Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Alternaria solani
(early blight of potato and tomato)



Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato)


  • Last modified
  • 14 February 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria solani
  • Preferred Common Name
  • early blight of potato and tomato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
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    CAB International
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  • Distribution map More information

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Symptoms on okra leaf.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionSymptoms on okra leaf.
CopyrightM. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on okra leaf.
Field symptomsSymptoms on okra leaf.M. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on tomato leaves.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionSymptoms on tomato leaves.
CopyrightM. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on tomato leaves.
Field symptomsSymptoms on tomato leaves.M. Rutherford/CABI BioScience


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria solani Sorauer

Preferred Common Name

  • early blight of potato and tomato

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria dauci f.sp. solani
  • Alternaria porri f.sp. solani
  • Macrosporium solani Ell. & G.Martin

International Common Names

  • English: alternaria blight; dry blight of potato and tomato; early blight: eggplant; early blight: potato; early blight: tomato; target spot: tomato
  • Spanish: alternariosis de la papa y tomate; tizon temprano; tizon temprano de las papas
  • French: alternaria des solanacees; alternariose de la chicoree; alternariose de la pomme de terre et de la tomate; brulure alternarienne de la pomme de terre; brulure alternarienne de la tomate; taches foliaires larges

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattfleckenkrankheit: Eierfrucht; Blattfleckenkrankheit: Tomate; Duerrfleckenkrankheit: Kartoffel; Hartfaeule: Kartoffel

EPPO code

  • ALTESO (Alternaria solani)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria solani

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
CameroonPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1983)


AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BahrainPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-HaryanaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-LakshadweepPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-PunjabPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Irian JayaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-SumatraPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
KuwaitPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MongoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
NepalPresentIPPC (2005); UK, CAB International (1983)
OmanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
PakistanPresentAkhtar et al. (2011); UK, CAB International (1983)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
TurkmenistanPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1983)


AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
IcelandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-SardiniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983);
-SiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Channel IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1983)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-OntarioPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
DominicaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
MontserratPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Saint LuciaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-ColoradoPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-IdahoPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-NebraskaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-New YorkPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-OregonPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WashingtonPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-WisconsinPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)


AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
French PolynesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Norfolk IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BoliviaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Santa CatarinaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
ColombiaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated); UK, CAB International (1983)
EcuadorPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1983)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1983)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1983)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aureobasidium pullulans Antagonist
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist


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Abuley, I. K., Nielsen, B. J., Bødker, L., Nielsen, G. C., 2017. Timing the application of fungicides to control potato early blight (Alternaria solani) in multi-location field trials in Denmark. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark [Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M. ]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Applied Arable and Vegetable Research (Praktijkonderzoek AGV). 103-108.

Akhtar KP, Sarwar N, Saleem MY, Asghar M, 2011. Convolvulus arvensis, a new host for Alternaria solani causing early blight of Solanum lycopersicum in Pakistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):84-86.

Bartlett, D. W., Clough, J. M., Godwin, J. R., Hall, A. A., Hamer, M., Parr-Dobrzanski, B., 2002. The strobilurin fungicides. Pest Management Science, 58(7), 649-662. doi: 10.1002/ps.520

Campo Arana, R. O., Zambolim, L., Costa, L. C., 2007. Potato early blight epidemics and comparison of methods to determine its initial symptoms in a potato field. Revista - Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 60(2), 3877-3890.

Christ, B. J., Maczuga, S. A., 1989. The effect of fungicide schedules and inoculum levels on early blight severity and yield of potato. Plant Disease, 73(8), 695-698. doi: 10.1094/PD-73-0695

HARRISON, M. D., VENETTE, J. R., 1970. Chemical control of potato early blight and its effect on potato yield. American Potato Journal, 47(3), 81-6. doi: 10.1007/BF02864808

Hausladen, H., Aselmeyer, A., 2017. Studies about infection of different Alternaria solani isolates on Solanum tuberosum, Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum nigrum [Conference poster]. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark [Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M. ]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Applied Arable and Vegetable Research (Praktijkonderzoek AGV). 293-294.

Horsfield, A., Wicks, T., Davies, K., Wilson, D., Paton, S., 2010. Effect of fungicide use strategies on the control of early blight (Alternaria solani) and potato yield. Australasian Plant Pathology, 39(4), 368-375. doi: 10.1071/AP09090

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Johanson, A., Thurston, H. D., 1990. The effect of cultivar maturity on the resistance of potatoes to early blight caused by Alternaria solani. American Potato Journal, 67(9), 615-623. doi: 10.1007/BF03043447

Kapsa, J., 2004. New problems in early and late blights control of potato. (Nowe problemy w ochronie upraw ziemniaka przed alternarioza i zaraza). Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roslin, (No.232), 315-324.

