Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudotsuga menziesii
(Douglas-fir)

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Datasheet

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Douglas-fir
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •         Class: Pinopsida
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Fibre
  • Ornamental
  • Shade and shelter

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
An irregular, uneven-aged, multi-storied stand of P. menziesii at the easternmost limits of its northern native range in western North America. Porcupine Hills, Alberta, USA.
TitleStand
CaptionAn irregular, uneven-aged, multi-storied stand of P. menziesii at the easternmost limits of its northern native range in western North America. Porcupine Hills, Alberta, USA.
CopyrightK. Klinka
An irregular, uneven-aged, multi-storied stand of P. menziesii at the easternmost limits of its northern native range in western North America. Porcupine Hills, Alberta, USA.
StandAn irregular, uneven-aged, multi-storied stand of P. menziesii at the easternmost limits of its northern native range in western North America. Porcupine Hills, Alberta, USA. K. Klinka
Providing a high stand density, self-pruning capacity of P. menziesii in even-aged stands is high.
TitleStand
CaptionProviding a high stand density, self-pruning capacity of P. menziesii in even-aged stands is high.
CopyrightK. Klinka
Providing a high stand density, self-pruning capacity of P. menziesii in even-aged stands is high.
StandProviding a high stand density, self-pruning capacity of P. menziesii in even-aged stands is high.K. Klinka
Interior Douglas-fir (P. menziesii var. glauca) is moderately shade-tolerant. Saplings of P. menziesii var. glauca in the understorey of Pinus contorta - an indication of protection requirement on very dry and warm sites, or on sites affected by growing-season frost.
TitleSaplings
CaptionInterior Douglas-fir (P. menziesii var. glauca) is moderately shade-tolerant. Saplings of P. menziesii var. glauca in the understorey of Pinus contorta - an indication of protection requirement on very dry and warm sites, or on sites affected by growing-season frost.
CopyrightK. Klinka
Interior Douglas-fir (P. menziesii var. glauca) is moderately shade-tolerant. Saplings of P. menziesii var. glauca in the understorey of Pinus contorta - an indication of protection requirement on very dry and warm sites, or on sites affected by growing-season frost.
SaplingsInterior Douglas-fir (P. menziesii var. glauca) is moderately shade-tolerant. Saplings of P. menziesii var. glauca in the understorey of Pinus contorta - an indication of protection requirement on very dry and warm sites, or on sites affected by growing-season frost.K. Klinka
Old-growth, P. menziesii has become a rare commodity in the Pacific Northwest forest. On the best sites, trees can be 90 m tall at 300 years.
TitleAncient tree
CaptionOld-growth, P. menziesii has become a rare commodity in the Pacific Northwest forest. On the best sites, trees can be 90 m tall at 300 years.
CopyrightK. Klinka
Old-growth, P. menziesii has become a rare commodity in the Pacific Northwest forest. On the best sites, trees can be 90 m tall at 300 years.
Ancient treeOld-growth, P. menziesii has become a rare commodity in the Pacific Northwest forest. On the best sites, trees can be 90 m tall at 300 years.K. Klinka
A seedling featuring lammas growth (late-season flushing). This occurs frequently in the juvenile stage on submontane, moist, rich, coastal sites.
TitleSeedling
CaptionA seedling featuring lammas growth (late-season flushing). This occurs frequently in the juvenile stage on submontane, moist, rich, coastal sites.
CopyrightK. Klinka
A seedling featuring lammas growth (late-season flushing). This occurs frequently in the juvenile stage on submontane, moist, rich, coastal sites.
SeedlingA seedling featuring lammas growth (late-season flushing). This occurs frequently in the juvenile stage on submontane, moist, rich, coastal sites.K. Klinka
P. menziesii does not tolerate very poor soils. If established on such sites, the seedling growth is very poor (in this situation siliceous sand deposits) and the seedlings display an array of nutrient deficiency symptoms.
TitleTrees on poor soil
CaptionP. menziesii does not tolerate very poor soils. If established on such sites, the seedling growth is very poor (in this situation siliceous sand deposits) and the seedlings display an array of nutrient deficiency symptoms.
CopyrightK. Klinka
P. menziesii does not tolerate very poor soils. If established on such sites, the seedling growth is very poor (in this situation siliceous sand deposits) and the seedlings display an array of nutrient deficiency symptoms.
Trees on poor soilP. menziesii does not tolerate very poor soils. If established on such sites, the seedling growth is very poor (in this situation siliceous sand deposits) and the seedlings display an array of nutrient deficiency symptoms.K. Klinka
Mature P. menziesii is resistant to ground fire because it develops a thick bark. Even if burnt over across a half of the bole, the wound may heal, but the resultant fire scar can be detected.
TitleFire scar
CaptionMature P. menziesii is resistant to ground fire because it develops a thick bark. Even if burnt over across a half of the bole, the wound may heal, but the resultant fire scar can be detected.
CopyrightK. Klinka
Mature P. menziesii is resistant to ground fire because it develops a thick bark. Even if burnt over across a half of the bole, the wound may heal, but the resultant fire scar can be detected.
Fire scarMature P. menziesii is resistant to ground fire because it develops a thick bark. Even if burnt over across a half of the bole, the wound may heal, but the resultant fire scar can be detected.K. Klinka
P. menziesii mature bark detail.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003
TitleBark
CaptionP. menziesii mature bark detail. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
P. menziesii mature bark detail.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003
BarkP. menziesii mature bark detail. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003©A.R. Pittaway
P. menziesii foliage detail.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003
TitleFoliage
CaptionP. menziesii foliage detail. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
P. menziesii foliage detail.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003
FoliageP. menziesii foliage detail. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003©A.R. Pittaway
P. menziesii mature cone and foliage.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003
TitleCone
CaptionP. menziesii mature cone and foliage. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
P. menziesii mature cone and foliage.  Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.  March 2003
ConeP. menziesii mature cone and foliage. Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. March 2003©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco

