Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pterocarpus indicus
(red sandalwood)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pterocarpus indicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red sandalwood
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pterocarpus indicus is a large tree, native to tropical and temperate Asia and to parts of the Pacific region. It has been widely introduced due to its many uses as an ornamental, a shade tree, for timber, refo...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ten-year-old plantation; habit, showing and eighty-year-old specimen.
TitleHabit
CaptionTen-year-old plantation; habit, showing and eighty-year-old specimen.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Ten-year-old plantation; habit, showing and eighty-year-old specimen.
HabitTen-year-old plantation; habit, showing and eighty-year-old specimen.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); habit, showing mature trees.
TitleHabit
CaptionPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); habit, showing mature trees.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); habit, showing mature trees.
HabitPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); habit, showing mature trees.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); ten-year-old plantation.
TitleHabit
CaptionPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); ten-year-old plantation.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); ten-year-old plantation.
HabitPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); ten-year-old plantation.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Eighty-year-old tree; six-month-old seedlings.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionEighty-year-old tree; six-month-old seedlings.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Eighty-year-old tree; six-month-old seedlings.
SeedlingsEighty-year-old tree; six-month-old seedlings.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); flowers.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); flowers.
FlowersPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); flowers.©Rafael T. Cadiz
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); 1. tree habit
2. flowering twig. 3. pod
TitleLine artwork
CaptionPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); 1. tree habit 2. flowering twig. 3. pod
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); 1. tree habit
2. flowering twig. 3. pod
Line artworkPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood); 1. tree habit 2. flowering twig. 3. podPROSEA Foundation

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pterocarpus indicus Willd.

Preferred Common Name

  • red sandalwood

Other Scientific Names

  • Echinodiscus echinatus Miq.
  • Lingoum echinatum (Pers.) Kuntze
  • Lingoum indicum (Willd.) Kuntze
  • Lingoum rubrum Rumph.
  • Lingoum saxatile Rumph.
  • Lingoum wallichii Pierre
  • Pterocarpus blancoi Merr.
  • Pterocarpus carolinensis Kaneh.
  • Pterocarpus echinata Pers.
  • Pterocarpus klemmei Merr.
  • Pterocarpus obtusatus Miq.
  • Pterocarpus pallidus Blanco
  • Pterocarpus papuanus F. Muell.
  • Pterocarpus pubescens Merr.
  • Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe
  • Pterocarpus wallichii Wight & Arn.
  • Pterocarpus zollingeri Miq.

International Common Names

  • English: amboyna wood; Andaman redwood; Burmese rosewood; Malay paduak; Papua New Guinea rosewood; Philippine mahogany; redwood; smooth narra
  • French: amboine; santal rouge
  • Chinese: zi tan

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: padauk
  • Brunei Darussalam: angsana
  • Fiji: cibicibi; padouk
  • Germany: Rosenholz, Indisches; Sandelholz, Echtes
  • India: narra
  • Indonesia: angsana; angsena; linggod; sena; sono wood; sonokembang
  • Indonesia/Nusa Tenggara: kaya merah
  • Laos: chan deng
  • Malaysia: angsana
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: sano; sena
  • Myanmar: ansanah; pashu-padauk; sena
  • Palau: las
  • Papua New Guinea: New Guinea rosewood
  • Philippines: apalit; naga; nala; narra; smooth narra; vitali
  • Puerto Rico: terocarpo; terocarpus
  • Thailand: duu baan; pradoo; pradoo baan; praduu baan
  • Vietnam: gi[as]ng h[uw][ow]ng

EPPO code

  • PTKIN (Pterocarpus indicus)

Trade name

  • amboyna
  • angsana
  • Burmese rosewood
  • narra
  • rosewood

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Pterocarpus indicus is a large tree, native to tropical and temperate Asia and to parts of the Pacific region. It has been widely introduced due to its many uses as an ornamental, a shade tree, for timber, reforestation, living fences and a windbreak around croplands.

