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Datasheet

Aleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aleurothrixus floccosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • woolly whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pupal case of A. flocosus (ventral side-top; dorsal side-bottom). Scale bar: 0.2 mm.
TitleLine artwork of pupal case
CaptionPupal case of A. flocosus (ventral side-top; dorsal side-bottom). Scale bar: 0.2 mm.
CopyrightD. Mifsud
Pupal case of A. flocosus (ventral side-top; dorsal side-bottom). Scale bar: 0.2 mm.
Line artwork of pupal casePupal case of A. flocosus (ventral side-top; dorsal side-bottom). Scale bar: 0.2 mm.D. Mifsud
Detail of vasiform orifice. Scale bar: 0.1 mm.
TitleLine artwork of Vasiform orifice
CaptionDetail of vasiform orifice. Scale bar: 0.1 mm.
CopyrightD. Mifsud
Detail of vasiform orifice. Scale bar: 0.1 mm.
Line artwork of Vasiform orificeDetail of vasiform orifice. Scale bar: 0.1 mm.D. Mifsud

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1895)

Preferred Common Name

  • woolly whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurodes floccosa Maskell, 1895
  • Aleurothrixus horridus (Hempel) Quaintance & Baker, 1914
  • Aleurothrixus howardi (Quaintance) Quaintance & Baker, 1914
  • Aleyrodes horridus Hempel, 1899
  • Aleyrodes howardi Quaintance, 1907

International Common Names

  • English: citrus whitefly; flocculent whitefly
  • Spanish: mosca blanca algodonosa de los citros; mosca blanca de los citros; mosca blanca lanuda; mosca blanca lanuda de los citros
  • Portuguese: mosca branca dos citros; mosquinha-branca-dos-citrinos; piolho farinhento

EPPO code

  • ALTHFL (Aleurothrixus floccosus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Aleurothrixus
  •                                         Species: Aleurothrixus floccosus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Aleurothrixus floccosus was first described by Maskell in 1895 from specimens taken on Guaiacum officinale. It is a very characteristic whitefly species and is difficult to misidentify. Martin (1987) has provided an identification key for the common whitefly pests in the world. It should be noted that considerable variation in pupal pigmentation has been observed, and that parasitoids that attack pale pupal cases will not attack dark ones. This suggests that there may be a species complex present that requires further research.

Description

Top of page

Passos de Carvalho (1994) provides many photographs of A. floccosus in Madeira.

Eggs

Eggs are very small, less than 0.2 mm in length. Usually eggs are laid in circles or semicircles. In this manner it is easier to detect the egg stages which are usually also accompanied by an area of waxy dust.

Nymphs

A. floccosus goes through four nymphal instars, the last of which becomes the pupal stage. The nymphal stages are very similar to each other and differ mainly in size. Nymphs secrete a woolly covering of rather dirty-looking, flocculent white wax. Under the wax covering, the nymphs may be pale yellow or, in some populations, brown (see comments under Taxonomy and Nomenclature).

Pupae

The puparium is the most important stage for identification. It is elongate in form, usually of a light-cream colour, but very rarely black individuals can also be found. The length varies from 0.8 to 0.92 mm and the width is 0.55-0.65 mm. Patti and Rapisarda (1981) described the pupa of A. floccosus in detail.

Adults

As with most whitefly species, adults are not used for identification, only pupal cases being used for such a purpose. Adult whiteflies are usually white, always winged, with waxy secretions on their bodies, offering few diagnostic features for identification purposes. Passos de Carvalho (1994) provides photographs of adult morphology.

Cassino et al. (1999) provides an identification key to six species of Aleyrodidae, including A. floccosus, associated with Citrus species in Brazil.

Distribution

Top of page A. floccosus appears to be of neotropical origin, because it is widely distributed in South America where most of its natural enemies are also found. From this region A. floccosus possibly moved northwards to the USA and eastwards to the Canary Islands and West Africa. In the early 1970s A. floccosus was reported in Spain and southern France, and it was later recorded in Morocco, Portugal, Italy and Malta, thus having invaded the western and southern Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East (Mound and Halsey, 1978; Liotta and Maniglia, 1983; Barbagallo et al., 1986).

