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Datasheet

Pseudoperonospora cubensis
(cucumber downy mildew)

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Datasheet

Pseudoperonospora cubensis (cucumber downy mildew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudoperonospora cubensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cucumber downy mildew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Downy mildew on cantaloupe cv. Athena. Note the irregular lesion shape, bright yellow chlorotic margins and necrotic lesion centres typical on Cucumis melo. The sporulating fungus can be found on the abaxial leaf surface (i.e. underside).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDowny mildew on cantaloupe cv. Athena. Note the irregular lesion shape, bright yellow chlorotic margins and necrotic lesion centres typical on Cucumis melo. The sporulating fungus can be found on the abaxial leaf surface (i.e. underside).
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Downy mildew on cantaloupe cv. Athena. Note the irregular lesion shape, bright yellow chlorotic margins and necrotic lesion centres typical on Cucumis melo. The sporulating fungus can be found on the abaxial leaf surface (i.e. underside).
SymptomsDowny mildew on cantaloupe cv. Athena. Note the irregular lesion shape, bright yellow chlorotic margins and necrotic lesion centres typical on Cucumis melo. The sporulating fungus can be found on the abaxial leaf surface (i.e. underside).Gerald J. Holmes
Downy mildew on jack-o-lantern pumpkin (cv. Howden). Note the bright yellow chlorotic spots typical on Cucurbita pepo.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDowny mildew on jack-o-lantern pumpkin (cv. Howden). Note the bright yellow chlorotic spots typical on Cucurbita pepo.
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Downy mildew on jack-o-lantern pumpkin (cv. Howden). Note the bright yellow chlorotic spots typical on Cucurbita pepo.
SymptomsDowny mildew on jack-o-lantern pumpkin (cv. Howden). Note the bright yellow chlorotic spots typical on Cucurbita pepo.Gerald J. Holmes
Downy mildew on susceptible cucumber. Note the angular chlorotic spots typical on Cucumis sativus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDowny mildew on susceptible cucumber. Note the angular chlorotic spots typical on Cucumis sativus.
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Downy mildew on susceptible cucumber. Note the angular chlorotic spots typical on Cucumis sativus.
SymptomsDowny mildew on susceptible cucumber. Note the angular chlorotic spots typical on Cucumis sativus.Gerald J. Holmes
Greyish-purple down resulting from sporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) leaf. Note that sporulation is sharply limited to leaf veins (i.e. angular), giving the leaf a checkered appearance.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGreyish-purple down resulting from sporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) leaf. Note that sporulation is sharply limited to leaf veins (i.e. angular), giving the leaf a checkered appearance.
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Greyish-purple down resulting from sporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) leaf. Note that sporulation is sharply limited to leaf veins (i.e. angular), giving the leaf a checkered appearance.
SymptomsGreyish-purple down resulting from sporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) leaf. Note that sporulation is sharply limited to leaf veins (i.e. angular), giving the leaf a checkered appearance.Gerald J. Holmes
Sporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a pumpkin leaf (cv. Howden).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a pumpkin leaf (cv. Howden).
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Sporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a pumpkin leaf (cv. Howden).
SymptomsSporulation of P. cubensis on the underside of a pumpkin leaf (cv. Howden).Gerald J. Holmes
Severe necrosis of an entire leaf of butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) caused by downy mildew.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSevere necrosis of an entire leaf of butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) caused by downy mildew.
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Severe necrosis of an entire leaf of butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) caused by downy mildew.
SymptomsSevere necrosis of an entire leaf of butternut squash (Cucurbita pepo) caused by downy mildew.Gerald J. Holmes
TitleP. humuli on cones
Caption
CopyrightMilan Zolnir
P. humuli on conesMilan Zolnir
Light micrograph of sporangiophore and detached sporangia of P. cubensis. Sporangia are borne singly at the tips of branches and measure 20-40 x 14-25 µm.
TitleSporangiophore
CaptionLight micrograph of sporangiophore and detached sporangia of P. cubensis. Sporangia are borne singly at the tips of branches and measure 20-40 x 14-25 µm.
CopyrightGerald J. Holmes
Light micrograph of sporangiophore and detached sporangia of P. cubensis. Sporangia are borne singly at the tips of branches and measure 20-40 x 14-25 µm.
SporangiophoreLight micrograph of sporangiophore and detached sporangia of P. cubensis. Sporangia are borne singly at the tips of branches and measure 20-40 x 14-25 µm.Gerald J. Holmes

