Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria radicina
(black rot of carrots)

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Datasheet

Alternaria radicina (black rot of carrots)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria radicina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black rot of carrots
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler & E.D. Eddy

Preferred Common Name

  • black rot of carrots

Other Scientific Names

  • Macrosporium daucinum Yatel
  • Pseudostemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler & E.D. Eddy) Subram.
  • Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler & E.D. Eddy) Neerg.
  • Thyrospora radicina (Meier, Drechsler & E.D. Eddy) Neerg.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: podredumbre negra de las raices
  • French: fonte des semis de la carotte; pourriture noire de la carotte
  • Russian: buraya pyatnisost'

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gulerodens sortraad
  • Germany: Schwarzfäeule der Mohrrübe

EPPO code

  • ALTERA (Alternaria radicina)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria radicina

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JilinPresent
-ShanxiPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IraqPresentWasit
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-South AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent

Growth Stages

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Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Burkholderia cepacia Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Wood

References

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Abou-Heilah AN, 1985. Postharvest fungal diseases of some vegetables in the two main markets of Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Journal of the University of Kuwait, Science, 12(1):103-111; [5 fig., 2 tab.]; 19 ref.

Bedlan G, 1984. Important diseases of carrot. Pflanzenarzt, 37(9):140-142

Benedict WG, 1977. Effect of soil temperature on the pathology of Alternaria radicina on carrots. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(10):1410-1418

Beresniewicz MM, Duczmal KW, 1994. The effect of environmental conditions on carrot seed health. Plant Varieties & Seeds, 7(3):151-160

Bilgrami KS, Ansari AA, Sinha AK, Shrivastava AK, Sinha KK, 1994. Mycotoxin production by some Indian Alternaria species. Mycotoxin Research, 10(1):56-59

Bontea V, 1985. Parasitic and saprophytic fungi of Romania. Volume I. Ciuperci parazite si saprofite din România. Volumul I., 586pp.

Bulajic A, Krstic B, 2007. Carrot pathogens (Alternaria radicina, A. dauci). (Patogeni mrkve (Alternaria radicina, A. dauci).) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 35(6):595-604.

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Alternaria radicina. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 760.

Cam B le, Rouxel F, Villeneuve F, 1993. Post-harvest pathogens on cold stored carrots: Mycocentrospora acerina (Deighton), the major spoilage fungus. Agronomie, 13(2):125-133

Cofelice G, Porta-Puglia A, 1996. Indagine sulla micoflora della sementi di alcune piante ortensi. Informatore Fitopatologico, 46:21-25.

Coles RB, Wicks TJ, 2003. The incidence of Alternaria radicina on carrot seeds, seedlings and roots in South Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 32(1):99-104; 9 ref.

Creelman DW, 1961. A summary of the prevalence of plant disease in Canada in 1960. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 41:31-71.

Creelman DW, 1965. Summary of the prevalence of plant disease in Canada in 1964. A Compilation. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 45:37-83.

Dhyani AP, Sati MC, Khulbe RD, 1990. Seed-plant transmission and control of Alternaria spp. in Lahi (Brassica napus L.) in Kumaun Hills, India. Madras Agricultural Journal, 77(3-4):137-142

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ellis MB, 1976. More dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Kew, UK: CMI, 507 pp.

Ellis MB, Holliday P, 1972. Alternaria radicina. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. Set 35, No. 346. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Gindrat D, 1979. Alternaria radicina, an important parasite of market garden Umbelliferae. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 11(6):257-267

Gindrat D, Kocher HP, 1981. Behaviour of celeriac cultivars in soil contaminated by Alternaria radicina. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 13(3):169-171

Groves JW, Skolko AJ, 1944. Notes on seed-borne fungi. Canadian Journal of Research, 22:217-234.

Gärber U, Nega E, Jahn M, 2007. Alternaria radicina on parsley - disease incidence and alternative control methods. (Alternaria radicina an Petersilie (Petroselinum crispum L.) - Schadwirkung und alternative Bekämpfungsmöglichkeiten.) Zeitschrift für Arznei- & Gewürzpflanzen, 12(2):74-79. http://www.zag-info.com

Hentschel KD, 1991. Biocontrol of seed-borne Alternaria radicina on carrots by antagonistic Bacillus subtilis.. Bulletin SROP, 14(8):73-76; 5 ref.

