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Trichoconiella padwickii
(stackburn disease)

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Datasheet

Trichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trichoconiella padwickii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stackburn disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. padwickii, previously known as Alternaria padwickii, is an asexually reproducing fungus that infects seeds of rice [Oryza sativa]. It is one of several fungi responsible for seed discolouration,...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lesions are oval to circular spots, 3-10 mm in diameter. Young lesions are tan, later becoming grey to white with a narrow, dark-brown border.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionLesions are oval to circular spots, 3-10 mm in diameter. Young lesions are tan, later becoming grey to white with a narrow, dark-brown border.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Lesions are oval to circular spots, 3-10 mm in diameter. Young lesions are tan, later becoming grey to white with a narrow, dark-brown border.
Symptoms on leafLesions are oval to circular spots, 3-10 mm in diameter. Young lesions are tan, later becoming grey to white with a narrow, dark-brown border.Chin Khoon Min
T. padwickii invades the kernel, developing brown-black spots or blotches. Shrivelled, discoloured and brittle grain results from such infection.
TitleSymptoms on grain
CaptionT. padwickii invades the kernel, developing brown-black spots or blotches. Shrivelled, discoloured and brittle grain results from such infection.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
T. padwickii invades the kernel, developing brown-black spots or blotches. Shrivelled, discoloured and brittle grain results from such infection.
Symptoms on grainT. padwickii invades the kernel, developing brown-black spots or blotches. Shrivelled, discoloured and brittle grain results from such infection. Chin Khoon Min
Conidia are produced singly. They may be straight or curved with a beak that is half or more the length of the conidium; conidia are 95-170 µm long and 11-20 µm wide (measurements include the beak).
TitleConidia
CaptionConidia are produced singly. They may be straight or curved with a beak that is half or more the length of the conidium; conidia are 95-170 µm long and 11-20 µm wide (measurements include the beak).
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Conidia are produced singly. They may be straight or curved with a beak that is half or more the length of the conidium; conidia are 95-170 µm long and 11-20 µm wide (measurements include the beak).
ConidiaConidia are produced singly. They may be straight or curved with a beak that is half or more the length of the conidium; conidia are 95-170 µm long and 11-20 µm wide (measurements include the beak).Chin Khoon Min
Conidia, sclerotia and conidiophores x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 345. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleConidia, sclerotia and conidiophores
CaptionConidia, sclerotia and conidiophores x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 345. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
Conidia, sclerotia and conidiophores x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 345. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Conidia, sclerotia and conidiophoresConidia, sclerotia and conidiophores x 500. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 345. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trichoconiella padwickii (Ganguly) B.L. Jain 1976

Preferred Common Name

  • stackburn disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis 1971
  • Trichoconis padwickii Ganguly 1948

International Common Names

  • English: black belly rice kernel; dirty panicle disease; grain spot of rice; leaf spot of rice; panicle blight; pink kernel; seedling blight of rice; stackburn of rice
  • Spanish: alternariosis del arroz
  • French: stackburn du riz

EPPO code

  • ALTEPD (Alternaria padwickii)

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. padwickii, previously known as Alternaria padwickii, is an asexually reproducing fungus that infects seeds of rice [Oryza sativa]. It is one of several fungi responsible for seed discolouration, seed rot and seedling blight, but has also been detected as a sheath-rotting pathogen (Naeimi et al., 2003). It occurs in southern Asia and in countries on other continents worldwide, but its presence in mainland North America is not confirmed. Transport to and transmission in new areas may be prevented by use of tested clean seed. Where the pathogen is already present, application of seed treatments should reduce disease incidence, but the fungus has an undetermined ability to survive as sclerotia in plant debris and soil.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Trichoconiella
  •                                     Species: Trichoconiella padwickii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Ganguly (1947) described a new species, Trichoconis padwickii,based on isolations from rice in India. It was transferred to Alternaria by Ellis (1971) who noted that the conidiogenous cells in Trichoconis differ, producing multiple colourless conidia, each on a long denticle. Jain (1975) created the new genus Trichoconiella for T. padwickii, disagreeing with its placement in Alternaria because no longitudinal or oblique septa were observed in the conidia, and the conidiophores are straight, little differentiated from the hyphae, and non-proliferating, with a single conidiogenous site, unlike those typical of Alternaria.