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. floccosus from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the List of countries (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
IranPresentEPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentArgov, 1994; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentKfoury et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentSalinas et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentÖzer and Kismali, 2003; Özturk and Ulusoy, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBerkani and Dridi, 1992; EPPO, 2014
AngolaPresentEPPO, 2014
BeninPresentEPPO, 2014
BurundiPresentEPPO, 2014
CongoPresentEPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentVulic and Beltran, 1977; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentEPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentBink-Moenen, 1983; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentIntroduced1970s Invasive Bink-Moenen, 1983; IPPC-Secretariat, 2005; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresentBink-Moenen, 1983; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentAbbassi, 1975; EPPO, 2014
NigerPresentBink-Moenen, 1983
NigeriaPresentEPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentMound and Halsey, 1978; Russell and Etienne, 1985; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentEPPO, 2014
Saint HelenaPresentEPPO, 2014
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentPiedade-Guerreiro, 1984; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionGiliomee and Millar, 2009; IPPC, 2010; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
TogoPresentEPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentChermiti et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentEPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentEPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentEPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentMiklasiewicz and Walker, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentEPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentAnon, 1981; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentAnon, 1981; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentEPPO, 2014
BarbadosPresentEPPO, 2014
BelizePresentEPPO, 2014
Costa RicaPresentEPPO, 2014
CubaPresentEPPO, 2014
DominicaPresentEPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
El SalvadorPresentEPPO, 2014
GuadeloupePresentEPPO, 2014
HaitiPresentEPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentEPPO, 2014
MartiniquePresentEPPO, 2014
PanamaPresentEPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentEPPO, 2014
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentEPPO, 2014
-AmazonasPresentEPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-CearaPresentEPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentEPPO, 2014
-MaranhaoPresentEPPO, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentEPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParaibaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentEPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO, 2014
ChilePresentEPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentEPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresentEPPO, 2014
French GuianaPresentEPPO, 2014
GuyanaPresentEPPO, 2014
ParaguayPresentEPPO, 2014
PeruPresentEPPO, 2014
SurinamePresentEPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentEPPO, 2014

Europe

CroatiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; Simala et al., 2015
CyprusPresent
FranceRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentEPPO, 2014
GreecePresentAnagnou-Veroniki et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentGenduso and Liotta, 1980; Patti and Rapisarda, 1981; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
MaltaWidespreadMifsud, 1995; Mifsud, 1997; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentMagalhaes, 1980; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentEPPO, 2014
UKPresentMalumphy, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentEPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Aleurothrixus floccosus is mainly transported via infested plant material and it is thus recommended that phytosanitary measures should be enforced to limit further spread of the insect.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Aleurothrixus floccosus can be regarded as a polyphagous whitefly species, having been recorded on more than twenty different plant genera of various families (Mound and Halsey, 1978). However, in the Mediterranean region where the whitefly was introduced, it infests almost exclusively species of the genus Citrus.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
AnacardiumAnacardiaceaeOther
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeWild host
Baccharis genistelloidesAsteraceaeWild host
BougainvilleaNyctaginaceaeWild host
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Coccoloba uvifera (seaside grape)PolygonaceaeWild host
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeWild host
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeWild host
Gloriosa superba (glory lily)LiliaceaeWild host
Guaiacum officinale (lignum vitae)ZygophyllaceaeWild host
Licania tomentosaChrysobalanaceaeWild host
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeWild host
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Triplaris surinamensisPolygonaceaeWild host

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Leaf undersides are coated with immature stages covered with off-white flocculent wax and honeydew droplets. Surfaces below colonies are sticky with excreted honeydew, on which black sooty mould often develops. The white adults fly about actively when disturbed. Dense colnies on young citrus leaves cause some slight rolling of the leaf. Passos de Carvalho (1994) provides photographs of infestations in Madeira.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The biology and ecology of Aleurothrixus floccosus has been extensively studied, especially where it has been introduced as a pest on Citrus spp. (Onillon, 1969, 1970; Onillon and Abbassi, 1973). A. floccosus goes through 4-6 generations every year, with hibernation of the various nymphal stages during the winter. The number of generations per year is very dependent on ambient climatic parameters. At constant temperatures of 17°C, 22°C, 27°C and 30°C it was shown that development from egg stage to adult stage took 80 days, 45 days, 30 days and 28 days, respectively. At higher temperatures death rates of eggs and nymphs are very high and at lower temperatures development is slower.