Preferred Common Name

  • Douglas-fir

Variety

  • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissner) Franco
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii

Other Scientific Names

  • Pseudotsuga caesia Schwer.
  • Pseudotsuga douglasii (Sabine ex D. Don) Carrière
  • Pseudotsuga flahaulti Flous
  • Pseudotsuga glauca Beissner
  • Pseudotsuga macrolepis
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. caesia (Schwer.) Franco
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissner) Franco
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii var. viridis Franco
  • Pseudotsuga taxifolia Britton

International Common Names

  • English: Douglas fir
  • Spanish: abeto de California
  • French: Douglas bleu; Douglas vert; sapin de Douglas; sapin Douglas

Local Common Names

  • Canada: coastal Douglas-fir; interior Douglas-fir; Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir
  • Germany: Kuesten- Douglasie; Kuesten- Douglastanne
  • Italy: abete di Douglas
  • Mexico: piño Oregon; piño real colorado
  • Netherlands: douglasspar
  • USA: blue Douglas-fir; coastal Douglas-fir; Douglas-spruce; green Douglas-fir; interior Douglas-fir; Oregon Douglas-fir; Oregon-pine; red-fir; Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir

EPPO code

  • PSTME (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
  • PSTMG (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca)

Trade name

  • Douglas fir (south)
  • Douglas fir-larch
  • mixed species
  • Oregon pine
  • western woods

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Gymnospermae
  •                 Class: Pinopsida
  •                     Family: Pinaceae
  •                         Genus: Pseudotsuga
  •                             Species: Pseudotsuga menziesii