This species has escaped from cultivation and has become naturalized primarily in riverine sites, open lowlands and secondary forests. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of habitats and soils types. P. indicus is a nitrogen-fixing species that nodulates readily and has the potential to alter nutrient inputs and thus suppress native vegetation. It also has a large, rather dense canopy that transforms invaded habitats by replacing or overtopping the natural canopy. It is included on a list of invasive species in Trinidad and Tobago.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Pterocarpus
  •                                     Species: Pterocarpus indicus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. This family includes about 766 genera and 19,500 species growing in a wide variety of climates and habitats (Stevens, 2012). The genus Pterocarpus consists of about 60 species distributed throughout the tropics (The Plant List, 2013). The name Pterocarpus is based on the Greek words ‘pteran’ meaning a wing and ‘karpos’ meaning fruit.

The species P. indicus has a wide distribution range and there is considerable morphological and ecological variation throughout its range (Orwa et al., 2009). Considerable intraspecific variation in morphological characteristics of leaflet, flower, and fruit size and shape has been described for this species. For instance, larger-fruited forms are found in New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (Thomson, 2006).

According to Rojo (1972), P. indicus is divided into two forms, forma indicus (with smooth fruits) and forma echinatus, which has bristle-like prickles. Some authorities consider the forms to be distinct species (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993), as there are other differences (such as tree size) which support the argument that P. indicus f. echinatus should be considered a distinct species. However, this datasheet follows Rojo (1972).

Description

Top of page

The following description is from the Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017):

Tree, 15-25 m tall. Bark greyish. Leaves 15-30 cm; stipules early caducous; petiolules 4-7 mm; rachis and petiolule glabrous; leaflets 5-7(-11), ovate-elliptic, 5-11 x 3.5-5.5 cm, thinly papery, both surfaces glabrous, veins slender, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, base truncate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescence a raceme or panicle, mostly axillary, rarely terminal, 10-18 cm, puberulent. Flowers 1-1.5 cm; bracteoles 2, linear-oblong, at base of calyx. Pedicel 7-10 mm, slender. Calyx campanulate, 4-6 mm, appressed brown silky; teeth broadly triangular, 1 mm, 2 larger than others. Corolla yellow; petals long clawed; standard ovate-orbicular to oblong, crisped at margin; wings oblong, as long as standard; keel narrowly oblong, smaller than wings. Stamens 10, sheath 8-9 mm, vexillary filament free to base, filaments of varying heights; anthers versatile. Ovary shortly stipitate, oblong, 7-8 mm, densely pubescent; ovules 2; style curved; stigma minute. Legume orbicular, 4-4.5 x 3.5-4.5 cm, shortly stalked, flat, slightly hairy and reticulate opposite seed, 1-seeded, broadly winged around margin, wing to 2 cm wide. Seed brownish, reniform, narrow and oblique.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

P. indicus is native to tropical and temperate Asia, Malaysia and to the northern and southwest Pacific region (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; ILDIS, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). This species can be found cultivated and naturalized in Central and South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Asia and on some Pacific islands (e.g. Guam, Hawaii, Fiji, and Samoa) (Thomson, 2006; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ILDIS, 2017). It is unclear whether this species is native or introduced in Singapore (Chong et al., 2009; Barstow, 2018). It is included in a list of invasive alien species in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T Biodiversity, 2017).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

KenyaPresentILDIS (2017)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
MozambiquePresentILDIS (2017)
RéunionPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentILDIS (2017)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
Sierra LeonePresentILDIS (2017)
TanzaniaPresentILDIS (2017)

Asia

BruneiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)Cultivated
IndiaPresentNativeBarstow (2018); ILDIS (2017)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Barstow (2018)
-JavaPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
-SulawesiPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
-SumatraPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
JapanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
LaosPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
-SabahPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
-SarawakPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SingaporePresentNative and IntroducedChong et al. (2009); Barstow (2018)Recorded as both native and introduced
Sri LankaPresentNativeBarstow (2018); ILDIS (2017)Possibly extinct
TaiwanPresentNativeBarstow (2018); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
VietnamPresentNativeBarstow (2018); USDA-ARS (2017)