In Mediterranean environments the species has an almost continuous development, showing many generations per year. The life cycle slows down during the warmest and the coldest periods of the year, and as a consequence the population of the insect is represented by all stages. The highest densities of the insect are observed in spring and autumn.

Reproduction is sexual. Eggs are laid in circles or semicircles on leaf undersides. The female inserts her mouthparts into the leaf underside and then rotates while depositing eggs. Newly hatched crawlers move a short distance before settling to feed. There are four immature instars that are sessile. The fourth-instar 'pupa' stops feeding and undergoes metamorphosis. The winged adults are the main dispersive stage. Ants and other insects may be attracted to the colonies by the sweet honeydew excreted.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amitus spiniferus Parasite Nymphs California; Chile; France; Reunion; Sicily; Spain Citrus
Aschersonia aleyrodis Pathogen Cuba Citrus
Cales noacki Parasite Nymphs California; Chile; France; Indian Islands; Reunion; Israel; Italy; Italy; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Peru; Portugal; Spain; Tunisia Citrus
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator
Clitostethus arcuatus Predator
Conwentzia psociformis Predator
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Delphastus pusillus Predator Israel
Encarsia americana Parasite Adults/Nymphs Honduras Citrus sinensis
Encarsia brasiliensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia meritoria Parasite Italy
Encarsia porteri Parasite Nymphs
Eretmocerus eremicus Parasite Cuba Citrus
Eretmocerus haldemani Parasite
Eretmocerus paulistis Parasite Nymphs
Eretmocerus paulistus Parasite California; Cuba; Spain Citrus
Euderomphale flavimedia Parasite Cuba Citrus
Euseius stipulatus Predator
Nephaspis oculata Predator
Serangium parcesetosum Predator Israel
Typhlodromus phialatus Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page In the Neotropical region, Aleurothrixus floccosus is effectively controlled by numerous naturally occurring parasitoids; the most important of these is Cales noacki, which has been successfully introduced into the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions as a biological control agent of A. floccosus. It is likely that C. noacki has spread into other Mediterranean countries without deliberate introduction. However, C. noacki does not attack heavily pigmented pupae (see comment under Taxonomy and Nomenclature).

The effect of various predators has also been studied to some extent. These generic predators which adapt themselves to new prey are mainly represented by Neuroptera and Coccinellidae; however, they were only of secondary importance in controlling A. floccosus populations in Italy (Longo et al., 1985). A very thorough coverage of the biology of A. floccosus in Madeira is given by Passos de Carvalho (1994).

Impact

Top of page As with most whitefly species, A. floccosus affects the host plant by the suction of sap from the infested young leaves. High infestations can be detrimental to young plants. Indirect damage is also caused by the large amount of honeydew produced by the nymphs. Nymphs of A. floccosus also produce large amounts of waxy filaments which stick to the honeydew, thus forming a continuous coat on the underside of the leaves, hardly permeable to insecticides and giving some form of protection to the whitefly nymphs. Another type of indirect damage is the formation of sooty moulds on the honeydew which impairs the photosynthetic process of the plant part affected.

It is difficult to assess the economic impact of A. floccosus where it has been introduced as a pest on Citrus spp. During the initial introduction of the pest in the new geographical regions the damage caused was substantial. This was mainly the result of dense populations of insects on the leaf undersides producing copious honeydew and waxy filaments on which black sooty moulds grew. This interfered with the normal physiological activity of the host plant, and in the case of nurseries, young citrus trees were severely affected. However, the establishment of a number of introduced natural enemies effectively controlled the pest and the economic impact was very much reduced.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Detection of Aleurothrixus floccosus is achieved by looking carefully at the undersides of leaves (especially young leaves). In high infestations, the insect is easy to locate because of the copious flocculent white wax and honeydew produced by the nymphs. This can also be covered by black sooty moulds. Eggs are more difficult to detect because of their small size. However, the fact that they are usually laid in semicircular or circular patterns facilitates their detection.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Biological Control

