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Datasheet

Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Psidium cattleianum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • strawberry guava
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. cattleianum is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical countries after introduction as an ornamental or a fruit tree. It has invaded humid areas such as rainforests on tropical islands especially in the...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. cattleianum thicket showing erect stems with few branches, and seedlings or suckers on the ground.
TitleHabit
CaptionP. cattleianum thicket showing erect stems with few branches, and seedlings or suckers on the ground.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
P. cattleianum thicket showing erect stems with few branches, and seedlings or suckers on the ground.
HabitP. cattleianum thicket showing erect stems with few branches, and seedlings or suckers on the ground.Frédéric Normand
Flowers and flower buds of P. cattleianum.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers and flower buds of P. cattleianum.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
Flowers and flower buds of P. cattleianum.
FlowersFlowers and flower buds of P. cattleianum.Frédéric Normand
P. cattleianum leaf.
TitleLeaf
CaptionP. cattleianum leaf.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
P. cattleianum leaf.
LeafP. cattleianum leaf.Frédéric Normand
P. cattleianum stem bark.
TitleBark
CaptionP. cattleianum stem bark.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
P. cattleianum stem bark.
BarkP. cattleianum stem bark.Frédéric Normand
High fruit production of P. cattleianum exposed to the sun.
TitleFruits
CaptionHigh fruit production of P. cattleianum exposed to the sun.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
High fruit production of P. cattleianum exposed to the sun.
FruitsHigh fruit production of P. cattleianum exposed to the sun.Frédéric Normand
Red fruited P. cattleianum.
TitleRed fruits
CaptionRed fruited P. cattleianum.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
Red fruited P. cattleianum.
Red fruitsRed fruited P. cattleianum.Frédéric Normand
Yellow fruited Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum.
TitleYellow fruits
CaptionYellow fruited Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
Yellow fruited Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum.
Yellow fruitsYellow fruited Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum.Frédéric Normand
Pulp and seeds in P. cattleianum fruit.
TitlePulp and seeds
CaptionPulp and seeds in P. cattleianum fruit.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
Pulp and seeds in P. cattleianum fruit.
Pulp and seedsPulp and seeds in P. cattleianum fruit.Frédéric Normand
P. cattleianum seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionP. cattleianum seeds.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
P. cattleianum seeds.
SeedsP. cattleianum seeds.Frédéric Normand
P. cattleianum seedlings. Note the numerous seeds on the soil.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionP. cattleianum seedlings. Note the numerous seeds on the soil.
CopyrightFrédéric Normand
P. cattleianum seedlings. Note the numerous seeds on the soil.
SeedlingsP. cattleianum seedlings. Note the numerous seeds on the soil.Frédéric Normand

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Psidium cattleianum Afzel. ex Sabine

Preferred Common Name

  • strawberry guava

Other Scientific Names

  • Episyzygium oahuense Suess. & A.Ludw.
  • Eugenia ferruginea Sieber ex C.Presl
  • Eugenia oxygona Koidz.
  • Eugenia pseudovenosa H.Perrier
  • Eugenia urceolata Cordem.
  • Guajava cattleyana (Afzel. ex Sabine) Kuntze
  • Guajava obovata (Mart ex DC.) Kuntze
  • Psidium acre (Ten.)
  • Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum
  • Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum (Degener) Fosb.
  • Psidium chinense
  • Psidium coriaceum var grandifolium O.Berg
  • Psidium coriaceum var. longipes Berg
  • Psidium coriaceum var. obovatum O.Berg
  • Psidium ferrugineum C.Presl
  • Psidium indicum Boj.
  • Psidium littorale Raddi
  • Psidium littorale var. coriaceum (Berg.) Kiaerskou
  • Psidium littorale var. littorale Bailey
  • Psidium littorale var. longipes (Berg.) Fosb.
  • Psidium lucidum
  • Psidium obovatum Mart.
  • Psidium sinense
  • Psidium variabile Berg

International Common Names

  • English: Brazilian guava; cattley guava; cherry guava; Chinese strawberry guava; lemon guava; purple strawberry guava; yellow strawberry guava
  • Spanish: guayaba fresa; guayabo
  • French: goyave de chine; goyavier fraise; goyavier-fraise
  • Chinese: cao mei fan shi liu
  • Portuguese: araçá; araçá-amarelo

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: araça da praia; araçá-amarelo; araçá-de-coroa; araçazeiro
  • Chile: guayabo pequeño
  • Costa Rica: cas dulce
  • Cuba: guayabita cereza; guayabita fresa
  • French Polynesia: tuava popa'a; tuava tinito; tuvava tinito
  • Germany: Purpur- Guavenbaum
  • Guatemala: guayaba japonesa
  • Italy: guaia rosso
  • Jamaica: purple guava
  • Lesser Antilles: goyavier de St. Martin; goyavier prune
  • New Zealand: purple guava
  • Samoa: ku'ava
  • Uruguay: araza
  • USA/Hawaii: waiwai; waiwai ulaula
  • Venezuela: guayaba peruana