Ilhan S, Asan A, 2001. Soilborne fungi in wheat fields of KIrka Vicinity (Eskisehir-Turkey). Biologia (Bratislava), 56(4):363-371.

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Janyska A, 1972. The resistance of young plants of different carrot varieties to Stemphylium radicinum. Bulletin, Vyzkumny Ustav Zelinarsky, Olomouc. 1970-1971, No. 14-15, 139-145.

Jensen B, Knudsen IMB, Madsen M, Jensen DF, 2004. Biopriming of infected carrot seed with an antagonist, Clonostachys rosea, selected for control of seedborne Alternaria spp. Phytopathology, 94(6):551-560.

KenKnight G, Blodgett EC, 1945. A survey of diseases of the carrot seed crop in Idaho with control recommendations. Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 262.

Khudhair MW, Jabbar RA, Dheyab NS, Hamad BS, Aboud HM, Khalaf HS, Mohammed NJ, 2015. Alternaria radicina causing leaf spot disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Wasit (middle of Iraq) and its susceptibility to bioassay test of two fungicides. International Journal of Phytopathology, 4(2):81-86. http://escijournals.net/index.php/phytopath/article/view/ijpp1225/pdf1225

Konstantinova P, Bonants PJM, Gent Pelzer MPE van, Zouwen P van der, Bulk R van den, 2002. Development of specific primers for detection and identification of Alternaria spp. in carrot material by PCR and comparison with blotter and plating assays. Mycological Research, 106(1):23-33.

Kucmierz J, Bartynska M, Mazur S, 1989. Studies of fungal diseases on carrot grown for seed. Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu, Ogrodnictwo, 194(16):171-178; 21 ref.

Kuprashvili TD, 1974. Taxonomy of fungi causing black spot of carrot. Trudy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 26:103-106

Kuprashvili TD, 1996. The use of phytoncides for seed treatment. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No. 5:31.

Lauritzen JI, 1926. The relation of black rot to the storage of carrots. Journal of Agricultural Research, 33:1025-1041.

Leach CM, 1962. The sporulation of diverse species of fungi under near ultraviolet radiation. Canadian Journal of Botany, 40:151-161.

Mahmood T, Aslam M, 1984. Stemphylium blight of carrot. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 32(4):147

Mannerucci GF, Gambogi P, Vannacci G, 1982. Detection of pathogenic fungi on seeds of market garden plants. Informatore Fitopatologico, 32(5):47-54

Marthe F, Scholze P, 2006. Alternaria leaf blight (Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler & Eddy) - a serious crop disease of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.). (Alternaria-Blattflecken (Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler & Eddy) - eine bedeutende Erkrankung der Petersilie (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.).) Zeitschrift für Arznei- & Gewürzpflanzen, 11(3):145-149. http://www.zag-info.com

Maude RB, 1966. Studies on the etiology of black rot, Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler et Eddy) Neerg., and leaf blight, Alternaria dauci (Kühn) Groves et Skolko, on carrot crops and on fungicide control of their seed-borne infection phases. Annals of Applied Biology, 57:83-93.

Meier FC, Drechsler C, Eddy ED, 1922. Black rot of carrots caused by Alternaria radicina n. sp. Phytopathology, 12:157-166.

Melchers LS, Apotheker-de Groot M, Knaap JAvan der, Ponstein AS, Sela-Buurlage MB, Bol JF, Cornelissen BJC, Elzen PJMvan den, Linthorst HJM, 1994. A new class of tobacco chitinases homologous to bacterial exo-chitinases displays antifungal activity. Plant Journal, 5(4):469-480; 45 ref.

Merfield C, Hampton J, Hill M, Wratten S, 2005. The effect of seed moisture content and the duration and temperature of hot water treatment on carrot seed viability and the control of Alternaria radicina. In: Researching sustainable systems. Proceedings of the First Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR), held in Cooperation with the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and the National Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Australia (NASAA), Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, 21-23 September, 2005 [ed. by Köpke, U.\Niggli, U.\Neuhoff, D.\Cornish, P.\Lockeretz, W.\Willer, H.]. Bonn, Germany: International Society of Organic Agricultural Research (ISOFAR), 542-545.