The most important contributions to controlling A. floccosus have been through biological control programmes. In several Mediterranean countries where the pest was introduced, two species of hymenopteran parasitoids, Amitus spiniferus (Platygasteridae) and Cales noacki (Aphelinidae), were introduced. In the northern regions A. spiniferus became well established and showed appreciable parasitic activity (see, for example, Arzone and Vidano, 1983). C. noacki was better able to adapt itself wherever it was introduced, reaching high parasitization levels on the whitefly nymphs everywhere (see, for example, Longo et al., 1985). In citrus groves where chemical control was not applied, C. noacki was found to parasitize 99% of A. floccosus young stages, thus depressing the whitefly populations to very low levels throughout the year. C. noacki development may slow down with the high temperatures and low relative humidities of summer in such a way that high infestations of the whitefly may occur towards late summer-early autumn. This increase of the pest whitefly population is, however, controlled again as conditions favour the development of C. noacki. However, C. noacki does not attack populations with heavily pigmented nymphs and pupae (see comment under Taxonomy and Nomenclature).

In 1996 an attempt was made to control A. floccosus in Uganda by introduction of C. noacki. It was successfully imported and was reported to be established in field cages (IIBC, 1997). C. noacki and A. spiniferus were introduced in Sicily for use in biological control of A. floccosus in Citrus groves; parasitization levels of over 70% were achieved in the release area (Liotta et al., 2003). C. noacki has also been used in the control of A. floccosus in Malawi (Ching'oma et al., 2008).

References

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Abbassi M, 1975. The presence in Morocco of a new species of Aleyrodid Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell. (Homoptera, Aleurodidae). Bulletin SROP [Section Regionale Ouest Palearctique], No.5:173-176

Abbassi M; Onillon JC, 1973. La Mouche blanche flocconneuse, Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. ravageur dangereux pour l'Agrumiculture marocaine. Maroc Fruits, 441:1-3.

Anagnou-Veroniki M; Papaioannou-Souliotis P; Karanastasi E; Giannopolitis CN, 2008. New records of plant pests and weeds in Greece, 1990-2007. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 1(2):55-78. http://www.bpi.gr

Argov Y, 1994. The woolly whitefly, a new pest in Israel. Alon Hanotea, 48(6):290-292

Arzone A; Vidano C, 1983. Indagini sui parassiti di Aleurothrixus floccosus in Liguria. Informatore Fitopatologico, 33(6):11-18.

Barbagallo S; Longo S; Rapisarda C, 1986. White-flies and psyllids injurious to citrus. In: Cavalloro R, Martino E di, eds. Proceedings of the Experts' Meeting on Integrated Pest Control in Citrus Groves, 26-29 March 1985. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 89-98.

Berkani A; Dridi B, 1992. Presence in Algeria of Parabemisia myricae Kuwana (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a pest species of Citrus. Fruits (Paris), 47(4):539-540

Bink-Moenen RM, 1983. Revision of the African whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), mainly based on a collection from Tchad. Revision of the African whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), mainly based on a collection from Tchad. Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging Amsterdam Netherlands, 210 pp.

Carvalho JPde, 1994. The citrus whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1895) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). A mosquinha-branca-dos-citrinos ^italic~Aleurothrixus floccosus^roman~ (Maskell, 1895) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)., 102 pp.; 98 ref.

Cassino PCR; Nascimento FN, 1999. Aleyrodids (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on citrus trees in Brazil: distribution and identification. (Aleirodídeos (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) em plantas cítricas no Brasil: distribuição e identificação.) Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 28(1):75-83.