In his monograph on Alternaria, Simmons (2007) does not consider A. padwickii other than to designate a lectotype. Ganguly (1947) did not identify a type specimen in his original material. Dugan and Peever (2002) examined a different IMI fungarium specimen and a non-sporulating live strain from Texas, USA (Kulik, 1975) and included the species, under the name Trichoconiella padwickii, in their key to Alternaria species on grasses.

Description

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Colonies on PDA spreading, greyish, sporulating. Reverse often deep pink or purple. Conidiophores solitary, unbranched, smooth, 100-180 x 3-4 µm. Apices often swollen to 5-6 µm wide, minutely echinulate, bearing one monotretic conidiogenous cell. Conidia single, fusiform to obclavate, with filamentous true beak, 95-170 (including beak) x 11-20 µm; body hyaline to straw-brown or golden-brown, with 3-5, commonly 4, transverse septa, often constricted at septa, smooth or minutely echinulate; beak hyaline, 0-1 or more septate, half to more than half the length of spore body. Sclerotia spherical, black, multicellular, walls reticulate, 50-200 µm diameter. For further details, see Padwick (1950); Ellis (1971); Ellis and Holiday (1972); and Jain (1975).

Distribution

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T. padwickii has been recorded on rice [Oryza sativa] worldwide, primarily in tropical regions (UK CAB International, 1984). The scattered countries where it is recorded beyond southern Asia, suggest that introduction occurred on imported seed.

Tisdale (1922) and Tullis (1936) reported on a rice-infecting and sclerotium-producing Alternaria in the USA as Trichoconis caudata before T. padwickii was named. Despite the possibility that the fungus was introduced in seed during the early development of rice cultivation in North America and the assumption that the "stackburn" pathogen described by Tisdale (1922) and Tullis (1936) was T. padwickii as suggested by Padwick, 1950; Kulik (1975; 1977); and Groth (1992), this species is not generally recorded as occurring in the USA (UK CAB International, 1984; BPI, 2009). Ou (1985) indicated that records of T. caudata on rice in the southern USA (Tullis, 1936) are misidentifications of T. padwickii, but this has not been confirmed.

