Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mythimna separata
(paddy armyworm)

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Datasheet

Mythimna separata (paddy armyworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mythimna separata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • paddy armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mythimna separata Walker 1865

Preferred Common Name

  • paddy armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Cirphis separata
  • Cirphis unipuncta Haworth
  • Leucania consimilis Moore
  • Leucania separata Walker
  • Pseudaletia separata Walker

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese armyworm; cosmopolitan armyworm; ear-eating caterpillar; oriental armyworm; paddy army worm of Gramineae; paddy climbing armyworm; rice armyworm; rice earcutting caterpillar; southern armyworm
  • Spanish: cuncunilla de las chacras; oruga negra

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: sheesh-cutta ledha-poka
  • Germany: Asiatische reis-eule

EPPO code

  • PSEDSE (Mythimna separata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Mythimna
  •                                 Species: Mythimna separata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BhutanPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent, Widespread
-HainanPresent, Widespread
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent, Widespread
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent, Widespread
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent, Widespread
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LaosPresent, Localized
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent
-SiberiaPresent, Widespread

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / fall or shedding
Leaves / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actia silacea Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Agriosphodrus dohrni Predator
Andrallus spinidens Predator
Apanteles kariyai Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Apanteles parbhanii Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis shandongiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Barichneumon solitarius Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Bessa parallela Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Brachymeria lasus Parasite
Calosoma chinense Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Calosoma indicum Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Carabidae Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Carcelia prima Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Cataglyphis bicolor Predator
Charops bicolor Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Chlaenius bioculatus Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Coccinella septempunctata Predator
Compsilura Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Cotesia glomeratus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fiji rice
Cotesia parbhanii Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae China; Zhejiang; New Zealand; Western Australia cereals; maize; pasture plants; rice
Cuphocera iavana Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Densonucleosis virus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Disophrys albopilosellus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dolichocolon paradoxum Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dolicholon parasoxum Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Drino inconspicua Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen
Eocanthecona furcellata Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Eucelatoria armigera Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Fiji rice
Exorista fallax Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Exorista japonica Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Exorista xanthaspis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Gelis asozarus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Goniophthalmus australis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Itoplectis naranyae Parasite
Linnaemya comta Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Linnaemya vulpina Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Linnaemya zachvatkini Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Linnaemya zachvatkini Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Meloboris leucaniae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Meteorus narangae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Metioche vittaticollis Predator
Metopius rufus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Microplitis mediator
Nosema Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Orius minutus Predator
Ovomermis albicans Parasite
Ovomermis sinensis Parasite China; Henan
Pales pavida Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Palexorista inconspicuoides Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Palexorista solennis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Parasierola Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pardosa laura Predator
Pardosa t-insignata Predator
Passer domesticus Predator
Peribaea Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Peribaea orbata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Peteina erinaceus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Pheidole fervida Predator Japan Dactylis glomerata
Pimpla luctuosus Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Pseudoperichaeta anomala Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Rogas fuscomaculatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Sarcophaga orientaloides Parasite
Senometopia excisa Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Siphona boreata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Siphona cristata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Steinernema feltiae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Steinernema glaseri Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Tachina kunmingensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Tachina nupta Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Telenomus cirphivorus Parasite Eggs
Telenomus guangdongensis Parasite Eggs
Tetrastichus Parasite Eggs
Thecocarcelia oculata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Theocarcelia oculata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Therion circumflexum Parasite
Therion rufomaculatum Parasite
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite
Turanogonia chinensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Vulgichneumon leucaniae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Vulgichneumon suigensis Parasite

References

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Alam MA; Khatri AK; Jakhmola SS; Rathore VS, 1980. Losses caused by Mythimna separata Walker to rice. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 50(9):709-711

Alam MA; Khatri AK; Jakhmola SS; Rathore VS, 1980b. Economic threshold of rice army worm, Mythimna separata Walk. on rice. JNKVV Research Journal, 14:19-21.

