuaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
LuxembourgPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
MaltaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
MoldovaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
NetherlandsPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
NorwayPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
PolandPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
SpainPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-Canary IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadKosztarab and Kozár (1988); Ben-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (1999);

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
-British ColumbiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-OntarioPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-SaskatchewanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
MexicoPresentNHM (1915); CABI and EPPO (1999)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
-CaliforniaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-FloridaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-GeorgiaPresentHodges et al. (2001)
-IdahoPresentNHM (1973); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-KansasPresentNHM (1940); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-MichiganPresentNHM (1919); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-New MexicoPresentNHM (1893); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-OhioPresentNHM (1931); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-TennesseePresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-UtahPresentNHM (1966); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
-New South WalesPresentNHM (1984); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-TasmaniaPresentNHM (1978); CABI and EPPO (1999)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
New ZealandPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
BrazilPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
ChilePresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
PeruPresentPrinsloo (1983); CABI and EPPO (1999)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

References

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agowska B, 1987. Chalcids (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) as parasitoids of the coccids Pulvinaria betulp (L.), Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) and Eulecanium coryli (L.) (Homoptera, Coccidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 57(2):383-398

Antonelli A; Collman S, 1991. Lecanium scale. Extension Bulletin - Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State University, No. EB0746:2 pp.

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Ben-Dov Y; Zahavi T; Openheim D, 2000. New records of soft scale insects on grapevine and plum from the Golan Heights. Alon Hanotea, 54(4):142-143.

Bene Gdel, 1991. Contribution to the knowledge of Parthenolecanium pomeranicum (Kaw.) (Homoptera Coccidae), a species new to Italy. Redia, 74(1):1-13

Bhagat RC; Ramzan A; Farhan N, 1991. New records of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) and host-plants from Kashmir Valley, India. Entomon, 16(1):91-94

Blahutiak A, 1972. Host-parasite relations between the plum scale Parthenolecanium corni Bouche (Homoptera, Coccidae) and the parasite Blastothrix confusa Erdos (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Biologicke Prace, 18(7):113 + [3] pp.

Blahutiak A, 1973. Effectiveness of the parasite Blastothrix confusa (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) in controlling the brown scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Homoptera, Coccidae). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 70(6):353-370

Blahutiak A, 1973. Results of experimental studies on the parasitism of Parthenolecanium corni Bouche (Homoptera, Coccidae). Entomologicke Problemy, 11:157-193

Blahutiak A, 1976. On the occurrence of natural enemies of Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) (Homoptera, Coccidae) in Czechoslovakia. A. Huba; J. Jasic (Editors). Prace Ustavu Experimentalnej Fytopatologie a Entomologie. Slovenska Akademia Vied. Bratislava Czechoslovakia, 219-241

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Parthenolecanium corni. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 394.

Canard M, 1958. Deplacements et migrations de Eulecanium corni Bouche. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse, 92:293-296.

Canard M, 1958. Recherches sur la morphologie et la biologie de la cochenille Eulecanium corni Bouché (Homoptera, Coccoidea). Annales de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique de Toulouse, 6:185-271.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Danzig EM, 1986. Coccids of the Far-Eastern USSR (Homoptera: Coccinea). Phylogenetic Analysis of Coccids in the World Fauna. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co.

Danzig EM, 1995. Intraspecific variation in the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea). Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:19-24; 45 ref.

Danzig EM; Kerzhner IM, 1981. Coccus Linnaeus, 1758 and Parthenolecanium Sulc, 1908 (Insecta, Homoptera, Coccidae): Proposed designation of type species under the plenary powers Z.N.(S) 2125. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 38:147-152.

Diab N; Asslan L; Basheer AM, 2014. Parasitoids of the soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) in fruit orchards at al Qunaetera, Syria. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 24(2):341-346. http://www.esbcp.org/index.asp

Ebeling W, 1938. Host-determined morphological variations in Lecanium corni. Hilgardia, 11:613-631.

Gill RJ, 1988. The Scale Insects of California, Part I. The Soft Scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food, Agriculture.

Gundel L, 1984. Control of scale insects under glass. [Abstract]. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, No. 223:180

Habib A, 1955. Some biological aspects of the Eulecanium corni Bouché- group (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d'Egypte, 39:217-228.

Hamon AB; Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94.

Hodges G; Ruter JM; Braman SK, 2001. Susceptibility of Ilex species, hybrids and cultivars to Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock). Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 19(1):32-36.

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp.

Irfan Illahi; Aftab Shabnam; Vishal Mittal; Anil Dhar, 2012. Sooty mold of mulberry - first report from Kashmir. Journal on New Biological Reports, 1(2):38-41. http://researchtrend.net/paper1/2%20Illahi%20et%20al,%202012.pdf

Japoshvili G; Jalilvand K; Vahedi HA; Fallahzadeh M, 2015. Metaphycus parthenolecanii sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East, 61(2):161-165. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tzme20

Ju RuiTing; Xu Ying; Yi JianPing; Yan Wei; Du YuZhou, 2005. The method of pest risk analysis of urban greening and its application. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 32(2):179-184.