Mirkova E, 1975. Investigation on fungicidal effects of some herbicides used for the treatment of carrot in Bulgaria. Rastitelnozashchitna Nauka, No.1/2:188-192

Mirkova E, 1976. Laboratory method for detecting and determining infection of carrot seeds by fungal pathogens. Rastitelna Zashchita, 24(1):45-47

Montemurro N, Visconti A, 1992. Alternaria metabolites - chemical and biological data. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A, eds. Alternaria - Biology, Plant Diseases and Metabolites. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 449-557.

Murtaza M, Wahid A, Ali S, Nadeem A, 1988. Seedling blight of carrot caused by Stemphyllium redicinum. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(4):601-603

Neergaard P, 1939. Aarsberetning fra J. E. Ohlsens Enkes Plantespatologiske Laboratorium. 1 April 1938 - 31 Marts 1939. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Neergaard P, 1942. Mykologische Notizen II. 4. Phialophora mustea sp. n. 5. Centrospora ohlsenii gen. nov., sp. nov. 6. Stemphylium petroselini sp. nov. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, 104:407-412.

NEERGAARD P, 1945. Danish species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. Copenhagen, E. Munksgaard; London, Oxford University Press, 560 pp.

Osipyan LL, 1975. Mycoflora of the Armenian SSR. Vol.3. Moniliales. Mikoflora Armyanskoi SSR. T.3. Gifal'nye griby. Erevan Inst. Erevan USSR, 644 pp.

Patel MK, Kamat MN, Bhide VP, 1949. Fungi of Bombay, Supplement 1. Indian Phytopathology, 2:142-155.

Potschke M, 1984. Fungicide treatment of carrots in situ for the production of healthy vegetables in storage. Gartenbau, 31(7):206-207

Pryor BM, Davis RM, Gilbertson RL, 1994. Detection and eradication of Alternaria radicina on carrot seed. Plant Disease, 78(5):452-456

Pryor BM, Gilbertson RL, 2001. A PCR-based assay for detection of Alternaria radicina on carrot seed. Plant Disease, 85(1):18-23; 31 ref.

Punja ZK, Raharjo SHT, 1996. Response of transgenic cucumber and carrot plants expressing different chitinase enzymes to inoculation with fungal pathogens. Plant Disease, 80(9):999-1005; 47 ref.

Reifschneider FJB, Della Vecchia PT, 1985. Thiabendazole as an iatrogenic agent in carrot black rot. Plant Pathology, 34(2):300-301

Riccioni L, Orzali L, 2011. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia, Cheel) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Linnaeus.) essential oils against some pathogenic seed borne fungi. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 23(6):43-47. http://www.jeoronline.com/

Rukshenaite-Beretskene S, 1968. Biology of Alternaria and Stemphylium species attacking carrot. In: Minkevicius A, ed. Materialy Pyatogo Simpoziuma po Voprosam issledovaniya miko- i likheno flory Pribaltiiskikh Respublik. Vilnius, Lithuania: Akad. Nauk. Litov. SSR, 157-163.

Salmon ES, Ware WM, 1934. Report of the Department of Mycology. Journal of the South-eastern Agricultural College Wye, 33:19-27.

Saude C, Hausbeck MK, 2006. First report of black rot of carrots caused by Alternaria radicina in Michigan. Plant Disease, 90(5):684.

Sesan T, 1990. Relationships between main fungal pathogens of stored carrot and saprophytic fungi. Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Biologie Vegetala, 42(2):149-152

Shidlauskiene A, Surviliene E, 2002. Distribution and pathogenic peculiarities of fungi of the Alternaria genus on vegetable crops in Lithuania. Plant Protection Science [Disease resistance in plant pathology. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Prague, Czech Republic, 8-14 September 2002.], 38(Special 2):395-398.

Shvartsman SR, Vasygina MP, Byzova ZM, Filimonova NM, 1975. Flora of spore-bearing plants of Kazakhstan. Vol. VIII. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes). 2. Moniliales. Flora sporovykh rastenii Kazakhstana. Tom VIII. Nesovershennye griby. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes). 2. Monilial'nye - Moniliales. Izdatel'stvo Nauka. Alma-Ata USSR, 518 pp.