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Rostovtzev 1903

Preferred Common Name

  • cucumber downy mildew

Other Scientific Names

  • Peronoplasmopara cubensis (Berk. & M.A. Curt.) G.P. Clinton, 1905 ('1904')
  • Peronospora cubensis Berk. & M.A. Curt., 1868
  • Plasmopara cubensis (Berk. & M.A. Curt.) C.J. Humphrey, 1891

International Common Names

  • English: downy mildew; false mildew
  • Spanish: mildiú; mildiú felpudo; mildiú lanoso; mildiú velloso
  • French: mildiou des cucurbitacées
  • Arabic: bayad zaghaby
  • Chinese: hú gwua lùh jìunn bìng
  • Portuguese: mildio

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: mildio
  • Germany: Falscher Mehltau
  • India: mriduromil phaphundi
  • Italy: peronospora delle cucurbitacee
  • Japan: beto-byô
  • Nepal: kakro ko dhuse rog
  • Thailand: ra-nam-karng
  • Turkey: kavun mildiyösü
  • Vietnam: cháy lá và trái non

EPPO code

  • PSPECU (Pseudoperonospora cubensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Pseudoperonospora
  •                             Species: Pseudoperonospora cubensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CameroonPresentVoglmayr et al. (2009)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GabonPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1981)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
AzerbaijanPresentUl'yanishchev (1967)
BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CambodiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-AnhuiPresentCohen et al. (2013)
-BeijingPresentCohen et al. (2013)
-FujianPresentYu WenYing et al. (2009)
-GuangdongPresentCABI (Undated); Cohen et al. (2013)Original citation: He ZiFu et al., 2001
-HeilongjiangPresentCohen et al. (2013)
-HubeiPresentCohen et al. (2013)
-NingxiaPresentJiang (1981)
-ShandongPresentLai and Zhang (1992); Cohen et al. (2013)
-SichuanPresentCohen et al. (2013)
-XinjiangPresentYang Du et al. (2007)
GeorgiaPresentGrin'ko (1992)
Hong KongPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-AssamPresentPhookan and Gogoi (1995)
-HaryanaPresentGandhi et al. (1996)
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma et al. (2003)
-Madhya PradeshPresentKhosla et al. (1973)
-MaharashtraPresentKakade and Shelke (2000)
-PunjabPresentThind and Mohan (2001)
-RajasthanPresentMahrishi and Siradhana (1988)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
IraqPresentHasan (1989)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-HonshuPresentTakeuchi (1992)
JordanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
KazakhstanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Gutsalvuk, 1974
LaosPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); Salati et al. (2010)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-SabahPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: CMI, 1985
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MongoliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
OmanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1981); CABI (Undated)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
UzbekistanPresentGaponenko (1972)
YemenPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: IMI, 1989

