Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria solani
(early blight of potato and tomato)

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Datasheet

Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria solani
  • Preferred Common Name
  • early blight of potato and tomato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2019.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2019.
Copyright©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2019.
Field symptomsAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2019.©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato stem. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato stem. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.
Copyright©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato stem. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.
SymptomsAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato stem. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.
Copyright©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.
SymptomsAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Lesions on potato foliage. Moscow, Russia. August 2020.©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Symptoms on tomato leaves.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionSymptoms on tomato leaves.
CopyrightM. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on tomato leaves.
Field symptomsSymptoms on tomato leaves.M. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on okra leaf.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionSymptoms on okra leaf.
CopyrightM. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Symptoms on okra leaf.
Field symptomsSymptoms on okra leaf.M. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Conidia. Moscow, Russia. May 2020.
TitleDiagnostics
CaptionAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Conidia. Moscow, Russia. May 2020.
Copyright©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Alternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Conidia. Moscow, Russia. May 2020.
DiagnosticsAlternaria solani (early blight of potato and tomato); Conidia. Moscow, Russia. May 2020.©Maria A. Kuznetsova - All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria solani Sorauer

Preferred Common Name

  • early blight of potato and tomato

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria dauci f.sp. solani
  • Alternaria porri f.sp. solani
  • Macrosporium solani Ell. & G.Martin

International Common Names

  • English: alternaria blight; dry blight of potato and tomato; early blight of eggplant; early blight of potato; early blight of tomato; target spot of tomato
  • Spanish: alternariosis de la papa y tomate; tizon temprano; tizon temprano de las papas
  • French: alternaria des solanacees; alternariose de la chicoree; alternariose de la pomme de terre et de la tomate; brulure alternarienne de la pomme de terre; brulure alternarienne de la tomate; taches foliaires larges

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattfleckenkrankheit: Eierfrucht; Blattfleckenkrankheit: Tomate; Duerrfleckenkrankheit: Kartoffel; Hartfaeule: Kartoffel

EPPO code

  • ALTESO (Alternaria solani)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria solani

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BahrainPresent
BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-GansuPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-LakshadweepPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KuwaitPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-SiberiaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Channel IslandsPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MichiganPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aureobasidium pullulans Antagonist
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist

References

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Abuley, I. K., Nielsen, B. J., Bødker, L., Nielsen, G. C., 2017. Timing the application of fungicides to control potato early blight (Alternaria solani) in multi-location field trials in Denmark. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark [Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M. ]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Applied Arable and Vegetable Research (Praktijkonderzoek AGV). 103-108.

Akhtar KP, Sarwar N, Saleem MY, Asghar M, 2011. Convolvulus arvensis, a new host for Alternaria solani causing early blight of Solanum lycopersicum in Pakistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):84-86. http://www.springerlink.com/content/m726670u09865784/fulltext.html

Bagherabadi, S., Zafari, D., Soleimani, M. J., 2015. Genetic diversity of Alternaria alternata isolates causing potato brown leaf spot, using ISSR markers in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 6(7), 286. http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/genetic-diversity-of-alternaria-alternata-isolates-causing-potato-brown-leaf-spot-using-issr-markers-in-iran-2157-7471-1000286.php?aid=58610

Baideng, E. L., Lengkong, H. J., Frans, T. M., Koneri, R., Pontororing, H., 2019. Types of insects associated with potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the incidence of the disease in Modoinding, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Scientific Papers Series - Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, 19(4), 25-28. http://managementjournal.usamv.ro/pdf/vol.19_4/Art3.pdf

Bartlett, D. W., Clough, J. M., Godwin, J. R., Hall, A. A., Hamer, M., Parr-Dobrzanski, B., 2002. The strobilurin fungicides. Pest Management Science, 58(7), 649-662. doi: 10.1002/ps.520

Bauske, M. J., Mallik, I., Yellareddygari, S. K. R., Gudmestad, N. C., 2018. Spatial and temporal distribution of mutations conferring QoI and SDHI resistance in Alternaria solani across the United States. Plant Disease, 102(2), 349-358. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0852-RE

Blixt, E., Andersson, B., 2010. Occurrence of Alternaria solani in Sweden and its sensitivity to strobilurins. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth EuroBlight Workshop, Arras, France, 3-6 May 2010 [Proceedings of the Twelfth EuroBlight Workshop, Arras, France, 3-6 May 2010], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M.]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, PPO. 161-164.

