Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Pterocarpus indicus
(red sandalwood)



Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)


  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pterocarpus indicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red sandalwood
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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TitleEighty-year-old tree
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Eighty-year-old tree©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleMature trees
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Mature trees©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleTen-year-old plantation
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Ten-year-old plantation©Rafael T. Cadiz
Six-month-old seedlings.
CaptionSix-month-old seedlings.
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Six-month-old seedlings.
SeedlingsSix-month-old seedlings.©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleFlowering branch
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Flowering branch©Rafael T. Cadiz
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
3. pod
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. tree habit 2. flowering twig 3. pod
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
3. pod
Line artwork1. tree habit 2. flowering twig 3. podPROSEA Foundation


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pterocarpus indicus Willd.

Preferred Common Name

  • red sandalwood


  • Pterocarpus indicus f. echinatus (Pers.) Rojo

Other Scientific Names

  • Echinodiscus echinatus Miq.
  • Pterocarpus blancoi Merr.
  • Pterocarpus echinatus Pers.
  • Pterocarpus klemmei Merr.
  • Pterocarpus obtusatus Miq.
  • Pterocarpus pallidus Blanco
  • Pterocarpus papuanus F. Muell.
  • Pterocarpus pubescens Merr.
  • Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe
  • Pterocarpus wallichii Wight & Arn.
  • Pterocarpus zollingeri Miq.

International Common Names

  • English: amboyna; Malay paduak; padauk; redwood; smooth narra
  • French: amboine; santal rouge

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: padauk
  • Brunei Darussalam: angsana
  • Germany: Rosenholz, Indisches; Sandelholz, Echtes
  • Indonesia: angsana; angsena; linggod; sena; sono wood; sonokembang
  • Indonesia/Nusa Tenggara: kaya merah
  • Laos: chan deng
  • Malaysia: angsana
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: sano; sena
  • Myanmar: ansanah; padouk; sena
  • Papua New Guinea: New Guinea rosewood
  • Philippines: apalit; naga; nala; narra; smooth narra; vitali
  • Thailand: pradoo baan; pradu; pradu-ban
  • Vietnam: gi[as]ng h[uw][ow]ng

EPPO code

  • PTKIN (Pterocarpus indicus)

Trade name

  • amboyna
  • angsana
  • Burmese rosewood
  • narra
  • rosewood

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Pterocarpus
  •                                     Species: Pterocarpus indicus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes


Brunei DarussalamPresent Natural
CambodiaPresent Natural
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HainanPresent Planted
IndiaPresentPlanted, Natural
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentPlanted, Natural
-KeralaPresent Planted
IndonesiaPresentPlanted, Natural
-JavaPresent Natural
-KalimantanPresent Natural
-MoluccasPresent Natural
-SulawesiPresentPlanted, Natural
-SumatraPresent Natural
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresent Planted
LaosPresent Natural
MalaysiaUnconfirmed recordSajap, 1992
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Natural
-SabahPresent Natural
-SarawakPresentPlanted, Natural
PhilippinesUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalBraza, 1988
SingaporeUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
Sri LankaPresent Planted
TaiwanPresent Planted
ThailandPresentPlanted, Natural
VietnamPresent Natural


EthiopiaPresent Planted
TanzaniaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ZanzibarPresent Planted

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent Planted
-GeorgiaPresent Planted

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresent Planted
HondurasPresent Planted
Puerto RicoPresent Planted
Trinidad and TobagoPresent Planted


AustraliaPresent Planted
FijiPresentPlanted, Natural
Papua New GuineaPresentPlanted, Natural
Solomon IslandsPresent Planted


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Ang LH, 1988. A note on the growth of Pterocarpus indicus in a sixty-year-old plantation in Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1(2):188-189; 4 ref.

Asiddao F; Nastor M, 1958. Silvical Characteristics of Narra (Pterocarps indicus Willd.). Silvical Leaflet No. 1. Forest Research Division, Dept. of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry. Manilla, Philippines.

Asiddao F; Nastor M, 1961. Silvical characteristics of Smooth Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.). Philippines Journal of Forestry, 17(3/4): 207-214; 25 refs.

Baconguis SR, 1991. Evaluation of Leucaena leucocephala de Wit, Tectona grandis Linn., Pterocarpus indicus Willd. and Eucalyptus deglupta Blume for streambank stabilization in the Agusan River Basin. Sylvatrop, 1(1):79-101; 15 ref.

Bala HA, 1939. The natival tree of the Philippines. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 2(3):253-258.