Europe

AlbaniaPresentMerkuri et al. (2002)
AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BelarusPresentNalobova (2005)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CroatiaPresentCvjetković and Kišpatić (1984)
CzechiaPresentLebeda and Urban (2007); Lebeda and Gadasová (2002); Lebeda et al. (2012)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
DenmarkPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Bjoern et al. (2000)
FinlandPresent, Few occurrencesTahvonen (1985)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-SardiniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
LatviaPresentZariņš and Daugavietis (1998)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MoldovaPresentManole (1988)
NetherlandsPresentLebeda and Gadasová (2002); UK, CAB International (1981)
North MacedoniaPresentTrajčevski (2008)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SloveniaPresent, WidespreadCelar (1989)
SpainPresentLebeda and Gadasová (2002)
SwedenPresentForsberg (1986)
SwitzerlandPresentVarady and Ducrot (1985)
UkrainePresentChaban et al. (2000)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1981)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BahamasPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BelizePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
DominicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuadeloupePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
HaitiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MartiniquePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-ArizonaPresent, Few occurrencesRiley and Palumbo (1995)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadMoss (1987)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated); Wallace et al. (2014)Original citation: St Amand & Wehner, 1991
-South CarolinaPresentKeinath and DuBose (2000); Wallace et al. (2015)
-TennesseePresentMullins et al. (1993)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Thomas (1977)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-South AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
French PolynesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuamPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
TongaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
BoliviaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: IMI, 1982
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-AmazonasPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-CearaPresentCardoso et al. (2002)
-Minas GeraisPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1981)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1981)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1981)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves sporangia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants sporangia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Bains SS; Sharma NK, 1986. Differential response of certain cucurbits to isolates of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and characteristics of identified races. Phytophylactica, 18(1):31-33

Bedlan G, 1986. Cucumber downy mildew. Pflanzenschutz, No.4:10-15

Bedlan G, 1997. Biologische Bekampfung ausgewahlter Gemusekrankheiten mittels Trichoderma harzianum. Gesunde Pflanzen, 49(3):89-94.

Berkeley MS; Curtis A, 1868. Peronospora cubensis. J. Linn. Soc. Bot., 10:363.

Bjoern GK; Kampmann HH, Katzir N ed. , Paris HS, 2000. Screening field Riesenschael cucumbers for resistance to downy mildew: management of interplot interference problems. Cucurbitaceae 2000. Proceedings of the 7th EUCARPIA meeting on cucurbit breeding and genetics, Ma'ale Ha Hamisha, Israel, 19-23 March, 2000. Acta Horticulturae, 510:77-80.

Bruno H, 1996. Downy mildew - a danger for the growing of cucumbers and melons. TASPO Gartenbaumagazin, 5(5):48-49.

Cardoso JE; Santos AA; Vidal JC, 2002. Effect of downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis on the total soluble solids content of melon. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 27(4):378-383; 14 ref.

Celar F, 1989. The occurrence of downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Rostow.) on cucumbers in Slovenia. Zastita Bilja, 40(2):227-231

Chaban VS; Okhrimchuk VN; Sergienko VG, 2000. Optimization of chemical control of Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucumber in Ukraine. Diseases of cucurbitaceous and solanaceous vegetable crops in the Mediterranean region, Kerkyra, Greece, 11-14 October 1999. Bulletin OEPP, 30(2):213-215.

Chen DP; Sung CC; Ho CC, 1959. A brief report of the discovery of oospores of downy mildew of cucumbers (Pseudoperonospora cubensis (B. and C.) Rost.). Zhibing Zhishi, 3:144-145.

Chen LS; Cheng CW; Chen RS; Tsay JG, 2006. Identification of two downy mildew fungi in Taiwan based on the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal region. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 48(1):53-64.

Choi YJ; Shin HD, 2008. First record of downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis on bottle gourd in Korea. Plant Pathology, 57(2):371. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01628.x

Cohen Y, 1977. The combined effects of temperature, leaf wetness, and inoculum concentration on infection of cucumbers with Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(11):1478-1487

Cohen Y, 1981. Downy mildew of cucurbits. In: Spencer DM, ed. The Downy Mildews. New York, USA: Academic Press, 341-354.

Cohen Y; Perl M; Rotem J; Eyal H; Cohen J, 1974. Ultrastructural and physiological changes in sporangia of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and Phytophthora infestans exposed to water stress. Canadian Journal of Botany, 52:447-450.