T. padwickii is also reported from rice in Cuba (Arnold, 1986), Panama (Ferrer et al., 1980), Surinam (UK CAB International, 1984) and Venezuela (Rodriguez and Nass, 1990) in the Caribbean basin. In Costa Rica, it is recorded on the grass, Axonopuscompressus (UK CAB International, 1984), which is native to the western hemisphere, but widely naturalized in other tropical regions (USDA-ARS, 2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentMian and Fakir, 1989; Mathur et al., 2004; Khokon et al., 2005
Brunei DarussalamPresentPeregrine, 1974; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
CambodiaPresentAnon, 1962; Litzenberger et al., 1962; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
CambodiaPresentAnon, 1962; Litzenberger et al., 1962; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
ChinaPresentHanson, 1963; Tai, 1979; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
ChinaPresentHanson, 1963; Tai, 1979; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-HunanPresentLuo et al., 2002
IndiaPresentAnon, 1963; Mathur and Neergaard, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
IndiaPresentAnon, 1963; Mathur and Neergaard, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Andhra PradeshPresentJohnston, 1963; Sreeramulu and Vittal, 1966
-BiharPresentJha and Prasad, 1984
-HaryanaPresentSaini, 1985
-KarnatakaWidespreadSarbhoy et al., 1971; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; Abdul-Kair et al., 1988On Oryza
-KeralaPresentAnon, 1963; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; Thankamma and Nair, 1989On Eucalyptus
-Madhya PradeshPresentReddy and Khare, 1978
-OdishaPresentPadmanabhan, 1949; CMI, 1984; Rao and Prakash, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-OdishaPresentPadmanabhan, 1949; CMI, 1984; Rao and Prakash, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-RajasthanPresentBaleshwar et al., 2004
-Tamil NaduPresentCMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Tamil NaduPresentCMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Uttar PradeshPresentAnon, 1963; Mathur et al., 1972; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984On Oryza
-Uttar PradeshPresentAnon, 1963; Mathur et al., 1972; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984On Oryza
-West BengalPresentGanguly, 1947; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-West BengalPresentGanguly, 1947; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
IndonesiaPresentDumbleton, 1954; Supriaman and Palmer, 1979; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Irian JayaPresentDumbleton, 1954
-JavaPresentSoepriaman et al., 1976; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Nusa TenggaraPresentCMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Nusa TenggaraPresentCMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
IranPresentKaiser et al., 1968; Zakeri and Zad, 1987; Naeimi et al., 2003
JapanPresentTamura, 1975; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
Korea, Republic ofPresentBrown, 1976; Cho and Shin, 2004
MalaysiaPresentJagoe and Henderson, 1953
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentThompson and Johnston, 1953
-SabahPresentCMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-SabahPresentCMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
MyanmarPresentThaung, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; Maung Mya Thaung, 2008
NepalWidespreadShrestha et al., 1977; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; IPPC, 2005
PakistanPresentKhan and Kamal, 1974; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; Shakir et al., 1997
PhilippinesPresentAguiero et al., 1966; Mathur and Neergaard, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; Ou, 1985
Sri LankaPresentJeyanandarajah and Seneviratne, 1991
TaiwanPresentWu and Dow, 1993; Wu, 1994
ThailandPresentOu, 1963; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
VietnamPresentBugnicourt, 1952; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroduced Invasive Nguefack et al., 2008
EgyptPresentIntroduced Invasive Anon, 1964; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
GhanaPresentIntroduced Invasive CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Invasive Rosales and Mew, 1982
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Alasoardura, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
SwazilandPresentIntroduced Invasive CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
UgandaPresentBiruma et al., 2003

North America

USAPresentLee et al., 1993
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive Tullis, 1936; Kulik, 1975Not confirmed
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive Tullis, 1936; Kulik, 1975Not confirmed
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive Tullis, 1936; Kulik, 1975Not confirmed

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Alizaga et al., 1983; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Arnold, 1986
PanamaPresentIntroduced Invasive Ferrer et al., 1980

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Winter et al., 1974; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984; Gutierrez et al., 2002
BrazilPresentIntroduced Invasive Mathur, 1981; Soave et al., 1985; Mendes et al., 1998
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced Invasive Caratelli and Saponaro, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive Franco et al., 2001
-Sao PauloPresentSoave et al., 1985
ColombiaPresentPinzón Ruíz, 2003
PeruPresentIntroduced Invasive Vallejos and Mattos, 1990
SurinamePresentIntroduced Invasive Anon, 1959; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Invasive Rodriguez and Nass, 1990

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive Porta-Puglia et al., 1996
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced Invasive Aleshin et al., 1980

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPitkethley, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentPitkethley, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentPitkethley, 1970; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Shivas, 1989
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Dumbleton, 1954; Firman, 1972; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Dumbleton, 1954; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Dumbleton, 1954; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984
New ZealandAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroduced Invasive Lau and Sheridan, 1975; CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984On imported seed only
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive CMI, 1984; UK CAB International, 1984

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
New Zealand 1974-1975 Seed trade (pathway cause) No No Lau and Sheridan (1975) accidental

Risk of Introduction

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T. padwickii is commonly seed-borne and is carried at high levels; it is therefore likely to be introduced on imported seed unless efforts are made to exclude it. The likelihood of establishment depends on the technological level of rice cultivation in the area, and whether the costs of seed testing, seed cleaning, and/or seed treatment can be supported. The impact of the pathogen where it is not controlled can vary depending on the place of rice [Oryza sativa] in the local economy - whether it is a subsistence crop, one of several food crops, or primarily a cash crop. Loss of seedling stand and vigour, and quality of the harvest, can be tolerated at differing levels under these different systems.