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. cattleianum is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical countries after introduction as an ornamental or a fruit tree. It has invaded humid areas such as rainforests on tropical islands especially in the Pacific and Indian Oceans where it displaces native species and threatens their survival. It thrives in a large range of ecological conditions and reproduces efficiently by seeds and suckers. Once established, it forms dense stands. This species shows allelopathic activity and its fruits host fruit flies (Motooka et al., 2003). Seeds continue to be available via mail-order on websites or seed catalogues, and the species will likely spread further. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Myrtaceae
  •                             Genus: Psidium
  •                                 Species: Psidium cattleianum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Myrtaceae includes 131 genera and about 4620 species distributed worldwide but mostly in tropical-warm habitats (Stevens, 2012). The genus Psidium is included within the subfamily Myrtoideae and comprises approximately 100 species. After controversy following the first published name of the species (Fosberg, 1941), Psidium cattleianum, often misspelled “cattleyanum”, is retained as the valid scientific name (Schroeder, 1946). For non-preferred scientific names refer to Popenoe (1920), Fouqué (1972) and Scott (1990). The name P. araça hort. not Raddi (Maggs, 1984) is confused with P. araça Raddi, a synonym of the distinct species P. guineense Swartz.

P. cattleianum has two botanical varieties, recognizable mainly by the skin colour of the fruit at maturity. P. cattleianum var. cattleianum has red to purple fruit when mature, and synonyms include P. littorale var. longipes, P. coriaceum var. longipes and P. variabile. Common names are purple strawberry guava, cherry guava, or waiwai ulaula (Hawaii). P. cattleianum var. lucidum has sulphur-yellow fruit when mature, and synonyms include P. littorale var. littorale, P. littorale var. coriaceum, P. lucidum, P. acre, P. chinense and P. variabile. Common names are yellow strawberry guava, lemon guava or waiwai (Hawaii).

Description

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The form of P. cattleianum trees depends on the environment. In full sunlight, it is a slow growing evergreen shrub, 2-4 m tall and often branching from the base with an overall round shape. Under shaded conditions, P. cattleianum is erect and branches weakly and can reach 8 m tall.

The slender stem and branches are smooth, pinkish, greenish or greyish brown in colour. Bark peels off in small papery flakes. Twigs are glabrous and cylindrical, and young leaves and twigs are red in colour. Leaves are opposite and decussate, shortly petiolate (petiole 3-10 mm long), elliptic to obovate, 4.5-12 cm long and 2-6 cm wide, with a blunt to slightly acuminate apex and a cuneiform sharp base. They are thick and coriaceous, upper surface dark green in colour, glossy, waxy, flat or slightly folded around the main rib. The lower surface is glabrous, whitish-green in colour, punctuated with small oil cavities (Arruda and Fontenelle, 1994), with the main rib prominent near the base but the 8-10 pairs of lateral ribs are not prominent, forming an intra-marginal rib 1-3 mm from the edge of the limb. Young leaves and twigs are red in colour.

The fragrant flowers are axillary and solitary, rarely grouped in 2 or 3. The four to five white petals are obovate, 5-6 mm long and wide. Flowers bear numerous stamens, 256 to 480 according to Raseira and Raseira (1996), and a greenish disc-shaped stigma. Ovary is tri- to pentalocular, mostly tetralocular. Fruit is a globulous to obovoid berry, 1.5-4 cm in diameter, bearing persistent sepals at the apex. The thin skin is dark green when unripe, and then red to purple for P. cattleianum var. cattleianum and sulphur-yellow for P. cattleianum var. lucidum. Pulp is soft, whitish, and contains several (2-100) seeds (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990; Raseira and Raseira, 1996; Normand, 2002a). Seeds are reniform, 2-3 mm long, with a yellowish testa. Fruit has a pleasant, strawberry-like flavour when ripe, hence its common name.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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P. cattleianum is native to south-east Brazil and northern Uruguay. It has been widely introduced and now can be found widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics and has become naturalized almost everywhere where it has been introduced, particularly in rainforests and on island ecosystems in the Indian and Pacific Ocean where it is often invasive (see distribution table for details). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015cultivated
ChinaRestricted distributionIntroduced Planted Popenoe, 1920
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015cultivated
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015cultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015cultivated
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)WidespreadIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
IndiaPresentIntroducedMorton, 1987; Diong, 1998Cultivated and naturalized
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Bonin IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Morton, 1987; Diong, 1998
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted Verheij & Coronel, 1992
PhilippinesPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Verheij & Coronel, 1992; Diong, 1998
Sri LankaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Fosberg, 1971; Diong, 1998
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015cultivated