Cohen Y; Rotem J, 1971. Dispersal and viability of sporangia of Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 57:67-74.

Cohen Y; Rubin AE; Liu XL; Wang WQ; Zhang YJ; Hermann D, 2013. First report on the occurrence of A2 mating type of the cucurbit downy mildew agent Pseudoperonospora cubensis in China. Plant Disease, 97(4):559. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cvjetkovic B; Kispatic J, 1984. The occurrence of Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucumbers in Croatia. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 66:407-410

D'Ercole N, 1975. Downy mildew of cucumbers in protected cultivation. Informatore Fitopatologico, 25(7):11-13

D'Ercole N; Nipoti P, 1985. Downy mildew of melon due to Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & Curt.) Rostow. Informatore Fitopatologico, 35(4):61-63

Elad Y; Katan J; Aharonson N; Cohen E; Rubin B; Matthews GA, eds. , 2000. Biological control of foliar pathogens by means of Trichoderma harzianum and potential modes of action. XIVth International plant protection congress, Jerusalem, Israel, July 25-30, 1999. Crop Protection, 19(8-10):709-714.

Forsberg AS, 1986. Downy mildew - Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Swedish cucumber fields in 1985. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 50(1):17-19

Gandhi SK; Maheshwari SK; Naresh Mehta, 1996. Epidemiological relationship between ridge gourd downy mildew and meteorological factors. Plant Disease Research, 11(1):62-66; 6 ref.

Gaponenko NI, 1972. The family Peronosporaceae in Central Asia and southern Kazakhstan (Key). Semeistvo Peronosporaceae Srednei Azii i Yuzhnogo Kazakhstana (Opredelitel'). Izdatel'stvo "Fan". Tashkent USSR, 342 pp.

Georgopoulos SG; Grigoriu AC, 1981. Metalaxyl-resistant strains of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber greenhouses of southern Greece. Plant Disease, 65(9):729-731

Gonzalez M; Barrios F; Rodriguez F, 1992. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different fungicides against the mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Proteccion de Plantas, 2(4):75-86; 5 ref.

Grigoriu AC; Georgopoulos SG, 1984. Measurement of the degree and extent of metalaxyl resistance of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Greece. ISPP Chemical Control Newsletter, No.4:12-14

Grin'ko NN, 1992. Tolerance of the causal agent of downy mildew of cucumber. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 12:14

Gutsalyuk TG, 1974. Initial material for breeding melons for field resistance to diseases. Genetika I selektsiya rast. I zhivotnykh v Kazakhstane, 149-151.

Hasan MS, 1989. Soil sterilization by solar heating in Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 7(2):122-125; 15 ref.

He ZiFu; Yu Hao; Zhu TianSheng; Wang ShaoYi; He WenBiao, 2001. Prediction model for epidemiological rate of cucumber downey mildew disease in Guangdong. Plant Protection, 27(5):10-12; 5 ref.

Hiura M; Kawada S, 1933. On the overwintering of Peronoplasmopara cubensis (B. and C.) Clinton causing downy mildew of cucurbits. An. Inst. Cerc. pentru Prot. Pl., 10:151-159.

Holmes GJ; Main CE; Keever TZ, 1998. Forecasting long-distance movement of cucurbit downy mildew. Proceedings Cucurbitaceae 1998, Pacific Grove, California, USA, 186-188.

Holmes GJ; Main CE; Keever ZT, 2002. Forecasting long-distance movement of cucurbit downy mildew: a 3-year summary. Phytopathology, in press.

Inaba T; Kajiwara T, 1971. Experiments on the sporulability of cucumber downy mildew fungus in lesion [Pseudoperonospora cubensis]. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 37:340-347.

Iwata Y, 1942. Host plants of Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. Et Curt.) Rostow. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 12:48-50.

Iwata Y, 1952. On the period of infection of cucumber leaves by downy mildew fungus [Pseudoperonspora cubensis]. Bull. Fac., Agric. Mie Univ. Japan, 5:35-41.

Jiang MX, 1981. Selection and evaluation of the cucumber F1 hybrids Ninghuang 1 and Ninghuang 2. Ningxia Agricultural Science and Technology Ningxia Nongye Keji, 5:10-11.

Kajiwara T; Iwata Y, 1957. Observations on the sporulation of cucumber downy mildew fungus [Pseudoperonspora cubensis]. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 22:201-203.

Kajiwara T; Iwata Y, 1968. On the longevity of condia of cucumber downy mildew fungus, with special reference to the influence of sunlight. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 34:85-91.

Kakade DS; Shelke SS, 2000. Chemical control of downy mildew of ridge gourd. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 25(3):306-307; 3 ref.

Keinath AP; DuBose VB, 2000. Evaluation of pumpkin cultivars for powdery and downy mildew resistance, virus tolerance, and yield. HortScience, 35(2):281-285; 15 ref.

Khosla HK; Dave GS; Nema KG, 1973. Occurrence of downy mildew of parwal (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) in Madhya Pradesh, India. JNKVV Research Journal, 7(3):175-177.

Klinkenberg HJ; Stierl R; Dehne HW, 1998. Investigations on fungicide resistance in oomycetes. Proceedings 50th International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, 5 May 1998. Part IV. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 63:1009-1015.

Koh YoungJin; Ahn MiYeon; Seo JeongKyu, 1996. Occurrence and control of downy mildew of netted melon in Chonnam province. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(4):459-462; 7 ref.

Krfstkovß E; Lebeda A, 1995. Genetic resources of vegetable crops from the family Cucurbitaceae. Zahradnictvi^acute~, 22(4):123-128; 31 ref.

Lai LY; Zhang SD, 1992. Disease resistance identification of cucumber varietal resources in Shandong. Journal of Shandong Agricultural Science, No. 1:20-25; 2 ref.

Lange L; Eden U; Olson LW, 1989. Internal mycelium of Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew. Nordic Journal of Botany, 8(5):505-510

Lange L; Eden U; Olson LW, 1989. Zoosporogenesis in Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew. Nordic Journal of Botany, 8(5):497-504

Lebeda A, 1992. Screening of wild Cucumis species against downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) isolates from cucumbers. Phytoparasitica, 20(3):203-210

Lebeda A; Gadasová V, 2002. Pathogenic variation of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in the Czech Republic and some other European countries. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Cucurbits, Tsukuba, Japan, 28 September to 1 October 2001.], No.588:137-141.

Lebeda A; Sedláková B; Pavelková J, 2012. New hosts of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in the Czech Republic and pathogen virulence variation. In: Cucurbitaceae 2012. Proceedings of the Xth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Antalya, Turkey, 15-18 October, 2012 [ed. by Sari, N.\Solmaz, I.\Aras, V.]. Adana, Turkey: University of Cukurova, Ziraat Fakultesi, 768-776.

Lebeda A; Urban J, 2007. Temporal changes in pathogenicity and fungicide resistance in Pseudoperonospora cubensis populations. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Cucurbits, Townsville, Australia, 11-17 September 2005.], No.731:327-336. http://www.actahort.org

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Mullins CA; Straw RA; Bost SC; Onks DO; Pitt WD Jr, 1993. Pumpkin cultivar and fungicide trials. Tennessee Farm and Home Science, No. 168:29-34

Nalobova VL, 2005. False powdery mildew (Peronospora cubensis (Beek. et Curt.) Rostowsz.) of cucumber and intensity of its manifestation at the republic of Belarus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Agrarian Sciences Series, No.2:61-63. http://belal.by/vesti/2__5/2__5_2/pdf/61-63.pdf

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Takeuchi T, 1992. Development of phenylamide-resistant strains of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Chiba Prefecture and effect of metalaxyl on downy mildew on cucumber caused by the strains. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No. 39:91-93