Simmons EG, 1995. Alternaria themes and variations (112-144). Mycotaxon, 55:55-163

Soteros JJ, 1979. Detection of Alternaria radicina and A. dauci from imported carrot seed in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 22(1):185-190

Strandberg JO, 2002. A selective medium for the detection of Alternaria dauci and Alternaria radicina. Phytoparasitica, 30(3):269-284; 25 ref.

Subramoniam V, Rao VG, 1975. A new storage disease of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in India. Biovigyanam, 1(2):199

Sycheva LV, 1985. Breeding carrot for yield and high carotene content. Selektsiya i semenovodstvo ovoshchnykh kul'tur v Tsentral'no Chernozemnoi zone 1985, 51-57.

Szopinska D, Jensen B, Knudsen IMB, Tylkowska K, Dorna H, 2010. Non-chemical methods for controlling seedborne fungi in carrot with special reference to Alternaria radicina. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50(2):184-192. http://www.plantprotection.pl

Tahvonen R, 1978. Seed-borne fungi on parsley and carrot seed in Finland. Journal of the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland, 50(2):91-102

Tai FL, 1979. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Peking, China: Science Press, Academia Sinica, 1527 pp.

Timchenko VI, Soldatenko OM, Yarovoi GI, 1989. Diseases of carrot seed plants. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No.6:31-32

Trivedi, R. S., Hampton, J. G., Townshend, J. M., Jaspers, M. V., Ridgway, H. J., 2010. First report of Alternaria carotiincultae on carrot seed produced in New Zealand. Plant Disease, 94(9), 1168-1169. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-94-9-1168C

Tylkowska K, 1984. Health of carrot seeds in 1978-1980. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji RoSlin, No.153:203-217; [2 graphs, 7 tab.]; 17 ref.

Tylkowska K, Bulk RWvan den, 2001. Effects of osmo- and hydropriming on fungal infestation levels and germination of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds contaminated with Alternaria spp. Seed Science and Technology, 29(2):365-375; 36 ref.

USDA, 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Utyugova T, Levteeva N, 1977. Effectiveness of carrot seed disinfection against Alternaria disease. Latvijas Lauksaimniecibas Akademija Raksti, No.136, Part 2:8-10

Vintsunas TS, 1980. Field resistance of carrot subspecies and varieties to fungus diseases. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 66(2):84-90

Vintsunas TS, 1986. Initial material for breeding carrot for resistance to fungal diseases. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva imeni N. I. Vavilova, No. 161:34-36

Virgin WJ, 1941. Previously unreported vegetable diseases in Idaho. USDA Plant Disease Reporter, 25:243-244.

Vlasova EA, Fedorenko EI, 1986. Analysis of the pathogenic mycoflora of carrot and the resistance of its germplasm to the main diseases. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 102:72-79

Wearing AH, 1980. Alternaria radicina on celery in South Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 9(4):116

Yamamoto K, 1960. Synonymous species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 11:88-93.

Yu SH, 1992. Occurrence of Alternaria Species in Countries of the Far East and their Taxonomy. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A, eds. Alternaria. Biology, Plant Diseases and Metabolites. Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo: Elsevier, 37-62.

Yu SH, Park JS, 1982. Survey on seed-borne fungi in some important crops of Korea. Res. Rep. Agri. Sci. Tech., Chungnam National University, Korea, 9:275-283.

Distribution References

Abou-Heilah A N, 1985. Postharvest fungal diseases of some vegetables in the two main markets of Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Journal of the University of Kuwait, Science. 12 (1), 103-111.

Bedlan G, 1984. Important diseases of carrot. (Wichtige Krankheiten der Karotten.). Pflanzenarzt. 37 (9), 140-142.

Bontea V, 1985. Ciuperci parazite și saprofite din România. Volumul I. Bucharest, Romania: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România. 586pp.

Bulajić A, Krstić B, 2007. Carrot pathogens (Alternaria radicina, A. dauci). (Patogeni mrkve (Alternaria radicina, A. dauci).). Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor). 35 (6), 595-604.

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Alternaria radicina. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 760. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500760

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cam B le, Rouxel F, Villeneuve F, 1993. Post-harvest pathogens on cold stored carrots: Mycocentrospora acerina (Deighton), the major spoilage fungus. (Analyse de la flore fongique de la carotte conservée au froid: prépondérance de Mycocentrospora acerina (Hartig) Deighton.). Agronomie. 13 (2), 125-133. DOI:10.1051/agro:19930207

Creelman D W, 1961. A summary of the prevalence of plant diseases in Canada in 1960. Canadian Plant Disease Survey. 41 (2), 31-121 pp.