Alam MZ, 1964. On the biology of rice ear-cutting caterpillar, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth) in East Pakistan. Agriculture Pakistan, 11:560-572..

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Azad Thakur NS, 1984. Insect pests of rice in the Sikkim Hills. International Rice Research Newsletter, 9(6):18.

Bhatnagar VS; Davies JC, 1979. Arthropod endoparasitoids of insect pests (excluding Heliothis spp.) recorded at ICRISAT center, Andhra Pradesh (India), 1974-79. Arthropod endoparasitoids of insect pests (excluding Heliothis spp.) recorded at ICRISAT center, Andhra Pradesh (India), 1974-79. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India, [4+] 17 pp.

Bhole SD; Patil RS; Patil SP, 1989. Some studies on life history and chemical control of climbing cutworm Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 14(3):298-300.

Burgess EPJ, 1987. Population dynamics of Mythimna separata and its parasitoid, Cotesia ruficrus, on maize in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 30(2):203-208

Cadapan EP; Sanchez FF, 1972. The biology of the true armyworm, Pseudaletia separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Philippine Entomologist, 2(3):217-226

Chen RL; Bao XZ; Drake VA; Farrow RA; Wang SY; Sun YJ; Zhai BP, 1989. Radar observations of the spring migration into northeastern China of the oriental armyworm moth, Mythimna separata, and other insects. Ecological Entomology, 14(2):149-162

Chiu SF, 1984. Recent advances in the integrated control of rice insects in China. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 30(3):41-46; 7 ref.

CIE, 1983. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 230. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Dhaduti SG; Mathad SB, 1979. Effect of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the armyworm Mythimna (Pseudaletia) separata on the tasar silkworm Antherpa mylitta. Current Science, 48(16):750-751

Dwijendra Singh; Rai L, 1977. Bionomics of the rice cutworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). Entomon, 2(2):141-144

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Feng HongQiang; Zhao XinCheng; Wu XianFu; Wu Bo; Wu KongMing; Cheng DengFa; Guo YuYuan, 2008. Autumn migration of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China. Environmental Entomology, 37(3):774-781. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1603/0046-225X%282008%2937%5B774%3AAMOMSL%5D2.0.CO%3B2

Giraddi RS; Kulkarni KA, 1987. Efficacy of insecticidal-baits and granules against army worm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in sorghum. Pesticides, 21(2):27-35

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Gu D; Gao X; Tao F; Qiu Y; Huang Z; Hu M; Jiang Z, 1996. Insect Pests and Disease in Rice and Application of Pesticides. China International Centre for Agricultural Training. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 234 pp.

Hao JH; Li SW; Lin CS, 1992. Isozyme variation in different populations of Mythimna separata. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 35(1):33-39

Hayasaka S; Yonemura N, 1999. Infection and development of Nosema sp. NIS H5 (Microsporida: Protozoa) in several lepidopteran insects. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 33(1):65-68; 7 ref.

Heinrichs EA, 1994. Biology and management of rice insects. New Delhi, India: Wiley Eastern Limited, x + 779 pp.

Hill MG, 1988. Analysis of the biological control of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by Apanteles ruficrus (Braconidae: Hymenoptera) in New Zealand. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(1):197-208

Hirai K, 1988. Sudden outbreaks of the armyworm, Pseudaletia separata Walker and its monitoring systems in Japan. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 22(3):166-174

Hiremath IG; Bhuti SG; Kachapur MD; Viraktamath S; Lingappa S, 1990. Mass killing of moths - a new approach in the management of armyworm, Mythimna separata. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(1/2):128-130

Ho DT, 1986. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus for controlling the ear-cutting caterpillar. International Rice Research Newsletter, 11(6):23-24

Holloway JD, 1989. The moths of Borneo: family Noctuidae, trifine subfamilies: Noctuinae, Heliothinae, Hadeninae, Acronictinae, Amphipyrinae, Agaristinae. Malayan Nature Journal, 42(2-3):57-228

Iizuka T; Takasu K, 1998. Olfactory associative learning of the pupal parasitoid Pimpla luctuosa Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 11(5):743-760; 44 ref.