Braza RD, 1988. Infestation of narra, Pterocarpus indicus Willd. by psyllids in the Philippines. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 6:63-64

Brown WH, 1921. Minor Products of the Philippine Forest. Vol. II. Manila: Bureau of Printing.

Brown WH, 1950. Useful Plants of the Philippines. Volume 2. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Science.

Bureau of Forestry, 1931. Notes and jottings from the Bureau of Forestry Plantations. The Makiling Echo, 10(1): 37-41.

Cadiz RT; Mizal RB, 1995. Narra (Pterocarpus spp.) RISE - Research Information Series on Ecosystems. College, Laguna Philippines: Ecosystems Research Development Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

Calinawan NM; Halos SC, 1981. Shoot development, callus production and root induction of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) as affected by culture medium and irradiation. Sylvatrop, 6(4):165-179; 15 ref.

Chin FookHon, 1994. Tar spots in angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.). Leaflet - Forest Pathology Information (Kuching) Sarawak, Malaysia; Pathology Research Unit, Forest Department, No. 1/94:i + 2 pp.

Chinte FO, 1939. Efficiency of some packing materials on conserving the vitality of bare-rooted Narra seedlings. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 2(4): 317-327.

Creffield JW; Thornton JD; Johnson GC; Nguyen NK, 1993. An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. IX. Termites and decay on hardwoods at the Walpeup site between 18 and 23 years after installation. Material und Organismen, 28(3):209-235; 28 ref.

de Guzman ED; Umali RM; Sotalbo ED, 1986. Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna: Dipterocarps and Non-dipterocarps. Quezon City, Philippines: JMC Press Inc.

DENR, 1990. Pest and Disease of Reforestation Species and their Control. DENR Region VIII, Technology Transfer Series, May 1990. College, Laguna Philippines: DENR.

DENR, 1994. How to Control Forest Nursery Diseases, DENR, Region IX Techno Transfer Bulletin No. 22. October 1994. College, Laguna Philippines: DENR.

Effendi M; Rachmawati I; Sinaga M, 1995. Variation and genetic control of the growth of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild) [Keragaman dan potensi genetik pertumbuhan kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild).]. Santalum, No. 20: 1-8.

Effendi M; Rachmawati I; Sinaga M, 1996. Growth performance of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) in relation to volume of growth medium [Penampilan pertumbuhan bibit kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) pada perlakuan volume media tumbuh.]. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang, 1(3): 109-119.

Effendi M; Sinaga M, 1994. Phenotypic variation in offspring of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) provenances from Central South Timor. [Variasi phenotip keturunan kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) asal Timor Tengah Selatan.] Santalum, No. 16, 11-24; With English tables and figures; 8 ref.

Effendi M; Sinaga M, 1995. Identification of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) seed sources in East Nusa Tenggara [Identifikasi sumber benih kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) di Nusa Tenggara Timur.]. Santalum, No. 19: 9-17.

Effendi M; Sinaga M, 1996. The effects of storage duration on seed germination of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) [Pengaruh penyimpanan terhadap perkecambahan benih kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.).]. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang, 1(1): 26-33.

Effendi M; Susila WW, 1995. Effect of N fertilizer on growth of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) seedlings at different dosages and ages [Pengaruh pemberian pupuk N terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) pada berbagai tingkat umur.]. Santalum, No. 19: 18-26.

Effendi M; Susila WW; Sinaga M, 1996. Effect of age on growth of stumps of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) in the field [Pengaruh umur terhadap pertumbuhan stump kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) di lapangan.]. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan Kupang, 1(1): 1-9.

Heinsleigh TE; Holaway BK, 1988. Agroforestry species for the Philippines. Metro Manila Philippines: US Peace Corps, AJA Printers.

Krishnapillay B; Marzalina M; Alang ZC, 1994. Cryopreservation of whole seeds and excised embryos of Pterocarpus indicus. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 7(2):313-322; 12 ref.

Maun MM, 1980. Effects of stump-planting and fertilization on growth and survival of narra (Pterocarpus vidalianus Rolfe). Sylvatrop, 5(1):67-72; 6 ref.

Merrill ED, 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing.

Multipurpose Tree Species Research Network (Thailand), 1994. Growing multipurpose trees on small farms. Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project. Second edition, li + 315 pp.; 69 ref.

Nastor MN, 1957. The effects of Rootone on rootage of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) cuttings. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 13(3/4): 173-183.

National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

Ng FSP, 1992. Pterocarpus indicus - the majestic N-fixing tree. NFT Highlights, No. 92-02:2 pp.; 6 ref.