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Arceuthobium douglasii (Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe); Armillaria ostoyae (armillaria root rot); Choristoneura freemani (western spruce budworm); Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm); Choristoneura lambertiana (sugar pine tortrix); Contarinia pseudotsugae (Douglas fir needle midge); Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Douglas-fir beetle); Ergates spiculatus (spined pine borer); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Heterobasidion annosum; Hylastes ater (black pine bark beetle); Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil); Lambdina fiscellaria (eastern hemlock looper); Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot of bean/tobacco); Megastigmus spermotrophus (Douglas-fir seed chalcid); Melanophila drummondi (flatheaded fir borer); Monochamus notatus (northeastern sawyer); Monochamus obtusus (obtuse sawyer); Mycosphaerella pini (Dothistroma blight); Ophiostoma piceae (vascular mycosis of oak); Ophiostoma wageneri (black-stain root disease); Orgyia pseudotsugata (douglas-fir tussock moth); Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Swiss needle cast); Phellinus weirii (laminated root rot); Phytophthora cryptogea (tomato foot rot); Phytophthora megasperma (root rot); Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death (SOD)); Rhabdocline pseudotsugae (conifer needle blight); Rhizobium radiobacter (crown gall); Rhizobium rhizogenes (gall); Senecio vulgaris; Sirex juvencus (steel-blue woodwasp); Sirococcus conigenus (sirococcus blight of conifers); Trypodendron lineatum (striped ambrosia beetle)

Minor host of:

Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); Amylostereum areolatum; Armillaria gallica; Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Botryosphaeria laricina (shoot blight of larch); Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode); Dendroctonus micans (great spruce bark beetle); Echinodontium tinctorium (Indian paint fungus); Ganoderma lucidum (basal stem rot: Hevea spp.); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Gibberella circinata (pitch canker); Gremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease); Heterobasidion abietinum; Heterobasidion parviporum; Hylotrupes bajulus (house longhorn beetle); Ips typographus (eight-toothed bark beetle); Leptographium procerum (white pine root decline); Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth); Lymantria mathura (pink gypsy moth); Lymantria monacha (nun moth); Melampsora medusae (poplar leaf rust); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Nepytia phantasmaria (green hemlock looper); Orthotomicus erosus (Mediterranean pine beetle); Otiorhynchus armadillo (armadillo weevil); Otiorhynchus ovatus (strawberry root weevil); Panolis flammea (pine beauty moth); Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback); Phytophthora pluvialis; Pityogenes chalcographus (sixtoothed spruce bark beetls); Pityokteines curvidens (fir engraver beetle); Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine shoot moth); Sphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight); Sphinx pinastri (pine hawkmoth); Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary)

Wild host of:

Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome); Peridroma saucia (pearly underwing moth); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes)

Associated with (not a host):

Hypocrea rufa (green mould of narcissus)

Host of (source - data mining):

Armillaria limonea; Armillaria novae-zelandiae; Barbara colfaxiana (douglas-fir cone moth); Botryosphaeria pseudotsugae (branch canker: Douglas fir); Coleophora laricella (larch casebearer); Conophthorus radiatae (cone beetle, monterey pine); Contarinia oregonensis (douglas-fir cone gall midge); Contarinia washingtonensis (douglas-fir cone scale midge); Cylindrocarpon didymum; Dioryctria abietivorella (fir coneworm); Dioryctria reniculelloides (spruce coneworm); Ectropis crepuscularia (saddleback looper); Ernobius punctulatus; Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Gibberella baccata (collar rot of coffee); Gilletteella cooleyi (cooley spruce gall adelgid); Gnathotrichus retusus (wood stainer, western pine); Hylastes nigrinus (bark beetle, Douglas fir root); Hylobius pales (pales weevil); Ips duplicatus (double-spined bark beetle); Ips mexicanus (monterey pine engraver); Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (western hemlock looper); Lepesoma lecontei; Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug); Nepytia freemani (western false hemlock looper); Ochropleura fennica (black army cutworm); Oligonychus ununguis (red spidermite); Penicillium brevicompactum (fruit rot of grapevine); Phoma eupyrena; Phytophthora citricola (black hop root rot); Phytophthora pseudotsugae; Pissodes fasciatus (weevil, Douglas fir); Pityogenes quadridens; Polygraphus rufipennis (foureyed spruce bark beetle); Pseudocoremia suavis; Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite); Reticulitermes hesperus (western subterranean termite); Sirex noctilio (woodwasp); Steremnius carinatus (conifer seedling weevil); Thelephora terrestris (ectomycorrhizal fungus: pine)

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Crates
  • Pallets

Furniture

Pulp

  • Short-fibre pulp

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Piles
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures
  • Stakes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Engineering structures
  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction
  • Gates
  • Wall panelling

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Composite boards
  • Laminated wood
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware