Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Psila rosae
(carrot root fly)



Psila rosae (carrot root fly)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Psila rosae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • carrot root fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Psila rosae (carrot root fly); damage symptons on carrots, and a late infestation. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. October 2004.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPsila rosae (carrot root fly); damage symptons on carrots, and a late infestation. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. October 2004.
Copyright©Rasbak/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Psila rosae (carrot root fly); damage symptons on carrots, and a late infestation. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. October 2004.
Damage symptomsPsila rosae (carrot root fly); damage symptons on carrots, and a late infestation. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. October 2004.©Rasbak/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Psila rosae (carrot root fly); larval damage to carrots.
CaptionPsila rosae (carrot root fly); larval damage to carrots.
Copyright©NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Psila rosae (carrot root fly); larval damage to carrots.
DamagePsila rosae (carrot root fly); larval damage to carrots.©NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Psila rosae (Fabricius, 1794)

Preferred Common Name

  • carrot root fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Chamaepsila hennigi Thomson & Pont, 1994
  • Chamaepsila rosae (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Musca rosae Fabricius, 1794; preocc. [ICZN App. pending]

International Common Names

  • English: carrot rust fly
  • Spanish: mosca de la zanahoria
  • French: mouche de la carotte

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gulerodsflue
  • Finland: porkkanakärpänen
  • Germany: Mohrenfliege
  • Israel: zvuv hagezer
  • Italy: mosca della pastinaca; mosca delle carote
  • Netherlands: wortelvlieg
  • Norway: gulrotflue
  • Sweden: morotfluga
  • Turkey: havuc sinegi

EPPO code

  • PSILRO (Psila rosae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Psilidae
  •                             Genus: Psila
  •                                 Species: Psila rosae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


Georgia (Republic of)PresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentIwasa, 1991
-HokkaidoPresentIwasa, 1991
MongoliaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentIIE, 1992; Vernon et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentShewell, 1965; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentIIE, 1992; Stevenson and Barszcz, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentBoivin, 1987; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentShewell, 1965
-ConnecticutPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentShewell, 1965
-IllinoisPresentShewell, 1965
-MainePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentShewell, 1965
-MassachusettsPresentWhitcomb, 1929; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentPettit, 1931; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentGlasgow and Gaines, 1929; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentShewell, 1965
-WashingtonPresentGetzin and Archer, 1983; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentShewell, 1965


AustriaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentPopov & Mikul' -skaya, 1995; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentMateeva et al., 2002
Czech RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentIIE, 1992; Langer, 1995; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentHolopainen et al., 1991; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentBouron, 1986; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentMaki and Ryan, 1989; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentSabatino, 1976; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentEster and Neuvel, 1989; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentNarkiewicz-Jodko, 1994; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentJagodic et al., 2003
SpainPresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentIIE, 1992; Ramert and Ekbom, 1996; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentRobert et al., 1985; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentIIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014


New ZealandPresentSomerfield, 1982; IIE, 1992; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / internal feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleochara sparsa Parasite Pupae
Basalys tritoma Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Carabidae Predator Eggs
Chorebus gracilis Parasite Larvae/Pupae Canada; Poland carrots
Conidiobolus apiculatus Pathogen Denmark carrots
Entomophthora muscae Pathogen Adults Denmark carrots
Kleidotoma nigra Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Kleidotoma psiloides Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Loxotropa tritoma Parasite Canada carrots
Tolypocladium cylindrosporum Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelInfected soil is a risk. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Ashby DG; Wright DW, 1946. The immature stages of the carrot fly. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 97:355-379.

Boivin G, 1987. Seasonal occurrence and geographical distribution of the carrot rust fly (Diptera: Psilidae) in Quebec. Environmental Entomology, 16(2):503-506

Bouron H, 1986. Carrot fly. Phytoma, No. 380:29

Buffin D, 1995. New tests reveal high residues. Pesticides News, No. 27:3

Burn AJ; Coaker TH, 1981. Diapause and overwintering of the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.) (Diptera: Psilidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 71(4):583-590

Chandler P, 1998. Musca rosae Fabricius, 1794 (currently Psila or Chamaepsila rosae; Insecta, Diptera): proposed conservation of the specific name. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 55(2):96-98; 24 ref.

Cole RA, 1985. Relationship between the concentration of chlorogenic acid in carrot roots and the incidence of carrot fly larval damage. Annals of Applied Biology, 106(2):211-217

Collier RH; Finch S, 1990. Some factors affecting the efficiency of sticky board traps for capturing the carrot fly, Psila rosp (Diptera: Psilidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 80(2):153-158

Collier RH; Finch S, 1996. Field and laboratory studies on the effects of temperature on the development of the carrot fly (Psila rosae F.). Annals of Applied Biology, 128:1-11.

Collin JE, 1944. The British species of Psilidae (Diptera). Entomologist's monthly Magazine, 80:214-224.

Coppock LJ; Maskell FE; Gair R, 1975. Attempts at cultural control of carrot fly damage to carrots in East Anglia. Plant Pathology, 24(2):97-101

Dufault CP; Coaker TH, 1987. Biology and control of the carrot fly, Psila rosp (F.). Agricultural Zoology Reviews, 2:97-134

Ellis PR; Hardman JA; Crowther TC; Saw PL, 1993. Exploitation of the resistance to carrot fly in the wild carrot species Daucus capillifolius. Annals of Applied Biology, 122(1):79-91

Ellis PR; Hardman JA; Saw PL, 1992. Host plants of the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.) (Dipt., Psilidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 128(1532-35):1-9; 29 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Ester A; Neuvel J, 1989. Prospects for coating seeds of root crops with insecticides against the root fly (Psila rosp). Gewasbescherming, 20(5):149-158

Ferrar P, 1987. A guide to the breeding habits and immature stages of Diptera Cyclorrhapha (Part 1: text; Part 2: figures). Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill/Scandinavian Science Press, 8(1):1-478, 8(2):479-907.