Nurhayati T; Syahri M, 1997. The manufacturing of activated charcoal from 3 kinds of raw materials and its utilization as adsorbent on fried oil purification. [Pembuatan arang aktif dari 3 macam bahan baku dan penggunaannya sebagai penyerap pada pemurnian minyak goreng]. Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan. 15(1): 68-78, English tables., 9 ref.

Pilotti CA; Kondo R; Shimizu K; Sakai K, 1995. An examination of the anti-fungal components in the heartwood extracts of Pterocarpus indicus. Mokuzai Gakkaishi = Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society, 41(6):593-597

Quisumbing E, 1951. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Bulletin, No. 16.

Quisumbing E, 1978. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Manila: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.

Reyes LJ, 1938. Philippine woods. Technical Bulletin, No. 7. Philippines Department of Agriculture and Commerce. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing. pp. 536.

Rojo JP, 1972. Pterocarpus (Leguminosae - Papilionaceae) revised for the world. Phanerogamarum Monographiae, Vol. 5. J. Cramer, Lehre. 119 pp.

Sajap AS, 1992. A leafminer, Hyloconis sp. on angsana [Pterocarpus indicus in Malaysia]. MAPPS Newsletter, 15(4):52

San Buenaventura P, 1932. Propagation of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd) by cuttings. The Makiling Echo, 1: 8-22.

Sanderson R; Fong YokKing; Saiful Anuar, 1997. A fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) of angsana (Pterocarpus indicus) in Singapore. II. Natural resistance of angsana (P. indicus) to F. oxysporum. Arboricultural Journal, 21(3): 205-214.

Santos EK, 1954. A preliminary study on the influence of ammonium sulphate on the early development of transplant materials of Narra [Pterocarpus indicus]. Philippines Journal of Forestry, 10(1/4): 61-79.

Seeber G; Weidelt HJ; Banaag VS, 1979. Dendrological characters of important forest trees from eastern Mindanao. vi + 440 pp.; 6 pl. GTZ, Schriftenreihe No. 73; 13 ref.

Sipayung W, 1988. Potential and promising tree species for firebreaks. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan, 4(1):65-71

Soeda R; Effendi M; Munda T, 1993. Growth of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus) under the effect of Bioferty. Santalum, No. 13, 11-19; 5 ref.

Soerianegara I; Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610.

Su Juan; Wang DeZhen; Fu ShiShen, 1994. Study on phenology of some tree species grown in the tropical arboretum at Jianfengling of Hainan Island. Forest Research, 7(3):294-300.

Sundarapandian S; Swamy PS, 1996. Fine root biomass distribution and productivity patterns under open and closed canopies of tropical forest ecosystems at Kodayar in Western Ghats, South India. Forest Ecology and Management, 86(1-3):181-192; 48 ref.

Susila IWW; Effendi M, 1995. Effect of soaking and germination medium on seed germination of redwood (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.) [Pengaruh perendaman dan media kecambah terhadap perkecambahan benih kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus Wild.).]. Santalum, No. 20: 25-30.

Susila WW, 1991. Log volume estimation models of kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus) for South/Selatan Amanuban Forest District, South Central Timor. [Model taksiran isi dolok kayu merah (Pterocarpus indicus) di RPH Amanuban Selatan, Timor Tengah Selatan.] Santalum, No. 6, 15-22; With English figures and tables; 5 ref.

Thomson LAJ, 2006. Pterocarpus indicus (narra). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, ver. 2.1 [ed. by Elevitch, C. R.]. Holualoa, Hawai'i, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), 17 pp.

Uriarte MT; Aurora B, 1994. Recommended Species for Streambank Stabilization. Techno Information Series Supplement Vol. 4. College, Laguna Philippines: ERDS-DENR.

Valencia DM; Umali Garcia M, 1994. Phenotypic variation in Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in Mt. Makiling, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines: a case study. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds, Proceedings: International symposium on genetic conservation and production of tropical forest tree seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 159-164; 6 ref.

Widiarti A; Alrasjid H, 1987. Introduction of fuelwood tree species on degraded lands in Paseh and Kadipaten areas. [Penanaman introduksi jenis pohon kayu bakar di lahan kritis paseh dan kadipaten.] Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan, No. 488, 1-17; 9 ref.

Yonemori S; Ishigaki C; Aramoto M; Sunakawa S, 1984. Studies on the breeding of subtropical useful trees. (1.) On the germination and [shoot] cutting tests of Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, No. 31, 287-292; En captions and tables; 5 ref.

Zabala NQ, 1977. Rooting cuttings and grafting of giant [Leucaena] leucocephala and Pterocarpus indicus. Pterocarpus, 3(2):71-76; 21 ref.

Distribution Maps

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