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroduced Invasive Abdou, 2003
GabonPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
KenyaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Planted Binggeli, 2003; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
MalawiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
MauritiusWidespreadIntroduced1822 Invasive Lorence and Sussman, 1986; Lorence and Sussman, 1988
MayottePresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
MozambiquePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
RéunionWidespreadIntroduced1818 Invasive Cadet, 1980; Macdonald et al., 1991; Strasberg, 1995
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
SenegalPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Fleischmann, 1997; PIER, 2007
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Baijnath et al., 1982; Henderson, 2005
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Govaerts, 2015Cultivated
UgandaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
ZambiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Planted Morton, 1987
MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated and naturalized
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedPopenoe, 1920; Sweet, 1986
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Morton, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2007
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced1825 Invasive Jacobi & Warshauer, 1992; Cuddihy and Stone, 1990; PIER, 2007
-TexasPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1825 Planted Wutscher and Shull, 1975

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Planted Morton, 1987
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated and naturalized
CubaWidespreadIntroduced Planted Cuadra and Quincosa, 1982; Pino et al., 2004Potentially invasive
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedFournet, 1978; Broome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015Cultivated and naturalized
HondurasPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
JamaicaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Morton, 1987; IABIN, 2015
MartiniquePresentIntroducedFournet, 1978; Broome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2007
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Broome et al., 2007

South America

BrazilPresent Natural
-BahiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
-Espirito SantoPresentNative Not invasive Natural Wikler et al., 1994
-Minas GeraisPresentNative Not invasive Natural Wikler et al., 1994
-ParanaPresentNative Not invasive Natural Raseira and Raseira, 1996
-PernambucoPresentNativeSobral et al., 2015
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeSobral et al., 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative Not invasive Natural Raseira and Raseira, 1996
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative Not invasive Natural Raseira and Raseira, 1996
-Sao PauloPresentNative Not invasive Natural Salimon and Negrelle, 2001
-SergipePresentNativeSobral et al., 2015
ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Invasive on Juan Fernandez Is. and Easter Is.
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
UruguayPresentNative Not invasive Natural Popenoe, 1920
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Planted Hoyos, 1989

Europe

FrancePresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Planted Popenoe, 1920
-CorsicaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Planted Vogel, 1982
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015Naturalized
SpainPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Salinero Corral & Aguin Casal, 1993; Salinero Corral & Aguin Casal, 1996; Popenoe, 1920
UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1818 Planted Diong, 1998

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedPIER, 2007
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Not invasive National Weeds Strategy, 2000; Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, 2007
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted PIER, 2007; Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, 2007
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Planted Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, 2007
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1985; Diong, 1998; PIER, 2007
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
NauruPresentIntroduced Planted Williams, 1984
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Brun and Chazeau, 1986; PIER, 2007
New ZealandRestricted distributionIntroduced1977 Invasive Planted Devine, 1977
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Morton, 1987; Cronk and Fuller, 1995; PIER, 2007
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2007
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. cattleianum was introduced very early on to southern China from Brazil, probably by early Portuguese explorers (Popenoe, 1920). From China, it has been introduced at the beginning of the nineteenth century to different countries as an ornamental or as a fruit tree. It was brought to the UK in 1818 where it was cultivated successfully by the botanist William Cattley (Diong, 1998). Its scientific name and some common names derive from the different stages of its dispersion. It was introduced to Réunion island before 1818 (Lavergne, 1981), to Mauritius by 1822 (Lorence and Sussman, 1986), and to Hawaii by 1825 (Cuddihy and Stone, 1990) where it had naturalized by 1900 (Diong, 1998). It was introduced into Singapore in 1877. Introduced to Florida in the 1880s and naturalized by the 1950s (Langeland et al., 2008). In the West Indies, it was first recorded in herbarium collections made in 1893 in Guadeloupe, 1904 in Jamaica and in 1923 in Puerto Rico (US National Herbarium). 

P. cattleianum naturalizes rapidly when ecological conditions are favourable and its invasive behaviour has been recognized since the 1940s. Cuddihy and Stone (1990) reported that P. cattleianum was widely planted in some Hawaiian forest reserves between 1928 and 1952, and Fosberg (1941) proposed P. cattleianum var. lucidum for reforestation. There are mentions of P. cattleianum as a pest in La Réunion by 1960.

Risk of Introduction

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P. cattleianum is already present in many tropical and subtropical countries. Further spread is probable and relies on deliberate introductions as a rare plant by rare fruit enthusiasts and nurserymen, an ornamental or a fruit tree. Introduction by botanical gardens, research institutes or extension services is possible for the purpose of fruit tree collections or fruit tree trials. This is encouraged by the fact that P. cattleianum appears as a promising new fruit crop for humid areas (Normand, 2002b), and that seeds are available via mail order from seed catalogues and websites. The risk of accidental introduction is likely to be low.

Habitat

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P. cattleianum is found associated with different vegetation types, from dry grassland and scrub to tall native rainforest (Cadet, 1980; Jacobi and Warshauer, 1992). It forms dense monospecific stands, preventing the regeneration of other plants, in particular native species. Habitats include sub-montane rainforest, montane cloud forest, montane rainforest, moist tropical montane forest, riparian forest, tropical evergreen forest, deciduous woodland (oak), tropical montane savanna, lowland sub-tropical rainforest, scrubland, grassland, degraded forest, cultivation and agroforestry systems.