Landschoot, S., Carrette, J., Vandecasteele, M., Baets, B. de, Höfte, M., Audenaert, K., Haesaert, G., 2017. Boscalid-resistance in Alternaria alternata and Alternaria solani populations: an emerging problem in Europe. Crop Protection, 92, 49-59. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2016.10.011

Landschoot, S., Vandecasteele, M., Baets, B. de, Höfte, M., Audenaert, K., Haesaert, G., 2017. Identification of A. arborescens, A. grandis, and A. protenta as new members of the European Alternaria population on potato. Fungal Biology, 121(2), 172-188. doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.11.005

Landschoot, S., Vandecasteele, M., Carrette, J., Baets, B. de, Höfte, M., Audenaert, K., Haesaert, G., 2017. Assessing the Belgian potato Alternaria population for sensitivity to fungicides with diverse modes of action. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 148(3), 657-672. doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-1123-3

Leiminger, J. H., Adolf, B., Hausladen, H., 2014. Occurrence of the F129L mutation in Alternaria solani populations in Germany in response to QoI application, and its effect on sensitivity. Plant Pathology, 63(3), 640-650. doi: 10.1111/ppa.12120

Leiminger, J. H., Auinger, H. J., Wenig, M., Bahnweg, G., Hausladen, H., 2013. Genetic variability among Alternaria solani isolates from potatoes in southern Germany based on RAPD-profiles. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 120(4), 164-172.

Leiminger, J., Bahnweg, G., Hausladen, H., 2014. Differentiation of Alternaria species and quantification of disease development using real-time PCR. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth EuroBlight Workshop, Limassol, Cyprus, 12-15 May 2013 [Proceedings of the Fourteenth EuroBlight Workshop, Limassol, Cyprus, 12-15 May 2013], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M.]. Lelystad, Netherlands: PAV, Praktijkonderzoek voor de Akkerbouw en de Vollegrondsgroenteteelt. 189-194.

Leiminger, J., Hausladen, H., 2012. Disease-orientated threshold values as tool for effective early blight control. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroBlight Workshop, St Petersburg, Russia, 9-12 October, 2011 [Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroBlight Workshop, St Petersburg, Russia, 9-12 October, 2011], [ed. by Scheperes, H. T. A. M.]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, PPO. 99-106.

Madden, L., Pennypacker, S. P., MacNab, A. A., 1978. FAST, a forecast system for Alternaria solani on tomato. Phytopathology, 68(9), 1354-1358. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-68-1354

Odilbekov, F., Edin, E., Garkava-Gustavsson, L., Hovmalm, H. P., Liljeroth, E., 2016. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates of Alternaria solani in south-eastern Sweden. Hereditas, 153(10), (23 September 2016).˜acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F20%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252Fs41065-016-0014-0.pdf*˜hmac=d0ec1fa4982ba13f69079873f22d50a229f67bf852813ec49127459c0448ad4e

Pscheidt, J. W., Stevenson, W. R., 1986. Comparison of forecasting methods for control of potato early blight in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 70(10), 915-920. doi: 10.1094/PD-70-915

Rotem, J., 1994. The Genus Alternaria: Biology, Epidemiology, and Pathogenicity. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Shtienberg, D., Blachinsky, D., Ben-Hador, G., Dinoor, A., 1996. Effects of growing season and fungicide type on the development of Alternaria solani and on potato yield. Plant Disease, 80(9), 994-998. doi: 10.1094/PD-80-0994

UK CAB International, 1983. Alternaria solani. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 89

Waals, J. E. van der, Korsten, L., Aveling, T. A. S., 2001. A review of early blight of potato. African Plant Protection, 7(2), 91-102.

Waals, J. E. van der, Korsten, L., Aveling, T. A. S., Denner, F. D. N., 2003. Influence of environmental factors on field concentrations of Alternaria solani conidia above a South African potato crop. Phytoparasitica, 31(4), 353-364.

Waals, J. E. van der, Korsten, L., Slippers, B., 2004. Genetic diversity among Alternaria solani isolates from potatoes in South Africa. Plant Disease, 88(9), 959-964. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.9.959

WAGGONER, P. E., HORSFALL, J. G., 1969. Epidem: a simulator of plant disease written for a computer. Bulletin. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 698, 80 pp.

Woudenberg, J. H. C., Truter, M., Groenewald, J. Z., Crous, P. W., 2014. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled. Studies in Mycology, (No.79), 1-47. doi: 10.1016/j.simyco.2014.07.003

Distribution Maps

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