North America

CubaPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)
El SalvadorPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
HondurasPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedInvasiveT&T Biodiversity (2017)Established and may be invasive
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)Cultivated
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
FijiPresentILDIS (2017)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
GuamPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativeBarstow (2018)
PalauPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SamoaPresentIntroducedThomson (2006)
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Timor-LestePresentNativeBarstow (2018)
VanuatuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

South America

VenezuelaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

P. indicus has been widely introduced across tropical and subtropical regions due to its wide range of uses. Across islands in the Pacific region, this species was apparently introduced after European contact (Thomson, 2006). In 1969, planting of this tree was the mainstay of a tree planting campaign in Singapore (Orwa et al., 2009). In the Caribbean it appears in herbarium collections made in Trinidad in 1928 and in Puerto Rico in the 1950s and 1960s (US National Herbarium).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of new introductions of P. indicus is very high. This species can be easily propagated from seeds, cuttings, grafting and tissue culture and it has the capability to grow in a wide range of habitats and soil types. Additionally, P. indicus is widely promoted as a multipurpose tree, for its wood and as a useful tree in agroforestry systems (Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). However, Thomson (2006) also suggest that it has low potential to invade undisturbed habitats and due to its value as timber, larger trees are likely to be cut down.

Habitat

Top of page

Within its native distribution range, the natural habitat of P. indicus is by the sea and along tidal creeks and rivers. Elsewhere it can be found growing in open forests, secondary forests, slopes, coastal forests, seasonal swamps, and along tidal creeks and rocky shores. It is also cultivated in villages and gardens (Orwa et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; Barstow, 2018).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. indicus is n = 10 (Löve, 1975).

Reproductive Biology

P. indicus has sweet-scented, hermaphroditic, yellow flowers that are produced copiously in panicles and racemes. The flowers are pollinated by insects, primarily by honeybees (Francis, 2004; Orwa et al., 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

P. indicus behaves like a pioneer species and grows best in open areas. The growth rate of P. indicus varies from 1.5 m to 2 m/year during the first 3-4 years and slows to about 1 m per year thereafter (Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). Under favourable environmental conditions, trees in Singapore have been known to grow an average of 33 m in height and 1.55 m in girth in 11 years, or an average annual increment of 1.2 m height and 14 cm girth (Orwa et al., 2009).

The season of flowering varies considerably throughout the distribution range. In the Philippines, P. indicus usually flowers from as early as March to September, but most young fruits develop during April-June, and mature from July to the following January. In other parts of the western Pacific region, flowers occur in October (Francis, 2004; Thomson, 2006). In China, it flowers from March to April and fruits are produced from April to May (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In Borneo and the Malay Peninsula, flowering is mostly in February-May (occasionally in August-November), whereas in Maluku, Caroline Islands, Solomon Islands and New Guinea, it occurs mostly in July-December. The pods mature about 4-6 months after flowering and fall off the trees gradually over several months (Orwa et al., 2009).

Germination rates of 24% and 57% have been reported for this species in the Philippines and Puerto Rico respectively. Seeds may remain viable for more than one year (Francis, 2004; Thomson, 2006). 

Longevity

P. indicus is a perennial, long-lived tree. Trees of 60 years old have been reported in plantations in Malaysia. It usually begins flowering and fruiting when trees are between 5-10 years old (Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009).

Population Size and Structure

Within its native distribution range, P. indicus is listed as Endangered. Populations of this species have declined mainly due to overexploitation, illegal exploitation of the timber, and increasing habitat loss to create more agricultural land (Barstow, 2018).

Subpopulations in Vietnam are considered extinct (Barstow, 2018). Extensive forest surveys in Indonesia and the Philippines indicate that the species is seriously threatened. Overexploitation of the few known stands in Peninsular Malaysia may have caused its extinction there and what are believed to be the largest remaining subpopulations in New Guinea are being heavily exploited (Barstow, 2018).