Creelman D W, 1965. Summary of the prevalence of plant diseases in Canada in 1964. Canadian Plant Disease Survey. 45 (2), 37-83.

Dhyani A P, Sati M C, Khulbe R D, 1990. Seed-plant transmission and control of Alternaria spp. in Lahi (Brassica napus L.) in Kumaun Hills, India. Madras Agricultural Journal. 77 (3-4), 137-142.

Ellis M B, 1971. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. 608 pp.

Ellis M B, Holliday P, 1972. Alternaria radicina. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sheet 346. DOI:10.1079/DFB/20056400346

Gindrat D, Kocher H P, Undated. Behaviour of celeriac cultivars in soil contaminated by Alternaria radicina. (Comportement de varietes de celeri-rave en sol contamine par Alternaria radicina.). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture. 13 (3), 169-171.

Groves J W , Skolko A J, 1944. Notes on seed-borne fungi. II. Alternaria. Canadian Journal of Research. 22 (5), 217-234 pp.

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

İlhan S, Asan A, 2001. Soilborne fungi in wheat fields of Kirka Vicinity (Eski?ehir-Turkey). Biologia (Bratislava). 56 (4), 363-371.

Janyska A, 1970. The resistance of young plants of different carrot varieties to Stemphylium radicinum. (Rezistence mladych rostlin sortimentu mrkve vuci Stemphylium radicinum (M., Dr. et E.) Neerg.). Bulletin. Vyzkumy ustav zelinarsky Olomouc. 139-145.

Khudhair M W, Jabbar R A, Dheyab N S, Hamad B S, Aboud H M, Khalaf H S, Mohammed N J, 2015. Alternaria radicina causing leaf spot disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Wasit (middle of Iraq) and its susceptibility to bioassay test of two fungicides. International Journal of Phytopathology. 4 (2), 81-86. http://escijournals.net/index.php/phytopath/article/view/ijpp1225/pdf1225

Kuprashvili T D, 1974. Taxonomy of fungi causing black spot of carrot. Trudy Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii. 103-106.

Mahmood T, Aslam M, 1984. Stemphylium blight of carrot. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 32 (4), 147.

Mannerucci G F, Gambogi P, Vannacci G, 1982. Detection of pathogenic fungi on seeds of market garden plants. (Reperimento di funghi patogeni su semi di colture ortensi.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 32 (5), 47-54.

Neergaard P, 1945. Danish species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. Copenhagen, E. Munksgaard; London, Oxford University Press. 560 pp.

Osipyan L L, 1975. Mikoflora Armyanskoi SSR. T.3. Gifal'nye griby. Erevan, USSR: Erevan Inst. 644 pp.

Patel M K , Kamat M N , Bhide V P, 1949. Fungi of Bombay, supplement I. Indian Phytopathology. 2 (2), 142-155 pp.

Pötschke M, 1984. Fungicide treatment of carrots in situ for the production of healthy vegetables in storage. (Fungizide Bestandbehandlungen von Speisemöhren zur Produktion gesunden Lagergemüses.). Gartenbau. 31 (7), 206-207.

Reifschneider F J B, Della Vecchia P T, 1985. Thiabendazole as an iatrogenic agent in carrot black rot. Plant Pathology. 34 (2), 300-301. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1985.tb01364.x

Salmon E S, Ware W M, 1934. Report of the Department of Mycology. Journal of the South-eastern Agricultural College Wye. 19-27.

Saude C, Hausbeck M K, 2006. First report of black rot of carrots caused by Alternaria radicina in Michigan. Plant Disease. 90 (5), 684. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0684B

Shidlauskienė A, Survilienė E, 2002. Distribution and pathogenic peculiarities of fungi of the Alternaria genus on vegetable crops in Lithuania. Plant Protection Science. 38 (Special 2), 395-398.

Shvartsman S R, Vasygina M P, Byzova Z M, Filimonova N M, 1975. Flora sporovykh rastenii Kazakhstana. Tom VIII. Nesovershennye griby. Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes). 2. Monilial'nye - Moniliales. Alma-Ata, USSR: Izdatel'stvo Nauka. 518 pp.

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