Israel P; Prakasa Rao PS; Rao VRVJ, 1969. New records of some parasites of the paddy climbing cut worm Pseudaletia separata Walker. Oryza, 6:106-107.

Kanda K, 1997. Studies on the factors causing outbreaks of the oriental armyworm, Pseudaletia separata (Walker), in forage crops, and its cultural control based on the ecological characteristics. Bulletin of the National Grassland Research Institute (in Japanese), No. 55:9-76.

Khamparia DK; Rathore VS; Jakhmola SS; Patel RK, 1982. Economic threshold and economic injury level of Mythimna separata (Walker) on rice. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 9(1):88-93

Kunimi Y; Mizutani N; Wada S; Nakai M, 1999. Granulovirus-infected larvae of Pseudaletia separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) produce factor(s) toxic to an endoparasitoid, Cotesia kariyai (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 34(2):241-250; 32 ref.

Lewvanich A, 1974. A correct name of rice armyworm in Thailand. Thailand Journal of Agricultural Science, 7:161-167.

Liu HongBing; Luo LiZhi, 2004. Morphological characteristics and inheritance of the melanic form of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 47(3):287-292.

Luo LiZhi, 1996. An ultrastructural study on the development of flight muscle in adult oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 39(4):366-373; 19 ref.

Luo LZ; Jiang XF; Li KB; Hu Y, 1999. Influence of flight on reproduction and longevity of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 42(2):150-158.

Mallapur CP, 1997. Key mortality factors of the oriental armyworm on sorghum. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 22(3):347-349; 3 ref.

Naganagoud A; Kulkarni KA, 1997. Surveillance of sorghum armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) and its natural enemies in transitional region of Dharwad. Journal of Biological Control, 11(1/2):65-68; 7 ref.

Okada M, 1987. Utilization and mass production of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses for the control of some noctuid larvae. Extension Bulletin, ASPAC Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, Taiwan, No. 257:11-14

Parameshwar Hugar; Kulkarni KA; Lingappa S, 1996. Effectiveness of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus against field populations of the armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) on sorghum. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(1):47-50; 9 ref.

Patel VB; Patel SN, 1993. Biology of armyworm (Mythimna separata) on cereal crops in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(11):764-765

Rajesh Kumar; Mahla JC; Vinod Kumar, 1994. Effect of gunnybag treatment with insecticides and plant extracts against insect pests of stored rice. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana), 10(1):51-54.

Ramamani S; Subba Rao BR, 1965. On the identity and nomenclature of the paddy cutworm commonly referred to as Cirphis unipunctata Haworth. Indian Journal of Entomology, 27:363-365.

Reissig WH; Heinrichs EA; Litsinger JA; Moody K; Fiedler L; Mew TW; Barrion AT, 1986. Illustrated guide to integrated pest management in rice in tropical Asia. Laguna, Philippines; International Rice Research Institute, xi + 411pp.

Rombach MC; Rombach GM; Roberts DW, 1987. Pathogens of insect pests of rice: a bibliography. Insect Science and its Application, 8(2):197-210

Saini SS, 1987. Pest status of armyworms on rice crop in the Punjab. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 15(1):63-64

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Sharma HC; Davies JC, 1983. The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Wlk.). Distribution, biology and control: a literature review. Miscellaneous Report, Centre for Overseas Pest Research, No. 59:24 pp.

Shukla BC; Agrawal RK; Vaishampayan SM, 1986. Insect pests of wet season rice in Jabalpur, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 11(6):25

Singh J, 1988. Ear-cutting caterpillar and whorl maggot - two new rice pests in Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology 50(3):390.