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Voglmayr H; Piatek M; Mossebo DC, 2009. Pseudoperonospora cubensis causing downy mildew disease on Impatiens irvingii in Cameroon: a new host for the pathogen. Plant Pathology, 58(2):394. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Wallace E; Adams M; Ivors K; Ojiambo PS; Quesada-Ocampo LM, 2014. First report of Pseudoperonospora cubensis causing downy mildew on Momordica balsamina and M. charantia in North Carolina. Plant Disease, 98(9):1279. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wallace E; Adams M; Quesada-Ocampo LM, 2015. First report of downy mildew on buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis in North Carolina. Plant Disease, 99(12):1861. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Yang Du; Hajetay B; Yasen A; Abudurexiti A; Xu YongMei; Ainaisi Y, 2007. Spatial structure of long-distance spread of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in muskmelon in arid area of Xinjiang. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 37(2):184-191. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Yu WenYing; Zhang ShaoSheng; Du XueRu; Zhang XiuFang, 2009. Identification and investigation on occurrence regularity of the cucumber diseases in greenhouse of Fujian. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Science Edition), 38(2):119-123.

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Zarins I; Daugavietis M, 1998. Conifer foliage extractive substances in plant protection. Baltic Forestry, 4(2):31-39; 5 ref.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Celar F, 1989. The occurrence of downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Rostow.) on cucumbers in Slovenia. (Pojav kumarne plesni (povzročitelj Pseudoperonospora cubensis Rostow.) v Sloveniji.). Zaštita Bilja. 40 (2), 227-231.

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Cohen Y, Rubin A E, Liu X L, Wang W Q, Zhang Y J, Hermann D, 2013. First report on the occurrence of A2 mating type of the cucurbit downy mildew agent Pseudoperonospora cubensis in China. Plant Disease. 97 (4), 559. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0899-PDN

Cvjetković B, Kišpatić J, 1984. The occurrence of Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucumbers in Croatia. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra. 407-410.

Forsberg A S, 1986. Downy mildew - Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Swedish cucumber fields in 1985. (Angrepp av bladmögel - Pseudoperonospora cubensis i svenska gurkfält sensommaren 1985.). Växtskyddsnotiser. 50 (1), 17-19.

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Khosla H K, Dave G S, Nema K G, 1973. Occurrence of downy mildew of parwal (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) in Madhya Pradesh, India. JNKVV Research Journal. 7 (3), 175-177.

Lai L Y, Zhang S D, 1992. Disease resistance identification of cucumber varietal resources in Shandong. Journal of Shandong Agricultural Science. 20-25.

Lebeda A, Gadasová V, 2002. Pathogenic variation of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in the Czech Republic and some other European countries. Acta Horticulturae. 137-141.

Lebeda A, Sedláková B, Pavelková J, 2012. New hosts of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in the Czech Republic and pathogen virulence variation. In: Cucurbitaceae 2012. Proceedings of the Xth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Antalya, Turkey, 15-18 October, 2012 [Cucurbitaceae 2012. Proceedings of the Xth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Antalya, Turkey, 15-18 October, 2012.], [ed. by Sari N, Solmaz I, Aras V]. Adana, Turkey: University of Cukurova, Ziraat Fakultesi. 768-776.

Lebeda A, Urban J, 2007. Temporal changes in pathogenicity and fungicide resistance in Pseudoperonospora cubensis populations. Acta Horticulturae. 327-336. http://www.actahort.org

Mahrishi R P, Siradhana B S, 1988. Studies on downy mildew of cucurbits in Rajasthan: incidence, distribution, host range and yield losses in muskmelon. Annals of Arid Zone. 27 (1), 67-70.

Manole N, 1988. Control of cucumber pathogens in Moldova. (Combaterea agenților patogeni din culturile de castraveți în Moldova.). Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. 21 (4), 69-74.

Merkuri J, Varaku S, Casulli F, 2002. Fungal diseases of vegetable crops in Albania. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 41 (2), 157-159.