Campo Arana, R. O., Zambolim, L., Costa, L. C., 2007. Potato early blight epidemics and comparison of methods to determine its initial symptoms in a potato field. Revista - Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 60(2), 3877-3890. http://www.agro.unalmed.edu.co/publicaciones/revista/docs/Art.%203%20Potato%20early%20blight.pdf

Christ, B. J., Maczuga, S. A., 1989. The effect of fungicide schedules and inoculum levels on early blight severity and yield of potato. Plant Disease, 73(8), 695-698. doi: 10.1094/PD-73-0695

Franc, G. D., Harrison, M. D., Lahman, L. K., 1988. A simple day-degree model for initiating chemical control of potato early blight in Colorado. Plant Disease, 72(10), 851-854. doi: 10.1094/PD-72-0851

GBIF Secretariat, 2017. Alternaria solani Sorauer. In: GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Secretariat.https://www.gbif.org/species/2616205

Harrison MD, Venette JR, 1970. Chemical control of potato early blight and its effect on potato yield. American Potato Journal, 47(3), 81-6. doi: 10.1007/BF02864808

Hausladen, H., Aselmeyer, A., 2017. Studies about infection of different Alternaria solani isolates on Solanum tuberosum, Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum nigrum [Conference poster]. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark [Proceedings of the Sixteenth EuroBlight Workshop, 14 - 17 May 2017, Aarhus, Denmark], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M. ]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Applied Arable and Vegetable Research (Praktijkonderzoek AGV). 293-294.

Horsfield, A., Wicks, T., Davies, K., Wilson, D., Paton, S., 2010. Effect of fungicide use strategies on the control of early blight (Alternaria solani) and potato yield. Australasian Plant Pathology, 39(4), 368-375. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm doi: 10.1071/AP09090

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Johanson, A., Thurston, H. D., 1990. The effect of cultivar maturity on the resistance of potatoes to early blight caused by Alternaria solani. American Potato Journal, 67(9), 615-623. doi: 10.1007/BF03043447

Jones JB, Jones JP, Stall RE, Zitter TA, 1993. Compendium of tomato diseases, St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Kapsa, J., 2004. New problems in early and late blights control of potato. (Nowe problemy w ochronie upraw ziemniaka przed alternarioza i zaraza). Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roslin, (No.232), 315-324.

Kondaiah, R. H., Sreeramulu, A., 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4(1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

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Landschoot, S., Carrette, J., Vandecasteele, M., Baets, B. de, Höfte, M., Audenaert, K., Haesaert, G., 2017. Boscalid-resistance in Alternaria alternata and Alternaria solani populations: an emerging problem in Europe. Crop Protection, 92, 49-59. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2016.10.011

Landschoot, S., Vandecasteele, M., Baets, B. de, Höfte, M., Audenaert, K., Haesaert, G., 2017. Identification of A. arborescens, A. grandis, and A. protenta as new members of the European Alternaria population on potato. Fungal Biology, 121(2), 172-188. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878614616301726 doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2016.11.005

Landschoot, S., Vandecasteele, M., Carrette, J., Baets, B. de, Höfte, M., Audenaert, K., Haesaert, G., 2017. Assessing the Belgian potato Alternaria population for sensitivity to fungicides with diverse modes of action. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 148(3), 657-672. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-1123-3

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Leiminger, J. H., Adolf, B., Hausladen, H., 2014. Occurrence of the F129L mutation in Alternaria solani populations in Germany in response to QoI application, and its effect on sensitivity. Plant Pathology, 63(3), 640-650. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12120/full doi: 10.1111/ppa.12120

Leiminger, J. H., Auinger, H. J., Wenig, M., Bahnweg, G., Hausladen, H., 2013. Genetic variability among Alternaria solani isolates from potatoes in southern Germany based on RAPD-profiles. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 120(4), 164-172. http://www.jpdp-online.com

Leiminger, J., Bahnweg, G., Hausladen, H., 2014. Differentiation of Alternaria species and quantification of disease development using real-time PCR. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth EuroBlight Workshop, Limassol, Cyprus, 12-15 May 2013 [Proceedings of the Fourteenth EuroBlight Workshop, Limassol, Cyprus, 12-15 May 2013], [ed. by Schepers, H. T. A. M.]. Lelystad, Netherlands: PAV, Praktijkonderzoek voor de Akkerbouw en de Vollegrondsgroenteteelt. 189-194.