Economic importance: moderate
Distribution: worldwide
Seedborne: yes
Seed transmitted: yes
Seed treatment: good control
Overall risk: low
 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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Padwick (1950) refers to T. padwickii causing spots on the leaves of an unspecified wild grass in rice [Oryza sativa] paddy fields. In Costa Rica, it is recorded on the grass, Axonopuscompressus (UK CAB International, 1984), which is native to the western hemisphere, but widely naturalized in other tropical regions (USDA-ARS, 2010). This fungus has also been reported in India on seeds of millet (Pennisetum typhoides [Pennisetum glaucum]) in Uttar Pradesh (Mathur et al., 1973), on seeds of Sorghum halepense (Mathur and Prakash, 1977), on eucalyptus in Kerala (Thankamma and Nair, 1989), and on the invasive weed, Marsilea quadrifolia (Sarbhoy et al., 1971). In Brazil, it is recorded on the grass, Brachiariadecumbens [Urochloa decumbens] as well as on rice (Mendes et al., 1998).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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This seed-borne fungus causes pre- and post-emergence seed rot (Srinivasaiah et al., 1984). After emergence, small dark-brown lesions may occur on the roots, the coleoptile or the early leaves. The parts of the seedling above lesions are blighted or the whole seedling dies (Padwick, 1950; Rush, 1992). Spots on later leaves, only occasionally seen, are oval to circular, 3-10 mm diameter and tan, later becoming grey to white with a narrow, dark-brown border (Padwick, 1950). Sheath rot in rice caused by T. padwickii, among other fungi, was reported for the first time by Naeimi et al. (2003) in northern Iran. In the "stackburn" phase of the disease, spots on glumes are pale brown to white or faintly pink or reddish-brown, usually with a darker border (Groth, 1992). Infected grain is dark coloured, chalky, brittle, and/or shriveled, with reduced viability (Lee, 1992b; Groth 1992). The small black sclerotia appear in the centre of lesions on all infected parts (Ou, 1985) and may be numerous in infected grains (Padwick, 1950).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / necrosis
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / seedling blight

Biology and Ecology

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The recovery of T. padwickii conidia from the air in a rice [Oryza sativa] field (Sreeramulu and Vittal, 1966) supports the suggestion of Tisdale (1922) that the fungus survives in soil or crop debris, presumably as sclerotia and mycelium that are embedded within host tissues. Wild grasses have been found to be infected (Padwick, 1950; UK CAB International, 1984; Mendes et al., 1998) and may be another source of inoculum for the ripening rice. Numbers of airborne conidia released were highest between 6.00 and 12.00 h and, on a seasonal basis in India, greatest conidial densities occurred at the time when ears were ripening (Sreeramulu and Vittal, 1966). Maximum growth in culture occurs at 26-28°C (Chuaipraisit, 1976), but there are no reported data on the conditions that stimulate sporulation in culture or in the field.

Rotem (1994) noted that, although microsclerotia have been reported from a few species in the genus, even those records are rare and most information on the survival of Alternaria-like species relate to conidia and mycelium. The role of sclerotia in the epidemiology of this pathogen may be unique.

Tullis (1936) indicated that the pathogen gains entry to seeds through the glumes and attacks the kernel before the rice [Oryza sativa] is mature. The fungus can be isolated from the glumes, endosperm and embryo of infected seed of susceptible varieties (Srinivasaiah et al., 1984). Seedborne incidence was favoured by high rainfall and by small fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity (Abdul-Kair et al., 1988).