In its native range, P. cattleianum is a plant of forest edges, glades and rangelands in mesothermic humid areas with annual rainfall of at least 1000 mm, without a pronounced dry season and with possible frost at higher altitudes. It is found in disturbed areas and is considered as an anthropogenic pioneer (Salimon and Negrelle, 2001). In other areas, it has been introduced as an ornamental or as a fruit tree, and has spread from gardens and has become naturalized, the seeds being propagated by birds and mammals. It can become invasive in areas disturbed such as roadsides, wastelands, pastures, scrubs, forested land (Jacobi and Warshauer, 1992; Harrington and Ewel, 1997; Woodcock et al., 1999) and on areas disturbed by natural processes such as storms and lava flows (Strasberg, 1995). It also invades undisturbed native forests (Cuddihy and Stone, 1990; Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990; MacDonald et al., 1991). It forms dense monospecific stands, preventing the regeneration of other plants, in particular native species. 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. cattleianum is not a weed of crops but is an invasive species which threatens native forests and forestry plantations, and which has invaded meadows and pastures crowding out desirable forage plants (Hosaka and Thistle, 1954).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney blue gum)MyrtaceaeOther
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)MyrtaceaeOther

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The basic chromosome number in the genus Psidium is x=11 (Atchinson, 1947) and P. cattleianum is highly polyploid. However, its chromosome number varies according to different authors. P. cattleianum var. cattleianum was found to be heptaploid (2n=77) (Hirano and Nakasone, 1969a; Srivastava, 1978; Singhal et al., 1985) or octaploid (2n=88) (Atchinson, 1947; Smith-White, 1948). P. cattleianum var. lucidum was found to be hexaploid (2n=66) (Hirano and Nakasone, 1969a) or octoploid (2n=88) (Atchinson, 1947). Aneuploidy has also been reported (Raseira and Raseira, 1996), and anomalies have been observed during meiosis and could be related to the high ploidy level (Singhal et al., 1985; Raseira and Raseira, 1996). For each botanical variety, the species shows very few variations among seedlings produced (Popenoe, 1920; Fouqué, 1972, Hoyos, 1989), which seems inconsistent with its high ploidy level. This suggests that P. cattleianum may be an autopolyploid (if hexaploid or octaploid); however, the unbalanced heptaploidy and the presence of many univalents and the absence of multivalents during meiosis suggest that the species may be an allopolyploid (Singhal et al., 1985). Further studies are needed on the genetics of P. cattleianum.

The two known botanical varieties appear to be sexually compatible as reciprocal crosses produced substantial fruit set (Hirano and Nakasone, 1969b) although it is not mentioned if the fruit contained viable seeds. However, no hybrids have been identified in natural populations where both varieties grow together, and also, both varieties are incompatible with P. guajava, P. guineense, P. cujavillus and P. friedrichsthalianum (Hirano and Nakasone, 1969b).

Physiology and Phenology

Fresh seeds germinate within 10 to 20 days (Sweet, 1986). Initial seed moisture is about 31% and they are desiccation-tolerant until 12% moisture. They survive exposure to liquid nitrogen when dehydrated below 19% moisture (Becwar et al., 1983). In vitro germination rates are high (60-80%) at 18-30°C (Becwar et al., 1983; Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990). Light does not seem necessary for germination and chilling prior to germination or scarification with sandpaper does not improve germination (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990). Passage through the gut of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) has little effect on total germination but it shortens the time required for germination (Diong, 1982). Germination of seeds collected at different elevations (150-762 m) are significantly different, but unrelated to elevation or seed weight (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990).

Germination in natural conditions is lower than in vitro. Seedling establishment appears to be independent of soil disturbance (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990). Although seeds may retain their viability for up to a year in controlled conditions (Sweet, 1986), they must germinate quickly in natural conditions or they die, and potential recruitment may be concentrated in a 'seedling' bank rather than in a seed bank (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990).

The aggressiveness of P. cattleianum in outcompeting native flora is partly related to a high relative growth rate which may be a consequence of a large physiological plasticity. As with other invasive plants, it is able to adjust its photosynthetic capacities across a wide range of light environments (Dulai et al., 1998; Pattison et al., 1998). Moreover, it utilizes resources (carbohydrates, nitrogen) more efficiently than do native species, with, for example, a lower cost of leaf construction (Baruch and Goldstein, 1999).

Flowering and fruiting begin two or three years after germination and establishment. P. cattleianum has generally one fruiting cycle per year, with vegetative growth at the end of the cool and dry season (winter), and fruiting during or just after the hot and humid season (summer). Little vegetative or reproductive activity occurs in winter. Vegetative and reproductive activity appears independent of elevation in the range 100-762 m (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990; Normand and Habib, 2001a). The two botanical varieties seem to have the same phenological cycle, although P. cattleianum is not a photoperiodic species for growth (Broschat and Donselman, 1983). Temperature has a strong effect on shoot and fruit development (Normand and Habib, 2001a).