Associations

As with many other Fabaceae species, P. indicus is a nitrogen-fixing tree that nodulates with Rhizobium bacteria. Within its native range, it occurs naturally with Antiaris toxicaria, Barringtonia spp., Canarium indicum, Castanospermum australe, Dendrocnide spp., Dracontomelon vitiense, Endospermum medullosum and Pangium edule. In New Guinea it commonly occurs with Kingiodendron alternifolium. In the Philippines it occurs with Calophyllum blancoi, Intsia bijuga, Syzygium simile and Vitex parviflora (Thomson, 2006).

Environmental Requirements

P. indicus can be found growing from near sea level to 1300 m above sea level in areas receiving about 900 mm to 4000 mm of mean annual precipitation and with mean annual temperatures ranging from 22°C to 32°C. It prefers to grow in open areas and in well-drained sands, sandy loams and clays with pH ranging from 4 to 7.4. This species can tolerate up to 25% shade and between 4-6 months of prolonged dry season, especially when growing in deeper soils. Trees have a good tolerance of both steady and storm winds and a moderate tolerance of salt spray (Francis, 2004; Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 25 0 1300

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5 8
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 32
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 29 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 18 24

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall9004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Athelia rolfsii Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Coccus longulus Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
Ganoderma lucidum Other/All Stages not specific
Ganoderma philippii Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Hypomeces squamosus Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
Parasa lepida Herbivore Other/All Stages not specific
Phellinus noxius Pathogen Adults not specific
Schizophyllum commune Other/All Stages not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

P. indicus spreads by seeds, which can be dispersed by wind. They also float in water and can be dispersed by waterways and rivers (Orwa et al., 2009).

Intentional Introduction

Worldwide, P. indicus has been intentionally introduced for its wood and for use as an ornamental, a shade tree, for soil stabilization, as a windbreak around food crops and a living fence around pastures (Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosOrnamental and shade tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Crop productionPlanted as windbreak and soil improver (nitrogen fixing) in croplands Yes Yes Thomson, 2006
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscape from cultivation Yes Yes
ForestryPlanted in agroforestry systems Yes Yes Thomson, 2006
Hedges and windbreaksPlanted as windbreak in croplands Yes Yes Thomson, 2006
HorticultureOrnamental, shade tree, windbreaker Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Landscape improvementOrnamental and shade tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Asian medicine Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Timber trade Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes
WaterSeeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
WindSeeds floating in waterways and rivers Yes Yes Thomson, 2006

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

Top of page

P. indicus has large buttresses and a well-developed near-surface lateral rooting structure that creates major hazards in residential areas and across infrastructures such as wall, roads and pavements (Francis, 2004; Thomson, 2006).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

P. indicus is a nitrogen-fixing species with the potential to alter nutrient inputs and thus suppress native vegetation. It also has a large, rather dense canopy that transforms habitats by replacing or overtopping the natural canopy. Its large size and heavy shade inhibits the establishment of native understory species (Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009; PIER, 2017, T&T Biodiversity, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Productive Uses and Management

P. indicus is a commercial species with multiple uses. It is often planted as an ornamental and shade tree. It is also planted to form a boundary and windbreak around food croplands and living fences around pastures. In agroforestry systems it is regarded as a useful tree for bordering croplands due to its inputs of nitrogen-rich leaf fall and its valuable windbreak function (Duke, 1983; Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Economic Value

The reddish hardwood of P. indicus is recognized as an outstanding timber in southern Asia and is listed among the most valuable timbers in the Philippines (>$600/m3). Timber of this species is used for cabinetry, cartwheels, carving, construction, furniture and musical instruments (Duke, 1983; Thomson, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009).

Social Benefit

P. indicus is used in traditional Asian medicine. In Malaysia it is used to treat sores of the mouth, bladder ailments, diarrhoea, dropsy, headache and syphilis. Javanese apply the young leaves to boils, prickly heat and ulcers (Orwa et al., 2009). In the Philippines, herbal teas and pills made from extracts of P. indicus have been popularized for treating a wide range of diseases and ailments including leprosy, menstrual pain, flu, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes (Thomson, 2006).