This pathogen is also extensively seedborne and its transmission to seedlings has been demonstrated under laboratory test conditions (Mathur et al., 1972).

Associations

T. padwickii is one of a number of fungi found associated with the panicle rice mite, Steneotarsonemus spinki, which damages rice grains worldwide and has recently been rediscovered in the rice-growing states of the southern USA (Hummel et al., 2009).

Feeding by rice bugs such as Leptocorisa oratorius was considered to enhance infection of the grain by fungi including T. padwickii, in the Philippines (Lee et al., 1986). A "loose vector relationship" between the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax and fungi causing grain discolouration, such as T. padwickii, that is introduced during feeding has been reported (Lee et al., 1993).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal
 
Conidia of T. padwickii are airborne and most abundant at the time of heading and grain ripening (Sreeramulu and Vittal, 1966; Groth, 1992). Large numbers of conidia may become airborne during the harvest (Atluri and Murthy, 2002). Sclerotia and mycelium could be carried in plant debris (Ellis and Holliday, 1972) with or without soil.
 
Accidental Introduction
 
The fungus is one of many infecting rice seed, often at high levels (Mathur et al., 1972), therefore it is likely to have been introduced to new areas of rice cultivation in untreated imported seed. It has been detected in seed of exotic germplasm imported to India (Agarwal et al., 2006).

Seedborne Aspects

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Incidence

Very high levels of seed infection (39-80%) have been recorded (Vir et al., 1971; Mathur et al., 1972; Ou, 1985). Infection rates of 28.9% were detected in seed lots in Iran (Zad and Khosravi, 2000). Up to 25% of seeds harvested from naturally infected paddy [Oryza sativa] cv. Pusa 33 exhibited the disease in Karnal, India, in 1996 (Dharam Singh et al., 2001).

Effect on Seed Quality

Infection in rice causes black discolouration beneath the husk on the tip and beyond, even up to half of the length of the paddy seed, depending on the infection intensity (Dharam Singh et al., 2001). Grain discolouration caused by T. padwickii alone or in combination with other fungi can influence market value (Saini, 1985; Lee et al., 1986). High levels of seed infection and associated seed rotting can have a serious impact on stand establishment in nursery beds and in the field (Mathur et al., 1972; Ou, 1985).

Pathogen Transmission

Transmission of T. padwickii from seed to seedlings was demonstrated under laboratory test conditions (Mathur et al., 1972). The fungus can be isolated at high levels from the glumes, endosperm and embryo of infected seed of susceptible varieties (Srinivasaiah et al., 1984). Although high mortality of seedlings occurs when infected seeds are planted (Mathur et al., 1972), it is likely that infected seeds are a source of inoculum for the planted crop.

Seed Treatment

Several seed-treatment fungicides are reported to give control of seed infection, including iprobenfos and benomyl (Rajan and Nair, 1979), N-ethylmercurio-4-toluenesulfonanilide (Aleshin et al., 1980) and mancozeb (Vir et al., 1971). Seed treatment with hot water or mancozeb appears to be essential to control seedborne infection in high-yielding cultivars (Rath, 1974).

Seed Health Tests

Blotter (Misra et al., 1994)

1. Use 9.5 cm Petri plates made of Pyrex glass or clear plastic to allow NUV light to penetrate. The plates should contain two to three layers of good-quality white or coloured blotter paper moistened with distilled water.

2. Place seeds from the working sample (with or without pre-treatment) equidistant on the Petri plates at 25 seeds/plate.

3. Incubate seeds at 22°C under a 12-h light and 12-h dark cycle with NUV light for 6-8 days.

4. Examine plates for characteristic colonies of T. padwickii. Express results as a percentage of the number of total seeds.

Culture plate

1. Pre-treat 400 seeds with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min.

2. Drain off excess liquid. Place seeds (10 seeds per agar plate) on either malt extract agar or potato dextrose agar in 9.5 cm Petri dishes.