Takahashi S, 1983. Simultaneous attraction of three armyworm species to the synthetic sex pheromone of the rice armyworm, Pseudaletia separata (Walker). Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, Kyoto University, No. 122:37-41

Tanaka K; Watanabe M, 1996. Influence of prey species on the supercooling ability of the redback spider, Latrodectus hasseltii (Araneae: Theridiidae). Acta Arachnologica, 45(2):147-150; 11 ref.

Thornton IWB; Marshall AT; Kwan WH; Ma Q, 1975. Studies on Lepidopterous pests of rice crops in Hong Kong, with particular reference to the yellow stem-borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.). PANS, 21(3):239-252

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Wilde G; Apostol R, 1983. Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance in rice. Environmental Entomology, 12(2):376-379

Wu JT, 1982. Distribution, seasonal occurrence, and natural enemies of armyworms attacking rice in China. International Rice Research Newsletter, 7:(2)9-10.

Wu KongMing; Xu GuAng; Guo YuYuan, 1998. Observations on migratory activity of cotton bollworm moths across the Bohai Gulf in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 25(4):337-340; 11 ref.

Yasuda T, 1998. Effects of (E)-phytol of several lepidopteran species in prey-locating behavior of a generalist predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Entomological Science, 1(2):159-164; 15 ref.

Zeng ZY; Liu HC; Li DQ, 1985. A study on the relationship between the oviposition behaviour of the oriental armyworm and damage caused by the rice borer. Insect Knowledge (Kunchong Zhishi), 23(1):3-5

Zhao KJ; Zhang LK; Song J; Zhang LH; Li GX; Wang XY; Wang Y, 1996. On the application of steinernematid nematodes against eight lepidopterous and coleopterous insect pests. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 23(1):20-24; 10 ref.

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Azad Thakur NS, 1984. Insect pests of rice in the Sikkim Hills. In: International Rice Research Newsletter, 9 (6) 18.

Balikai R A, 2009. Insect pest status of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) in Karnataka. International Journal of Plant Protection. 2 (2), 189-190. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.co.in

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Feng HongQiang, Zhao XinCheng, Wu XianFu, Wu Bo, Wu KongMing, Cheng DengFa, Guo YuYuan, 2008. Autumn migration of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China. Environmental Entomology. 37 (3), 774-781. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1603/0046-225X%282008%2937%5B774%3AAMOMSL%5D2.0.CO%3B2 DOI:10.1603/0046-225X(2008)37[774:AMOMSL]2.0.CO;2

Greathead D J, Greathead A H, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information. 13 (4), 61N-68N.

Hao J H, Li S W, Lin C S, 1992. Isozyme variation in different populations of Mythimna separata. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 35 (1), 33-39.

Jaswant Singh, 1988. Ear-cutting caterpillar and whorl maggot - two new rice pests in Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology. 50 (3), 390.

Lewvanich A, 1974. A correct name of rice armyworm in Thailand. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science. 7 (3), 161-167.

Liu HongBing, Luo LiZhi, 2004. Morphological characteristics and inheritance of the melanic form of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica. 47 (3), 287-292.

Patel V B, Patel S N, 1993. Biology of armyworm (Mythimna separata) on cereal crops in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 63 (11), 764-765.

Rajesh Kumar, Mahla J C, Vinod Kumar, 1994. Effect of gunnybag treatment with insecticides and plant extracts against insect pests of stored rice. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana). 10 (1), 51-54.

Shukla B C, Agrawal R K, Vaishampayan S M, 1986. Insect pests of wet season rice in Jabalpur, India. International Rice Research Newsletter. 11 (6), 25.

UK, CAB International, 1983. Mythimna separata. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 230 (Revised). DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600230

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Wu J T, 1982. Distribution, seasonal occurrence and natural enemies of armyworm attacking rice in China. International Rice Research Newsletter. 7 (2), 9-10.

Distribution Maps

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