Environmental Services

The flowers of P. indicus are considered to be an important source of nectar and/or pollen for honeybees. Within its native distribution range, P. indicus grows in the lower reaches of major rivers and in tidal creeks, and plays an important role stabilizing soils in those areas (Thomson, 2006).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Sociocultural value

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Wood Products

Top of page

Furniture

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Veneers

Wood extractives (including oil)

Wood-based materials

  • Laminated wood
  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Marquetry
  • Musical instruments
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

P. indicus is closely related to P. macrocarpus, and it is difficult to distinguish between the two species by leaf and flower morphology alone. The fruits of P. macrocarpus are usually larger, darker and have more pronounced central veins than P. indicus, but where the native ranges merge and at the extremes of natural seed variation, differentiating between the species is difficult. No hybrids have been reported (Francis, 2004).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. In: Smithsonian Contributions to Botany , 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ang LH, 1988. A note on the growth of Pterocarpus indicus in a sixty-year-old plantation in Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1(2):188-189; 4 ref

Asiddao F, Nastor M, 1958. Silvical Characteristics of Narra (Pterocarps indicus Willd.). Silvical Leaflet No. 1. Forest Research Division, Dept. of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry. Manilla, Philippines

Asiddao F, Nastor M, 1961. Silvical characteristics of Smooth Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.). Philippines Journal of Forestry, 17(3/4): 207-214; 25 refs

Baconguis SR, 1991. Evaluation of Leucaena leucocephala de Wit, Tectona grandis Linn., Pterocarpus indicus Willd. and Eucalyptus deglupta Blume for streambank stabilization in the Agusan River Basin. Sylvatrop, 1(1):79-101; 15 ref

Bala HA, 1939. The natival tree of the Philippines. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 2(3):253-258

Barstow M, 2018. Pterocarpus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T33241A2835450. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T33241A2835450.en

Braza RD, 1988. Infestation of narra, Pterocarpus indicus Willd. by psyllids in the Philippines. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 6:63-64

Brown WH, 1921. Minor Products of the Philippine Forest. Vol. II. Manila: Bureau of Printing

Brown WH, 1950. Useful Plants of the Philippines. Volume 2. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Science

Bureau of Forestry, 1931. Notes and jottings from the Bureau of Forestry Plantations. The Makiling Echo, 10(1): 37-41

Cadiz RT, Mizal RB, 1995. Narra (Pterocarpus spp.) RISE - Research Information Series on Ecosystems. College, Laguna Philippines: Ecosystems Research Development Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Calinawan NM, Halos SC, 1981. Shoot development, callus production and root induction of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) as affected by culture medium and irradiation. Sylvatrop, 6(4):165-179; 15 ref

Chin FookHon, 1994. Tar spots in angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.). Leaflet - Forest Pathology Information (Kuching) Sarawak, Malaysia; Pathology Research Unit, Forest Department, No. 1/94:i + 2 pp

Chinte FO, 1939. Efficiency of some packing materials on conserving the vitality of bare-rooted Narra seedlings. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 2(4): 317-327

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Creffield JW, Thornton JD, Johnson GC, Nguyen NK, 1993. An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. IX. Termites and decay on hardwoods at the Walpeup site between 18 and 23 years after installation. Material und Organismen, 28(3):209-235; 28 ref

de Guzman ED, Umali RM, Sotalbo ED, 1986. Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna: Dipterocarps and Non-dipterocarps. Quezon City, Philippines: JMC Press Inc

DENR, 1990. Pest and Disease of Reforestation Species and their Control. DENR Region VIII, Technology Transfer Series, May 1990. College, Laguna Philippines: DENR

DENR, 1994. How to Control Forest Nursery Diseases, DENR, Region IX Techno Transfer Bulletin No. 22. October 1994. College, Laguna Philippines: DENR

Duke JA, 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. USA: Purdue University, Center for New Crops and Plant Products.http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html