Getzin LW; Archer TE, 1983. Carrot rust fly (Diptera: Psilidae) control: monitoring adults to schedule post-plant-emergence, soil-applied larvicides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(3):558-562

Glasgow H; Gaines JG, 1929. The carrot rust fly problem in New York. Journal of Economic Entomology, 22:412-416.

Gratwick M, 1992. Crop pests in the UK: collected edition of MAFF leaflets. Crop pests in the UK: collected edition of MAFF leaflets., x + 490 pp.; [Co-published with Van Nostrand Reinhold, Inc., New York, USA].

Hardman JA; Ellis PR; Stanley EA, 1985. Bibliography of the carrot fly Psila rosp (F.). Wellesbourne, UK; Vegetable Research Trust, viii + 105 pp.

Hennig W, 1941. Psilidae. Lieferung 140, Band 5 (41). In: Lindner E, ed. Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region. Stuttgart, Germany: Schweizerbart, 1-38.

Hill DS, 1987. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Holopainen JK; Havukkala I; Knuuttila T; Kettunen S, 1991. Yellow sticky traps in monitoring and control of carrot rust fly in home gardens. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 30(2):207-214

IIE, 1992. Psila rosae (F.). Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 84. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Iwasa M, 1991. Taxonomic study of the genus Psila Meigen (Diptera, Psilidae) from Japan, Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands. Japanese Journal of Entomology, 59(2):389-408

Jagodic A; Milevoj L; Gomboc S, 2003. Monitoring the appearance of carrot rust fly (Psila rosae F.). (Spremljanje pojava korenjeve muhe (Psila rosae F.).) In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 6. Slovenskega Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, Zrece, Slovenije, 4-6 marec 2003 . Ljubljana, Slovenia: Dru?tvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije, 205-210.

Langer V, 1995. Pests and diseases in organically grown vegetables in Denmark: a survey of problems and use of control methods. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 12(2):151-171

Maki A; Ryan MF, 1989. Root-mediated effects in carrot resistance to the carrot fly, Psila rosp. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 15(6):1867-1882

Mateeva A; Ivanova M; Vassileva M, 2002. Effect of intercropping on the population density of pests in some vegetables. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Second Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes, Thessaloniki, Greece, 11-15 October 2000.], No.579:507-511.

Maybee GE, 1954. Introduction into Canada of parasites of the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae (F.)(Diptera; Psilidae). 84th annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario for 1953, 53-62.

Narkiewicz-Jodko J, 1994. The carrot fly (Psila rosae). Ochrona Ros^acute~lin, 38(6):4-6.

Osborne P, 1961. Comparative external morphology of Psila rosae (F.) and Psila nigricornis Mg. (Dipt., Psilidae) third instar larvae and puparia. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 97:124-127.

Pettit RH, 1931. Carrot rust fly found in Michigan. Quarterly Bulletin of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, 13:119-121.

Popov FA; Mikul'skaya NI, 1995. Pests and diseases of carrot. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 2:23-24

Robert J; Fischer S; Freuler J, 1985. The pests of carrot: description and relative importance of the observed damage. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 17(6):351-356

RSmert B, 1996. Intercropping as a strategy for reducing damage to carrots caused by the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.). Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 13(4):359-369; 28 ref.

RSmert B; Ekbom B, 1996. Intercropping as a management strategy against carrot rust fly (Diptera: Psilidae): a test of enemies and resource concentration hypotheses. Environmental Entomology, 25(5):1092-1100; 28 ref.

Sabatino A, 1976. On the appearance of Psila rosp F. (Dipt. Psilidae) in fennel crops in Apulia. Entomologica, 12:131-134

Shatalkin AI, 1986. Review of eastern Palparctic flies of the genus Psila Mg. (Diptera, Psilidae) with a key to Palparctic species. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 146:23-43

Shewell GE, 1965. Psilidae. In: Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR, eds. A Catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Smith KGV, 1989. An introduction to the immature stages of British flies: Diptera larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. London, UK: Royal Entomological Society, 10(14):1-280.

Somerfield KG, 1982. Carrot rust fly in Canterbury (Diptera: Psilidae). New Zealand Entomologist, 7(3):338-340

Soos A, 1984. Psilidae. In: Soos A, Papp L, eds. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 9. Budapest, Hungary: Akadamiai Kiado.

Stevenson AB; Barszcz ES, 1994. Effect of temperature on diapause development in pupae of the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae (Fab.) (Diptera: Psilidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 125:87-93

Suett DL, 1989. Accelerated degradation of soil-applied insecticides: implications for insect pest control. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 54(3b):983-991

Thompson FC; Pont AC, 1994. Systematic database of Musca names (Diptera). Theses Zoologicae, 20.

Toms AM, 1972. Crop protection and farm management, 2. Big Farm Management, 12:61-62.

Vernon RS; Mackenzie JR; Scott DM, 1994. Factors influencing consistency of a carrot rust fly (Diptera: Psilidae) monitoring program in British Columbia. Environmental Entomology, 23(3):579-586

Whitcomb WD, 1929. Observations on the carrot rust fly (Psila rosae Fab.) in Massachusetts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 22:672-675.

Wright DW; Geering QA; Ashby DG, 1947. The insect parasites of the carrot fly, Psila rosae, Fab., Bulletin of Entomological Research, 37:507-529.

Distribution Maps

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