Leiminger, J., Hausladen, H., 2012. Disease-orientated threshold values as tool for effective early blight control. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroBlight Workshop, St Petersburg, Russia, 9-12 October, 2011 [Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroBlight Workshop, St Petersburg, Russia, 9-12 October, 2011], [ed. by Scheperes, H. T. A. M.]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, PPO. 99-106.

Madden, L., Pennypacker, S. P., MacNab, A. A., 1978. FAST, a forecast system for Alternaria solani on tomato. Phytopathology, 68(9), 1354-1358. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-68-1354

Mehta, P., Vyas, K. M., Saksena, S. B., 1975. Pathological studies on fruit rot of tomato caused by Alternaria solani and A. tenuis. Indian Phytopathology, 28(2), 247-252.

Miles, T. D., Fairchild, K. L., Merlington, A., Kirk, W. W., Rosenzweig, N., Wharton, P. S., 2013. First report of boscalid and penthiopyrad-resistant isolates of Alternaria solani causing early blight of potato in Michigan. Plant Disease, 97(12), 1655-1656. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0279-PDN

Munde, V. G., Diwakar, M. P., Thombre, B. B., Utpal Dey, 2013. Survey and surveillance of early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani in Konkan region. International Journal of Plant Protection, 6(2), 476-477. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPP.htm

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Waals, J. E. van der, Korsten, L., Aveling, T. A. S., Denner, F. D. N., 2003. Influence of environmental factors on field concentrations of Alternaria solani conidia above a South African potato crop. Phytoparasitica, 31(4), 353-364.

Waals, J. E. van der, Korsten, L., Slippers, B., 2004. Genetic diversity among Alternaria solani isolates from potatoes in South Africa. Plant Disease, 88(9), 959-964. http://www.apsnet.org doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.9.959

Waggoner PE, Horsfall JG, 1969. Epidem: a simulator of plant disease written for a computer. Bulletin. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 698, 80 pp.

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Zheng, H. H., Wu, X. H., 2013. First report of alternaria blight of potato caused by Alternaria tenuissima in China. Plant Disease, 97(9), 1246. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0763-PDN

Distribution References

Akhtar K P, Sarwar N, Saleem M Y, Asghar M, 2011. Convolvulus arvensis, a new host for Alternaria solani causing early blight of Solanum lycopersicum in Pakistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 6 (1), 84-86. http://www.springerlink.com/content/m726670u09865784/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-011-0029-3

Bagherabadi S, Zafari D, Soleimani M J, 2015. Genetic diversity of Alternaria alternata isolates causing potato brown leaf spot, using ISSR markers in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. 6 (7), 286. http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/genetic-diversity-of-alternaria-alternata-isolates-causing-potato-brown-leaf-spot-using-issr-markers-in-iran-2157-7471-1000286.php?aid=58610

Baideng E L, Lengkong H J, Frans T M, Koneri R, Pontororing H, 2019. Types of insects associated with potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the incidence of the disease in Modoinding, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Scientific Papers Series - Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development. 19 (4), 25-28. http://managementjournal.usamv.ro/pdf/vol.19_4/Art3.pdf

Blixt E, Andersson B, 2010. Occurrence of Alternaria solani in Sweden and its sensitivity to strobilurins. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth EuroBlight Workshop, Arras, France, 3-6 May 2010 [Proceedings of the Twelfth EuroBlight Workshop, Arras, France, 3-6 May 2010.], [ed. by Schepers H T A M]. Lelystad, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, PPO. 161-164.

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

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