Effendi M, Rachmawati I, Sinaga M, 1995. Variation and genetic control of the growth of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild) [Keragaman dan potensi genetik pertumbuhan kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild).]. Santalum, No. 20: 1-8

Effendi M, Rachmawati I, Sinaga M, 1996. Growth performance of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) in relation to volume of growth medium [Penampilan pertumbuhan bibit kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) pada perlakuan volume media tumbuh.]. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang, 1(3): 109-119

Effendi M, Sinaga M, 1994. Phenotypic variation in offspring of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) provenances from Central South Timor. [Variasi phenotip keturunan kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) asal Timor Tengah Selatan.] Santalum, No. 16, 11-24; With English tables and figures; 8 ref

Effendi M, Sinaga M, 1995. Identification of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) seed sources in East Nusa Tenggara [Identifikasi sumber benih kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) di Nusa Tenggara Timur.]. Santalum, No. 19: 9-17

Effendi M, Sinaga M, 1996. The effects of storage duration on seed germination of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) [Pengaruh penyimpanan terhadap perkecambahan benih kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.).]. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang, 1(1): 26-33

Effendi M, Susila WW, 1995. Effect of N fertilizer on growth of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) seedlings at different dosages and ages [Pengaruh pemberian pupuk N terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) pada berbagai tingkat umur.]. Santalum, No. 19: 18-26

Effendi M, Susila WW, Sinaga M, 1996. Effect of age on growth of stumps of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) in the field [Pengaruh umur terhadap pertumbuhan stump kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) di lapangan.]. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang, 1(1): 1-9

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Francis JK, 2004. Pterocarpus indicus. In: Tropical Tree Seed Manual, [ed. by Vozzo JA]. Washington DC, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Heinsleigh TE, Holaway BK, 1988. Agroforestry species for the Philippines. Metro Manila Philippines: US Peace Corps, AJA Printers

ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

Krishnapillay B, Marzalina M, Alang ZC, 1994. Cryopreservation of whole seeds and excised embryos of Pterocarpus indicus. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 7(2):313-322; 12 ref

Löve A, 1975. IOPB chromosome reports L. Taxon, 24, 671-678.

Maun MM, 1980. Effects of stump-planting and fertilization on growth and survival of narra (Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe). Sylvatrop, 5(1):67-72; 6 ref

Merrill ED, 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Multipurpose Tree Species Research Network (Thailand), 1994. Growing multipurpose trees on small farms. Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project. Second edition, li + 315 pp.; 69 ref

Nastor MN, 1957. The effects of Rootone on rootage of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) cuttings. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 13(3/4): 173-183

National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences

Ng FSP, 1992. Pterocarpus indicus - the majestic N-fixing tree. NFT Highlights, No. 92-02:2 pp.; 6 ref

Nurhayati T, Syahri M, 1997. The manufacturing of activated charcoal from 3 kinds of raw materials and its utilization as adsorbent on fried oil purification. [Pembuatan arang aktif dari 3 macam bahan baku dan penggunaannya sebagai penyerap pada pemurnian minyak goreng]. Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan. 15(1): 68-78, English tables., 9 ref

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pilotti CA, Kondo R, Shimizu K, Sakai K, 1995. An examination of the anti-fungal components in the heartwood extracts of Pterocarpus indicus. Mokuzai Gakkaishi = Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society, 41(6):593-597

Quisumbing E, 1951. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Bulletin, No. 16

Quisumbing E, 1978. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Manila: Katha Publishing Co., Inc

Reyes LJ, 1938. Philippine woods. Technical Bulletin, No. 7. Philippines Department of Agriculture and Commerce. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing. pp. 536

Rojo JP, 1972. Pterocarpus (Leguminosae - Papilionaceae) revised for the world. Phanerogamarum Monographiae, Vol. 5. J. Cramer, Lehre. 119 pp

Sajap AS, 1992. A leafminer, Hyloconis sp. on angsana [Pterocarpus indicus in Malaysia]. MAPPS Newsletter, 15(4):52