In cultivation, P. cattleianum has generally two production cycles per year (Teaotia et al., 1970; Raseira et Raseira, 1996). Normand and Habib (2001b) showed that nitrogen can trigger the growth of flowering shoots leading to fruit production which permits two to three harvests per year in orchards. Wild P. cattleianum growing on rich soils or on field margins can produce fruits several times a year and are efficient starting points for seed dispersal.

Reproductive Biology

P. cattleianum multiplies by seeds and by suckers. Relative abundance of seedlings and suckers varies among sites and both contribute to recruitment, but suckers are likely to have a greater ability than seedlings to grow and dominate the forest floor (Huenneke and Vitousek, 1990).

The two botanical varieties are considered self-compatible (Hirano and Nakasone, 1969b; Teaotia et al., 1970; Raseira and Raseira, 1996), although Chezhiyan (1988) found P. cattleianum var. lucidum self-incompatible. Normand (2002a) specified that P. cattleianum self-compatibility is partial, ranging from fully self-compatible to self-incompatible, and which varies among individuals. This partial self-compatibility affects the probability of the flower to set fruit and the number of seeds per fruit. These variables are higher with cross-pollination than with self-pollination (Raseira and Raseira, 1996; Normand, 2002a). Seeds appear necessary for the flower to set fruit and parthenocarpy does not occur in P. cattleianum. Among a P. cattleianum population, flowering is asynchronous between and within trees, though the latter being more pronounced than the former. Asynchrony between trees may be related to genetic or environmental factors (Normand and Habib, 2002; Normand et al., 2002). Anthesis generally occurs between 9 and 11 am. Stigmas may be receptive from anthesis until 24 hours later (Teaotia et al., 1970), or 12 to 48 hours after anthesis (Chezhiyan, 1988). Pollen grains are small, about 23 µm, yellowish in colour and triangular. In vitro pollen germination is low, 0-50% (Hirano and Nakasone, 1969b; Seth, 1970; Raseira and Raseira, 1996) and pollen fertility tested by acetocarmine is variable at 20-75% (Teaotia et al., 1970; Singhal et al., 1985). Under field conditions, the longevity of P. cattleianum var. lucidum pollen grains is short, about 8 hours, but it remains viable up to 90 days at 4.5°C and 0% relative humidity (Seth, 1970). Pollination is entomochorous and likely anemochorous. Bees are effective pollinators.

During a study on La Réunion, fruit set varied between plants, but the mean fruit set rate at the population level was high, 57-70%, and was not affected by elevation or year (Normand and Habib, 2001a). Fruit retention was high with only a few fruit dropping once fruit has set. Fruit production in wild stands is not documented. When cultivated, mean fruit production reaches 14.2 kg per tree, i.e. about 2300 fruit, 6 years after planting (Normand, 2002b). P. cattleianum fruit has a biphasic growth curve (Silva Galho et al., 2000; Normand, 2002a). Individual fruit weight at maturity is highly variable (1.0-22.9 g) and seed number and tree leaf:fruit ratio explain to a large extent this variability (Normand, 2002a). P. cattleianum fruit is climacteric (Akamine and Goo, 1979; Brown and Wills, 1983), with a shelf life no longer than two days at room temperature, though this can be extended up to 12 days when fruit are harvested at an appropriate stage of maturity and kept at 12-14°C (Paniandy et al., 1999).

Seeds are dispersed by birds (Cadet, 1980; Cuddihy and Stone, 1995) and by mammals, feral pigs in Hawaii and Mauritius and monkeys in Mauritius (Diong, 1982; Lorence and Sussman, 1988).

Environmental Requirements

P. cattleianum has a wide ecological plasticity with regard to temperature and soil, but it prefers humid climates with at least 1000 mm rainfall per year without a pronounced dry season, and thrives well in the rainfall range 1500-7000 mm per year. P. cattleianum is a subtropical species and does not tolerate very hot environments, it being the most cold-resistant Psidium species. In mountainous tropical islands, it is found between 0 and 1300 m elevation (Cadet, 1980; MacDonald et al., 1991; Jacobi and Warshauer, 1992) although it has also been found up to 2300 m in Antioquia, Colombia (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007). It experiences light frost in mountainous areas of its native range (Pedrosa-Macedo, 2000) and can withstand frost as low as -4.4 to -6°C (Wutscher and Shull, 1975; Vogel, 1986) but may be killed below -7°C. P. cattleianum var. lucidum is not as cold-resistant and is found at lower elevations than P. cattleianum var. cattleianum.

P. cattleianum prefers acid soils and is not sensitive to soil structure. It can grow on shallow or infertile soils, if more slowly, but is a pioneer species on lava flows in Réunion (Strasberg, 1995). It does, however, requires a well drained soil and does not tolerate waterlogging (Gonçalves Salvador, 1986).