3. Incubate at 22°C for 5-8 days either under alternate cycles of NUV light and darkness or total darkness.

4. Examine plates for characteristic colonies of T. padwickii from the third through the eighth day of incubation. Express results as a percentage of seeds infected.

Notes on methods

Research on blotter and culture plate methods has been ongoing since the early 1970s (Mathur and Neergaard, 1970; Kulik, 1975; Shetty and Shetty, 1988). Mathur et al. (1972) stressed the importance of the light source in optimizing test results. Cheeran and Raj (1972) report having detected T. padwickii in extracted embryos of rice. Shetty and Shetty (1988) preferred the use of rice extract agar rather than PDA due to easier identification of the pathogen. Mathur and Kongsdal (2003) note that a pink-purple colour often surrounds the infected seed on paper and that colonies of this species on PDA are white above and almost black below with few conidia.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Economic Impact

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T. padwickii is widespread in many major rice-growing regions throughout the world. Grain discolouration caused by this pathogen alone or in combination with other fungi can reduce market value (Saini, 1985; Lee et al., 1986). Leaf spots usually do not cause much damage. High levels of seed infection and associated seed rotting can have a serious impact on stand establishment in nursery beds and in the field, but the importance of the disease is "commonly underestimated" (Ou, 1985). In the USA, Kulik (1977) found a low correlation between seed infection by T. padwickii and reduction of seed germination.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Diagnosis

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These are primarily developed for detection of seed or grain infection (see Seedborne Aspects of Disease, Seed Health Tests).

In a moist chamber, leaf spots caused by T. padwickii become covered within several days by a dense white cottony mycelium, distinguishing them from those of other leaf-spotting fungi (Padwick, 1950).

Sequences for the ITS regions of rDNA for six Indian isolates were recently made available for comparison in GenBank (NCBI, 2010).

Detection and Inspection

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Above-ground plant tissues at the seedling stage or on leaves of older plants show oval to circular spots, 3-10 mm diameter. Lesions are tan, later becoming grey to white with a narrow, dark-brown border. Sclerotia appearing as small, black dots are produced in the centre of older lesions on all infected parts.

Seeds may have brown-black spots or blotches. Severe infection can result in shriveled, discoloured and brittle grain. Several other fungi can cause similar discolouration (Tullis, 1936; Saini, 1985).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Other Alternaria-like species reported on rice [Oryza sativa] by Agarwal et al. (1975), Alternaria longissima [Prathoda longissima] (fide Simmons, 2007) and Alternaria tenuis [Alternaria alternata](fide Ellis, 1971), produce much longer, narrow conidia and much smaller, beakless conidia (Ellis, 1971; Mathur and Kongsdal, 2003).

No other clearly-defined species of Alternaria-like fungus occurs on rice (Simmons, 2007). The species reported on Sorghum vulgare, Alternaria sorghicola, produces conidia from branched conidiophores, conidia in chains that have both transverse and longitudinal septa, with or without long beaks that terminate in cells that are secondary conidiophores (Simmons, 2007).

A number of other fungi cause seed rot and seedling blight (Ou, 1985; Rush, 1992), sheath rot (Naeimi et al., 2003), and grain discolouration (Tullis, 1936; Padwick, 1950; Saini, 1985; Lee, 1992b) of rice. Among these is the brown spot pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, which also produces small spots on leaves. The lesions are pale brown to grey with a reddish-brown margin. The conidia are fusiform to almost cylindrical, curved, pale to golden brown, 63-153 x 14-22 µm, beakless, with up to three times as many apparent transverse septa as occur in T. padwickii, (Lee, 1992a).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

SPS Measures

The testing and certification of rice seed is necessary to prevent the importation of this seedborne pathogen into new areas or the increase of inoculum in already infested areas. The fungus has been detected in seed of exotic germplasm imported to India (Agarwal et al., 2006) as well as in inert matter contaminating local seed lots in Bangladesh (Khokon et al., 2005). In New Zealand, T. padwickii was detected only in seed lots of foreign origin, not in the native ones (Lau and Sheridan, 1975).