San Buenaventura P, 1932. Propagation of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd) by cuttings. The Makiling Echo, 1: 8-22

Sanderson R, Fong YokKing, Saiful Anuar, 1997. A fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) of angsana (Pterocarpus indicus) in Singapore. II. Natural resistance of angsana (P. indicus) to F. oxysporum. Arboricultural Journal, 21(3): 205-214

Santos EK, 1954. A preliminary study on the influence of ammonium sulphate on the early development of transplant materials of Narra [Pterocarpus indicus]. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 10(1/4): 61-79

Seeber G, Weidelt HJ, Banaag VS, 1979. Dendrological characters of important forest trees from eastern Mindanao. vi + 440 pp.; 6 pl. GTZ, Schriftenreihe No. 73; 13 ref

Sipayung W, 1988. Potential and promising tree species for firebreaks. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan, 4(1):65-71

Soeda R, Effendi M, Munda T, 1993. Growth of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus) under the effect of Bioferty. Santalum, No. 13, 11-19; 5 ref

Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Su Juan, Wang DeZhen, Fu ShiShen, 1994. Study on phenology of some tree species grown in the tropical arboretum at Jianfengling of Hainan Island. Forest Research, 7(3):294-300

Sundarapandian S, Swamy PS, 1996. Fine root biomass distribution and productivity patterns under open and closed canopies of tropical forest ecosystems at Kodayar in Western Ghats, South India. Forest Ecology and Management, 86(1-3):181-192; 48 ref

Susila IWW, Effendi M, 1995. Effect of soaking and germination medium on seed germination of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) [Pengaruh perendaman dan media kecambah terhadap perkecambahan benih kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.).]. Santalum, No. 20: 25-30

Susila WW, 1991. Log volume estimation models of kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus) for South/Selatan Amanuban Forest District, South Central Timor. [Model taksiran isi dolok kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus) di RPH Amanuban Selatan, Timor Tengah Selatan.] Santalum, No. 6, 15-22; With English figures and tables; 5 ref

T&T Biodiversity, 2017. Lists of Invasive species in Trinidad and Tobago. http://www.biodiversity.gov.tt/home/trinidad-a-tobago-biodiversity/invasive-alien-species.html

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

Thomson LAJ, 2006. Pterocarpus indicus (narra). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, ver. 2.1 [ed. by Elevitch, C. R.]. Holualoa, Hawai'i, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), 17 pp

Uriarte MT, Aurora B, 1994. Recommended Species for Streambank Stabilization. Techno Information Series Supplement Vol. 4. College, Laguna Philippines: ERDS-DENR

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Valencia DM, Umali Garcia M, 1994. Phenotypic variation in Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in Mt. Makiling, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines: a case study. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds, Proceedings: International symposium on genetic conservation and production of tropical forest tree seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 159-164; 6 ref

Widiarti A, Alrasjid H, 1987. Introduction of fuelwood tree species on degraded lands in Paseh and Kadipaten areas. [Penanaman introduksi jenis pohon kayu bakar di lahan kritis paseh dan kadipaten.] Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan, No. 488, 1-17; 9 ref

Yonemori S, Ishigaki C, Aramoto M, Sunakawa S, 1984. Studies on the breeding of subtropical useful trees. (1.) On the germination and [shoot] cutting tests of Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, No. 31, 287-292; En captions and tables; 5 ref

Zabala NQ, 1977. Rooting cuttings and grafting of giant [Leucaena] leucocephala and Pterocarpus indicus. Pterocarpus, 3(2):71-76; 21 ref

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barstow M, 2018. Pterocarpus indicus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018, e.T33241A2835450. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T33241A2835450.en

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

T&T Biodiversity, 2017. Lists of Invasive species in Trinidad and Tobago., http://www.biodiversity.gov.tt/home/trinidad-a-tobago-biodiversity/invasive-alien-species.html

Thomson LAJ, 2006. Pterocarpus indicus (narra). In: Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, ver. 2.1, [ed. by Elevitch CR]. Holualoa, Hawai'i, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR). 17 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

16/06/19 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map