Associations

Mature P. cattleianum fruit are hosts for many different species of fruit flies: Anastrepha fraterculus (Raseira and Raseira, 1996) and A. suspensa (Nguyen et al., 1992), Bactrocera dorsalis (Vargas et al., 1990), B. curvipennis (Brun and Chazeau, 1986), Ceratitis capitata (Vargas et al., 1983) and C. rosa (Etienne, 1982; Normand et al., 2000). Feral P. cattleianum stands and scattered plants in gardens or wastelands are important reservoirs of fruit flies, pests of surrounding fruit crops (Vargas et al., 1983, 1990; Nguyen et al., 1992; Normand et al., 2000).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-25 -35 0 2300

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -6 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 23
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 6 16

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration03number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10007000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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P. cattleianum has few natural enemies which influence growth and plant development. In its native range in Brazil, 133 species were found associated with P. cattleianum, but only 15 of them affected the plant, and only four of them seemed to be specific (Wikler et al., 1994). In countries where it has been introduced, few non-specific pests are recorded on P. cattleianum, including fruit flies, scale insects, beetles (Coleoptera) and thrips (Selenothrips) (Williams, 1984; Brun and Chazeau, 1986). P. cattleianum is resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Nik-Masdek and Ahmad-Kamil, 1994), but may be sensitive to M. acrita and M. arenaria (Cuadra and Quincosa, 1982). No disease pathogens have been recorded on P. cattleianum, and it is known to be resistant to the rust fungus Puccinia psidii which affects P. guajava (Rayachhetry et al., 2001).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Propagation is by seeds and suckers. Short-distance dispersal (1-5 m) may be by fruit rolling down slopes in mountainous areas. Fruit can also be dispersed along river edges by water.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Fruit are eaten, and seeds dispersed, by mammals (feral pigs, rodents, monkeys) and frugivorous birds. Man harvests fruit for immediate consumption or for processing and this may contribute to its seed dispersal. In Ranomafana National Park in Madagascar, faunal species (man, bovines and indigenous animals) are regarded as the key vectors of invasion (Carriere et al., 2008).

Intentional Introduction

P. cattleianum is used as an ornamental or a fruit tree, thus seeds and plants are subject to trade and exchange by nurseries and plant amateurs.

Since the 1700s, P. cattleianum has been introduced from Brazil throughout the tropics as an ornamental plant and a fruit tree. It is described as such in various books dealing with gardening or tropical fruit cultivation (e.g. Sweet, 1986; Morton, 1987; Samson, 1989; Baxter and Tankard, 1991). Seeds are currently available in seed catalogues or on specialized websites, which is a factor for further spread.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
HorticultureFor fruit production Yes Samson, 1989
Nursery trade Yes Samson, 1989
Ornamental purposes Yes Samson, 1989

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeed catalogues, internet. Risk of further introduction. Yes
Water Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health Positive
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism Negative
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

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P. cattleianum can have a positive economic impact as a fruit crop in humid areas, being hardy, fruiting several times per year with high yields and profitable where markets exist (Normand, 2002b). However, the species may have a significant negative effect for agriculture when invading meadows and pastures (Hosaka and Thistle, 1954), but there are no records of direct impacts on fodder production. It is moreover a host for different fruit fly species and wild trees and stands are viewed as important reservoirs for these pests, acting as host plants. A survey of ‘nurserymen’ (ornamental plant dealers) in Florida, USA, found that P. cattleianum was one of 14 ornamentals with total benefits including an economic impact of US $59 and the maintenance of 800 jobs, estimated to be approximately 3% of the total statewide economic an employment impacts of the nursery trade. However, these estimated impacts should not be interpreted as the expected industry loss from any future phase-out of such species, because if a certain plant is not available for purchase, consumers will probably buy alternative species thus reducing the effects of any phase-out (Wirth et al., 2004).

Environmental Impact

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The main negative impact of P. cattleianum is on the environment. It is a disruptive invader of native ecosystems, in particular fragile insular rainforests that provide habitats for endemic species. It displaces native plant species and can form large monospecific stands. This results in a potential loss of biodiversity. P. cattleianum is considered the most serious invader in Hawaii's rainforests (Smith, 1985), in Réunion island (MacDonald et al., 1991) and in Mauritius (Lorence and Sussman, 1988). In the Austalian Wet Tropics invasion is largely restricted to successional forests, and if unchecked will have deleterious consequences for regenerating native forest (Tng et al., 2016).