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Padwick (1950) recommended destruction of rice stubble and straw by burning. A row spacing trial (15, 20, and 25 cm wide) showed that seedborne infections were highest with the closest spacing. Seed infection also increased proportionally as nitrogenous fertilizer applications were increased from 0 to 200 kg/ha (Agarwal et al., 1975).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand cleaning of farmers’ seed was found effective in improving seed germination and seedling vigour in Bangladesh (Mathur et al., 2004). The hot water treatment of seed is an alternative to cleaning and the use of chemicals, but may reduce the level of germination.

Tisdale (1922) found that, after a pre-soaking period of 16 hours in tepid water, soaking seed for 15 minutes in water at 54°C gave the best results for germination and disinfection.

In India, Suryanarayan et al. (1963) recommended the use of 50°C water for 10 minutes, but germination was reduced to 62%. Alternative variations gave improved germination, but did not completely eliminate infection.

The proper drying of the grain before storage should reduce later development of infection (Lee, 1992b).

Biological Control

A formulation of rice rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, in powdered talc, was effective in reducing seedling infection by T. padwickii and Bipolaris oryzae when applied to seeds at the rates of 5 and 10 g per kg (Praveen Kumar et al., 2001).

Chemical Control

Several fungicide sprays gave satisfactory control of grain discolouration, including: chlorothalonil, mancozeb, carboxin, and fenapanil (Ferrer et al., 1980); polyoxin (Arunyanart et al., 1981); iprobenfos and benomyl (Rajan and Nair, 1979); and iprodione (Rodriguez et al., 1988).

Despite the deep-seated nature of seed infection, several seed-treatment fungicides are reported as giving control of seed infection, including iprobenfos and benomyl (Rajan and Nair, 1979); N-ethylmercurio-4-toluenesulfonanilide (Aleshin et al., 1980); and mancozeb (Vir et al., 1971). Seed treatment with hot water or mancozeb appears to be essential to control seedborne infection in high-yielding rice cultivars (Rath, 1974).

Chemicals from natural sources may provide control that is less toxic to mammals and less polluting in the environment. Shanmugam (2004) tested leaf extracts of twenty plant species and found that a 10% concentration of the extract of Prosopis juliflora (mesquite) had an inhibitory effect equivalent to that of a fungicide on mycelial growth and spore germination of seed-borne fungi of rice, including T. padwickii. The essential oils from the leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) are also effective against the fungus, but at higher concentrations (Behura et al., 2000). Seeking a treatment available to small farmers in Cameroon, Nguefack et al. (2008) tested the essential oils of three locally-grown plants applied as a slurry to rice seed. Those of Ocimum gratissimum (African basil) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) had an effect similar to that of mancozeb in reducing transmission of fungi from seeds to seedlings. A natural chemical, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, isolated from the Indian plant, Decalepis hamiltonii was almost as effective as thiram as a treatment against T. padwickii and other seed-borne fungi (Devihalli Chikkaiah et al., 2009).

Host Resistance

Although Rath (1974) reported no resistance to T. padwickii in high-yielding rice cultivars, some breeding lines were found resistant in nursery tests in Java, Indonesia (Soepriaman et al., 1976).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Survival of the fungus in soil and plant debris under various conditions of cultivation (flooding, fallow, crop rotation, eradication of alternative wild hosts) should be investigated.

The placement and relationships of this species within the genus Trichoconiella and/or another genus should be clarified by morphological and molecular methods. With the identity established, the host range, particularly among wild grasses and other weeds of rice fields, should be determined. The role of any alternative hosts as sources of late-season inoculum may then be apparent.

The distribution of this species in regions of rice cultivation, particularly whether it occurs within the USA, should be clarified.

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02/04/10 Updated by:

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