Chermiti B; Onillon JC; Dali M; Messelmani H, 1993. Control of the woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hom., Aleurodidae) by the parasitoid, Cales noacki (Hymenopt., Aphelinidae). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(7):86-98

Ching'oma GP, 2008. A report on the Citrus Woolly Whitefly control activities in Malawi (Mwanza and Neno). In: Plant protection progress report for the 2007/2008 season, presented at the Department of Agricultural Research Services Planning and Review Meeting, Andrews Hotel, Mangochi, 14-20 September, 2008 [ed. by Theu, M. P. K. J.]. Lilongwe, Malawi: Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, 88-89.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Genduso P; Liotta G, 1976. Presence of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) (Hom. Aleyrodidae) on citrus in Sicily. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia Agraria e dell'Osservatorio di Fitopatologia di Palermo, 10:205-211

Giliomee JH; Millar IM, 2009. The woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a potentially serious citrus pest, recorded from South Africa. African Entomology, 17(2):232-233. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

IPPC, 2010. Pest status of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) in South Africa. IPPC Official Pest Report, ZAF-04/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/index.php?id=1110520&no_cache=1&type=pestreport&L=0

IPPC-Secretariat, 2005. Identification of risks and management of invasive alien species using the IPPC framework. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. xii + 301 pp.

Kfoury L; Abdul-Nour H; El-Amil R, 2003. The Aleurodes on citrus in Lebanon: rational survey and new introduced species (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha). (Les Aleurodes des agrumes au Liban: inventaire raisonné et nouvelles espèces introduites (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha).) Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 20(4):345-351.

Liotta G; Agrò A; Pinto Mlo, 2003. Biological control in citrus groves in the last 50 years: three successful cases in Western Sicily. Bulletin OILB/SROP ['Integrated control in citrus fruit crops'. Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group, Valencia, Spain, 6-8 November, 2002.], 26(6):171-173.

Liotta G; Maniglia G; 1983 Introduzione, allevamento e diffusione di nemici naturali indigeni ed esotici di Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask. ) (Hom., Aleyrodidae). II. Ruolo di Cales noacki How. (Hym., Aphelinidae) nel controllo di Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) in Sicilia. Phytophaga, No. 1:133-142.

Longo S; Rapisarda C; Russo A, 1985. Results of the biological control of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) in citrus orchards of eastern Sicily. Atti XIV Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia sotto gli auspici dell'Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, della Societa Entomologica Italiana e della International Union of Biological Sciences. Palermo - Erice - Bagheria, 28 maggio-1 giugno 1985 Palermo, Italy; Accademia Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia, 841-848

Magalhps GS, 1980. Note on the introduction of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) (Homoptera, Aleurodidae) in south Portugal and its control by Cales noacki How. (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). In: ProceedingsInternational symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestryVienna, ed. Workshop sessions. International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section. Vienna Austria, 572-573

Magalhps GS, 1980. Note on the introduction of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) (Homoptera, Aleurodidae) in south Portugal and its control by Cales noacki How. (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). In: ProceedingsInternational symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestryVienna, ed. Workshop sessions. International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section. Vienna Austria, 572-573

Malumphy C, 1995. Woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a pest of ornamental Citrus, new to Britain. Entomologist's Gazette, 46(3):217-220

Martin JH, 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Tropical Pest Management, 33(4):298-322.

Mifsud D, 1995. Whiteflies of the Maltese Islands (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). The Central Mediterranean Naturalist, Malta, 2(3):61-78.

Mifsud D, 1997. Biological control in the Maltese Islands - past initiatives and future programmes. Bulletin OEPP, 27(1):77-84; 25 ref.

Miklasiewicz TJ; Walker GP, 1990. Population dynamics and biological control of the woolly whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on citrus. Environmental Entomology, 19(5):1485-1490

Mound LA; Halsey SH, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Onillon JC, 1969. Concerning the presence in France of a new species of Aleurodid injurious to Citrus, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell (Homopt. Aleurodidae). Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 55(13):937-940

Onillon JC, 1970. First observations on the biology of Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. (Homopt. Aleurodidae) in the south-east of France. Awamia, 37:105-109

Onillon JC; Abbassi M, 1973. Notes bio-ecologiques sur l'aleurode floconneux des agrumes Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. (Homopt., Aleurodidae) et moyens de lutte. Al-Awamia, 49:99-117.

Patti I; Rapisarda C, 1981. Findings on the morphology and biology of aleyrodids injurious to cultivated plants in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 16:135-190.

Piedade-Guerreiro J, 1984. Report on the presence of Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) in Sao Tome. Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia, 2-39(69):529-538

Russell LM; Etienne J, 1985. A list of the Aleyrodidae of the Island of Reunion. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 87(1):202-206

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