P. cattleianum leaf litter can have allelopathic effects on germination and growth of some species (Smith, 1985).

Impact on Biodiversity

The displacement of indigenous species by dense stands of P. cattleianum leads to a local loss of biodiversity. Plant regeneration is hindered by very dense shade on the soil, allelopathic effects, a dense mat of surface feeder roots, and disturbances by mammals attracted by the fruit. At a wider level, P. cattleianum invasion reduces areas for species regeneration and can threaten endemic species. In Hawaii, P. cattleianum is widespread in the rainforest of several preserves and National Parks where it threatens native species, and Vitousek et al. (1987) reported that P. cattleianum and Paspalum conjugatum have nearly eliminated reproduction of Antidesma platyphyllum and seven other rare flowering species in the lower elevation rainforest of Haleakala National Park.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Asplenium unisorum (singlesorus island spleenwort)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Cyanea recta (Kealia cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Cyrtandra limahuliensis (Limahuli cyrtandra)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Drosophila aglaiaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila differens (Hawaiian picture-wing fly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila digressaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Drosophila hemipezaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila heteroneuraUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila montgomeryiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila musaphilaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila ochrobasisUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila substenopteraUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Dubautia imbricata subsp. imbricata (bog dubautia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Dubautia pauciflorula (Wahiawa Bog dubautia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationNatureServe, 2010
Eragrostis fosbergii (Fosberg's love grass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Festuca molokaiensisNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Isodendrion longifolium (longleaf isodendrion)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011c
Lobelia koolauensis (Koolau Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shading; Competition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009e
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Melanthera tenuifolia (Waianae Range nehe)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Melanthera waimeaensis (Waimea Canyon nehe)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b
Melicope christopherseniiEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Melicope hiiakaeNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Melicope makahaeEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Myrsine linearifolia (narrowleaf colicwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003
Nothocestrum latifolium (broadleaf aiea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Nototrichium humile (kaala rockwort)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringNational Tropical Botanical Garden, 2007; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiAllelopathic; Competition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995a
Phyllostegia hirsuta (Molokai phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008c
Phyllostegia kaalaensis (Kaala phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Phyllostegia knudsenii (Waimea phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Phyllostegia mollis (Waianae Range phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009f
Phyllostegia parviflora (smallflower phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008d
Phyllostegia renovans (red-leaf phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Phyllostegia waimeae (Kauai phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008e
Phyllostegia warshaueri (Laupahoehoe phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Phyllostegia warshaueri (Laupahoehoe phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Pittosporum napaliense (royal cheesewood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Plantago princepsNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010g
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Poa siphonoglossa (Kauai bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Pritchardia schattaueri (Lands of Papa pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Pritchardia viscosa (stickybud pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010h
Psychotria grandiflora (large-flowered balsamo)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Psychotria hobdyi (Hobdy's wild-coffee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Pteralyxia kauaiensis (Kauai pteralyxia)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Pterodroma sandwichensisVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009g
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaienseNo DetailsHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011d
Schiedea hookeri (sprawling schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011e
Schiedea kaalae (Oahu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Schiedea nuttalliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009h
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulinaUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Schiedea stellarioidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Schiedea stellarioidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Pteris lidgatei (Lidgate's brake)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c
Sicyos albus (white burr cucumber)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Solanum sandwicenseNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009i
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Stenogyne purpurea (purplefruit stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010h
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995a
Tetraplasandra flynniiNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Viola helenae (Wahiawa stream violet)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Viola lanaiensis (Hawaii violet)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995a
Xylosma crenataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009d

Social Impact

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P. cattleianum is generally known by local populations for its fruit production. Fruit are collected in the forest and can be processed in various products, generating incomes. Different plant parts are used for traditional medicine and P. cattleianum leaves have active compounds against important human pathogens (Cochrane, 1999) and the plant could be a source of antioxidants (Bahorun, 1998).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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P. cattleianum fruit are picked from naturalised stands in several countries and are eaten as fresh fruit or are processed into jam, jelly, juice or sherbet. Fruit and processed products are traded locally, and although the economic importance of P. cattleianum remains low, it can become significant when it is cultivated (e.g. on Réunion). Its cultivation has been tested in Spain (Salinero Corral and Aguin Casal, 1993, 1996) and in Réunion (Normand, 1994, 2002b) where it is now a profitable crop. A cultivar has been selected in Brazil (Raseira and Raseira, 1994). P. cattleianum has been tested as a rootstock for grafting common guava to improve plant tolerance to wilt and low temperature (Teaotia and Phogat, 1971; Singh et al., 1976). P. cattleianum is also grown as an ornamental (garden tree or hedge tree) in the tropics and sub-tropics because of its slow growth, its pleasant dark green and shiny foliage and its tasty fruit, and the tree was one invasive species in Florida which the ornamental plant industry still wanted to trade (Wirth et al., 2004).