Kawecki Z, 1958. Studies on the genus Lecanium Burm. IV. Materials to a monograph of the brown scale, Lecanium corni Bouché, Marchal (female nec male) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Lecaniidae). Annales Zoologici., 17:135-216.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp.

Kosztarab M; Kozar F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 455 pp.

Krombein KV, Hurd PD Jr. , Smith DR, Burks BD, 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Masten T, 2007. Scale insects on grape vines in 2006 and occurrence of the second generation on some varieties. (Stitaste usi na vinovoj lozi u 2006. I pojava druge generacije u nekih vrsta.) Glasilo Biljne Zastite, 7(1):33-38.

Okul A; Bulut H; Zeki C, 1987. Investigations on the biology of some species of Coccoidea (Homoptera) injurious to apple trees in the Province of Ankara. Turkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir Bornova/Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 109-118

Peck O, 1963. A catalogue of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 30:1-1092.

Peterson LOT, 1960. Lecanium coryli L. (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in Saskatchewan. Canadian Entomologist, 92:851-857.

Prinsloo GL, 1983. A new genus and species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Peru. Acta Zoologica Lilloana, 37(1):101-105

Ripa S R; Caltagirone L, 1994. Implementation of integrated pest control. Revista Fruticola, 15(2):67-73

Santas LA, 1985. Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) an orchard scale pest producing honeydew foraged by bees in Greece. Entomologia Hellenica, 3(2):53-58

Savescu AD, 1943. Oekoarten bei Lecaniden. Bulletin de la Section Scientifique, Academie Roumaine, 25:212-223.

Savescu AD, 1944. Formes écologiques des lecanides de la faune Roumaine. Bulletin de la Section Scientifique, Academie Roumaine, 27:230-246.

Schmutterer H, 1954. Zur Kenntnis einiger wirtschaftlich wichtiger mitteleuropSischer Eulecanium - Arten (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Lecaniidae). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 36:62-83.

Sisman S; Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34(2):219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Supranovich RV; Matveichyk MA, 2004. Some peculiarities of the European fruit lecanium biology in intensive-type plum orchards. Zashchita Rastenii, No.28:236-243.

Suter P, 1950. Zur Biologie von Lecanium corni Bouché (Homopt., Coccid.). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse, 23:95-103.

Tang FT; Li J, 1988. Observations on the Coccoidea of Inner Mongolia in China. China: Inner Mongolia University Press.

Trenchev G; Ilcheva I, 1984. Insecticides for the control of larvae of the plum scale Parthenolecanium corni Bouche (Homoptera; Coccidae) during the vegetative period. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 21(8):31-37

Williams ML; Kosztarab M, 1972. Morphology and systematics of the Coccidae of Virginia with notes on their biology (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Research Division Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 74:1-215.

Yang Sen; Li Hong; Xu BinQiang; Tuerxunnayi T; Tayier A; Zhu XiaoFeng, 2008. Study on species, field identification and biological characters of scale insects in orchards in Tarim Basin. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences, 45(2):276-281. http://www.xjnykx.periodicals.com.cn

Distribution References

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

Ben-Dov Y, Zahavi T, Openheim D, 2000. New records of soft scale insects on grapevine and plum from the Golan Heights. Alon Hanotea. 54 (4), 142-143.

Bhagat R C, Ramzan A, Farhan N, 1991. New records of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) and host-plants from Kashmir Valley, India. Entomon. 16 (1), 91-94.

CABI, EPPO, 1999. Parthenolecanium corni. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 394.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Hodges G, Ruter J M, Braman S K, 2001. Susceptibility of Ilex species, hybrids and cultivars to Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock). Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 19 (1), 32-36.

Irfan Illahi, Aftab Shabnam, Vishal Mittal, Anil Dhar, 2012. Sooty mold of mulberry - first report from Kashmir. Journal on New Biological Reports. 1 (2), 38-41. http://researchtrend.net/paper1/2%20Illahi%20et%20al,%202012.pdf

Ju RuiTing, Xu Ying, Yi JianPing, Yan Wei, Du YuZhou, 2005. The method of pest risk analysis of urban greening and its application. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. 32 (2), 179-184.

Kosztarab M, Kozár F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 455 pp.

Masten T, 2007. Scale insects on grape vines in 2006 and occurrence of the second generation on some varieties. (Štitaste uši na vinovoj lozi u 2006. I pojava druge generacije u nekih vrsta.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 7 (1), 33-38.

NHM, 1893. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1915. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1919. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1931. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1943. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1966. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Prinsloo G L, 1983. A new genus and species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Peru. Acta Zoologica Lilloana. 37 (1), 101-105.

Supranovich R V, Matveichyk M A, 2004. Some peculiarities of the European fruit lecanium biology in intensive-type plum orchards. Zashchita Rasteniĭ. 236-243.

Tang FT, Li J, 1988. Observations on the Coccoidea of Inner Mongolia in China., China: Inner Mongolia University Press.

Yang Sen, Li Hong, Xu BinQiang, Tuerxunnayi T, Tayier A, Zhu XiaoFeng, 2008. Study on species, field identification and biological characters of scale insects in orchards in Tarim Basin. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences. 45 (2), 276-281.

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