Moss M A, 1987. Resistance to metalaxyl in the Pseudoperonospora cubensis population causing downy mildew of cucumber in South Florida. Plant Disease. 71 (11), 1045. DOI:10.1094/PD-71-1045A

Mullins C A, Straw R A, Bost S C, Onks D O, Pitt W D Jr, 1993. Pumpkin cultivar and fungicide trials. Tennessee Farm and Home Science. 29-34.

Nalobova V L, 2005. False powdery mildew (Peronospora cubensis (Beek. et Curt.) Rostowsz.) of cucumber and intensity of its manifestation at the republic of Belarus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Agrarian Sciences Series. 61-63. http://belal.by/vesti/2__5/2__5_2/pdf/61-63.pdf

Phookan A K, Gogoi R, 1995. Occurrence of downy mildew on bittergourd in Assam. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 25 (3), 331.

Riley D G, Palumbo J C, 1995. Interaction of silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) with cantaloupe yield. Journal of Economic Entomology. 88 (6), 1726-1732. DOI:10.1093/jee/88.6.1726

Salati M, Wong M Y, Sariah M, Masdek H N, 2010. First report of Pseudoperonospora cubensis causing downy mildew of Trichosanthes cucumerina in Malaysia. Plant Disease. 94 (5), 642. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0642A

Sharma D R, Gupta S K, Shyam K R, 2003. Studies on downy mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis and its management. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 33 (2), 246-251.

Tahvonen R, 1985. Downy mildew of cucurbits found for the first time in Finland. Växtskyddsnotiser. 49 (3), 42-44.

Takeuchi T, 1992. Development of phenylamide-resistant strains of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Chiba Prefecture and effect of metalaxyl on downy mildew on cucumber caused by the strains. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society. 91-93.

Thind T S, Mohan C, 2001. Disease-weather relationship and relative activity of some new fungicides in different application schedules against muskmelon downy mildew. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 174-179.

Trajčevski T, 2008. Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. and Curt.) Rostov. on melon and efficiency of chemical protection. (Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostov. na dinji i djelotvornost kemijske zaštite.). Glasnik Zaštite Bilja. 31 (3), 55-60. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

UK, CAB International, 1981. Pseudoperonospora cubensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 285.

Ul'yanishchev VI, 1967. Mykoflora of Azerbaijan. IV. In: Peronosporales, Baku, Akad. Sci. Zaerbaijan SSR. 122-123.

Varady C, Ducrot V, 1985. Downy mildew of cucumber. (Le mildiou du concombre.). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture. 17 (2), 103-106.

Voglmayr H, Piątek M, Mossebo D C, 2009. Pseudoperonospora cubensis causing downy mildew disease on Impatiens irvingii in Cameroon: a new host for the pathogen. Plant Pathology. 58 (2), 394. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.02008.x

Wallace E, Adams M, Ivors K, Ojiambo P S, Quesada-Ocampo L M, 2014. First report of Pseudoperonospora cubensis causing downy mildew on Momordica balsamina and M. charantia in North Carolina. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1279. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0305-PDN

Wallace E, Adams M, Quesada-Ocampo L M, 2015. First report of downy mildew on buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis in North Carolina. Plant Disease. 99 (12), 1861. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0348-PDN

Yang Du, Hajetay B, Yasen A, Abudurexiti A, Xu YongMei, Ainaisi Y, 2007. Spatial structure of long-distance spread of Pseudoperonospora cubensis in muskmelon in arid area of Xinjiang. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 37 (2), 184-191. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Yu WenYing, Zhang ShaoSheng, Du XueRu, Zhang XiuFang, 2009. Identification and investigation on occurrence regularity of the cucumber diseases in greenhouse of Fujian. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Science Edition). 38 (2), 119-123.

Zariņš I, Daugavietis M, 1998. Conifer foliage extractive substances in plant protection. Baltic Forestry. 4 (2), 31-39.

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