In contrast to the fruit from P. guajava, P. cattleianum fruit are not rich in vitamin C, with only 11-50 mg per 100 g (Wilson, 1980; Gebhardt et al., 1982; Paniandy, 1999). Leaves contain compounds active against antibiotic-resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria which are important human pathogens (Cochrane, 1999). They also contain flavonoids, saponins and tannins (Cecy and Yassumoto, 1973), and essential oils, mainly b-caryophyllene (Tucker and Maciarello, 1995). The whole plant could be a source of antioxidants (Bahorun, 1998). Fruit and leaves are used in traditional medicine against haemorrhage, diarrhoea and colic (Cecy and Yassumoto, 1973; Lavergne, 1981). Leaves are also a source of essential oils produced after distillation (Pino et al., 2004).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Landscape improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Materials

  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Detection and Inspection

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The use of remote sensing to map the introduction and spread of P. cattleianum in Hawaiian forests has been investigated (Barbosa et al., 2016). Use of airborne imaging spectroscopy followed by classification with a Biased Support Vector Machine framework is suggested as showing promise for detecting P. cattleianum invasion.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The common guava, P. guajava, cannot be confused with P. cattleianum because of its different tree habit, its tetragonal twigs and its non-waxy leaves with very apparent 12-20 pairs of ribs. P. guajava fruit are also larger than P. cattleianum fruit and the pulp colour varies from white to yellow and pink. Likewise, the uncommon P. friedrichsthalianum Ndz. and P. sartorianum Ndz. native to Central America cannot be confused with P. cattleianum as the former is a medium-sized tree (6-10 m) with tetragonal pubescent twigs and the latter is a large tree (12-15 m). More readily confused is P. guineense Swartz (=P. araça Raddi or P. molle Bertol.) which is also a shrub, but somewhat smaller than P. cattleianum (1-3 m, though sometimes to 7 m). The main differences are that P. araça twigs are compressed and generally pubescent, leaves are larger than those of P. cattleianum with lateral ribs prominent on the lower surface, and the fruit are smaller (1-2.5 cm in diameter).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

P. cattleianum is one of the five most important invasive plants on Reunion (Tassin et al., 2006), and is also one of the most important invasive species on other Indian Ocean island Mauritius and the Seychelles, also in in the Pacific Ocean on Hawaii, USA, and French Polynesia. It is also on the Pest Plant List of the Florida EPPC, the HEAR Alien Species Map Index and on the Noxious Weeds List in Australia. For these reasons it is on the IUCN ISSG list as one of the 100 World's worst invaders. Considering its serious invasive potential, further introduction of this species as an ornamental or fruit tree to tropical areas should be prevented where possible, and especially threatened areas and islands such as eastern Polynesia (Meyer, 2004) should be closely monitored.

Control

P. cattleianum is a difficult species to control (MacDonald et al., 1991) and there is no effective control practice for large invaded areas. The control of naturalised populations must be approached with different techniques selected in the light of the specific circumstances in each case.

Cultural control

P. cattleianum is not subjected to a cultural control as it invades mainly non-agricultural areas. In pastures, it is not browsed by cattle.

Mechanical control

Except for young seedlings, hand pulling is not feasible due to the strong root system and the presence of suckers. Mechanical cutting of the stem leads to the development of abundant suckers from the stump and any mechanical control must be associated with chemical control to avoid resprouting.

Chemical control

P. cattleianum is resistant to many foliar-applied herbicides. It is also resistant to 2,4D (Anonymous, 1981), and picloram applied as granules on the soil or applied on the cut stump mixed with diesel oil gave less than 50% success (Devine, 1977), but picloram activity and absorption by P. cattleianum leaves is increased by ammonium sulphate (Wilson and Nishimoto, 1975). P. cattleianum is, however, sensitive to glyphosate, triclopyr and tebuthiuron. Good chemical control has been obtained with undiluted triclopyr amine, with undiluted triclopyr ester or undiluted glyphosate on cut stumps, or with tebuthiuron Motooka et al., 1983, 1989; Santos et al., 1989). Triclopyr is recommended because of its lack of mobility and relatively short half-life. However these treatments are labour-intensive and can be applied only on limited areas.

Biological control

No biological control agents have been released to date. Research has focused on the identification of potential biological control agents specific to P. cattleianum in its native range (Wikler et al., 1994). Two Hymenoptera, a species of Eurytoma and Haplostegusepimelas, lay eggs on growing twigs and affect plant growth and flowering (Wikler et al., 1996; Pedrosa-Macedo, 2000) and appear to be species-specific (although considered doubtful for H. epimelas), which is an essential requisite to protect the congeneric common guava and native Myrtaceae species (Gardner et al., 1995). Recently, a further species Tectococcus ovatus (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) has proven to be specific to P. cattleianum and is considered suitable for release as a classical biological agent in Florida, USA (Wessels et al., 2007).

Public concerns have prevented the release of a biological control agent for P. cattleiana in Hawaii. Warner and Kinslow (2013) report that a local activist persuaded members of the public and elected officials to oppose the proposed release of an insect to control this invasive species.

Integrated Control

As feral pigs are effective dispersal agents in Hawaii, their control appeared to be the first step to control the spread of P. cattleianum. However, Huenneke and Vitousek (1990) put into perspective the role of pigs in germination and establishment and moreover, the control of pigs may be ineffective as birds and other mammals also disperse P. cattleianum seeds.

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3/6/2015 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

27/11/2007 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

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