Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudococcus calceolariae
(scarlet mealybug)

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Datasheet

Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudococcus calceolariae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scarlet mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); adults, on pomegranate (Punica granatum). When disturbed, these insects eject a defensive red liquid - note the two droplets on the large mealybug in the centre of the picture.
TitleAdults
CaptionPseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); adults, on pomegranate (Punica granatum). When disturbed, these insects eject a defensive red liquid - note the two droplets on the large mealybug in the centre of the picture.
Copyright©USDA ARS Photo Unit/USDA Agricultural Research Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); adults, on pomegranate (Punica granatum). When disturbed, these insects eject a defensive red liquid - note the two droplets on the large mealybug in the centre of the picture.
AdultsPseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); adults, on pomegranate (Punica granatum). When disturbed, these insects eject a defensive red liquid - note the two droplets on the large mealybug in the centre of the picture.©USDA ARS Photo Unit/USDA Agricultural Research Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); stained slide preparation of an adult. Live adults are covered in white wax.
TitleAdult
CaptionPseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); stained slide preparation of an adult. Live adults are covered in white wax.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Pseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); stained slide preparation of an adult. Live adults are covered in white wax.
AdultPseudococcus calceolariae (scarlet mealybug); stained slide preparation of an adult. Live adults are covered in white wax.©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell)

Preferred Common Name

  • scarlet mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylopius calceolariae Maskell 1879
  • Erium calceolariae (Maskell) Lindinger 1935
  • Pseudococcus citrophilus Clausen 1915
  • Pseudococcus fragilis Brain 1912
  • Pseudococcus gahani Green 1915
  • Pseudococcus similans

International Common Names

  • English: citrophilus mealybug; currant mealybug

EPPO code

  • PSECGA (Pseudococcus calceolariae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudococcus
  •                                         Species: Pseudococcus calceolariae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Roots / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagyrus fusciventris Parasite
Arhopoideus peregrinus Parasite
Arhopoideus pretiosus Parasite Chile; USA; USSR Citrus
Coccophagus gurneyi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Chile; South Africa; USA; USSR Citrus; pears
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs USSR
Cryptoscenea australiensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Dendrocerus laevis Parasite
Diadiplosis koebelei Predator Adults/Nymphs USA Citrus
Hungariella pretiosa Parasite
Midus pygmaeus Predator Adults/Nymphs USA Citrus
Odontochrysa ramburi Predator Adults/Nymphs USA Citrus
Ophelosia charlesi Parasite
Scymnus binaevatus Predator Adults/Nymphs USA Citrus
Tetracnemoidea brevicornis Parasite Nymphs
Tetracnemoidea peregrina Parasite Nymphs
Tetracnemoidea sydneyensis Parasite

References

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Altmann J; Green A, 1991. The biological control of citrophilus mealybug in citrus. In: Sustainable Management of Pests, Diseases and Weeds. Australian Society of Horticultural Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, 363-368.

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp.

Berry JA, 1995. Moranilini (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Fauna of New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand; DSIR Plant Protection, Mt Albert Research Centre, No. 33:66 pp.

Brain CK, 1912. Contribution to the knowledge of mealybugs, genus Pseudococcus, in the vicinity of cape Town, South Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 5:177-189.

Charles JG, 1981. Distribution and life history of the longtailed mealy bug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Auckland vineyards. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 8(2):285-293

Charles JG, 1993. A survey of mealybugs and their natural enemies in horticultural crops in North Island, New Zealand, with implications for biological control. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3(4):405-418

Charles JG; Froud KJ; Henderson RC, 2000. Morphological variation and mating compatibility within the mealybugs Pseudococcus calceolariae and P. similans (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and a new synonymy. Systematic Entomology, 25(3):285-294; 18 ref.

Charles JG; Walker JTS; White V, 1993. Resistance to chlorpyrifos in the mealybugs Pseudococcus affinis and P. longispinus in Hawkes Bay and Waikato pipfruit orchards. Proceedings of the Forty Sixth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 10-12 August 1993 Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 120-125

Clausen CP, 1915. Mealybugs of citrus trees. California Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin No. 258.

Compere H; Smith HS, 1932. The control of the citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus gahani, by Australian parasites. Hilgardia, 6:585-618.

Cox JM, 1978. Identification of mealybugs in New Zealand orchards. Orchardist of New Zealand, 97-98.

Cox JM, 1987. Pseudococcidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 11:230pp.

Foldi I; Kozár F, 2005. New species of Cataenococcus and Puto from Brazil and Venezuela, with data on others species (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 22(4):305-312.

Green EE, 1915. Observations on British Coccidae in 1914, with descriptions of new species. The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 51:175-185.

IIE, 1992. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 534. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kondo T; Ramos Portilla AA; Vergara Navarro EV, 2008. Updated list of mealybugs and putoids from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae). Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle (BHEUV), 9(1):29-53. http://entomologia.univalle.edu.co/boletin/boletin.htm

Laudonia S; Viggiani G, 1986. Natural enemies of the citrophilus mealybug (Pseudococcus calceolarip Mask.) in Campania. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria "Filippo Silvestri", Italy, 43(Supplement):167-171

Lindinger L, 1935. Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Schildlause (Coccidae). Entomologische Zeitshcrift, 49:121-123.

Longo S; Marotta S; Pellizzari G; Russo A; Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

Maskell WM, 1879. On some Coccidae in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 11(1878):187-230.

Moore D, 1988. Agents used for biological control of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). Biocontrol News and Information, 9(4):209-225

Noyes JS, 1988. Encyrtidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 13:188 pp.

Panis A, 1969. Observations faunistiques et biologiques sur quelques Pseudococcidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) vivant dans le midi de la France. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim., 1:211-244.

Rotundo G; Tremblay E, 1981. Scent trailing by virgin females of Pseudococcus calceolarip. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 7(1):85-88

Rotundo G; Tremblay E; Giacometti R, 1979. Final results of mass captures of the citrophilous mealybug males (Pseudococcus calceolarip Mask.) (Homoptera Coccoidea) in a citrus grove. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria "Filippo Silvestri", Portici, 36:266-274

Rotundo G; Tremblay E; Papa P, 1980. Short-range orientation of Pseudococcus calceolarip (Mask.) males (Homoptera Coccoidea) in a wind tunnel. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 37:31-37

Smith HS; Armitage HM, 1931. The biological control of mealybugs attacking citrus. California Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, No 509.

Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp.

Yasnosh VA, 1995. Coccids of economic importance and their control in the Republic of Georgia. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:247-251; 11 ref.

Zuniga S E, 1985. Eighty years of biological control in Chile. Historical review and evaluation of the projects undertaken (19031983). Agricultura Tecnica, 45(3):175-183

Distribution Maps

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