Pseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, 1947
Preferred Common Name
- banana mealybug
International Common Names
- English: mealybug, banana
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hemiptera
- Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
- Unknown: Coccoidea
- Family: Pseudococcidae
- Genus: Pseudococcus
- Species: Pseudococcus elisae
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
According to Gimpel and Miller (1996), this species has 16 or 17 pairs of thin waxy filaments around the body margin that are short on the head and long on the posterior end of the abdomen. Body length is about 2.5 mm and is approximately twice as long as the longest waxy filament. The female is covered with a thin layer of powdery white wax, but this does not completely hide the pale orange body colour. The crushed body is reddish brown. A white waxy ovisac is produced that is longer than or equal to the length of the body of the adult and encloses the eggs.
Slide-mounted adult female
Gimpel and Miller (1996) published a technical description. A diagnosis is as follows: With many discoidal pores in a conspicuous sclerotized rim surrounding the eye. Marginal oral-collar tubular ducts with small rims. With 1-13 oral-rim tubular ducts on dorsum of abdomen, usually about 8. With 1-3 ventral oral-rim tubular ducts on each side of body between cerarius 13 and abdominal segment II. Without a lateral oral-rim tubular duct on either side of dorsum of abdominal segment VII. Hind tibia usually shorter than or equal to length of hind femur. With more than 20 multilocular pores on venter of abdominal segment IV and 2-19 such pores on segment III. Translucent pores present on hind femur and tibia.
Slide-mounted third-instar females
A technical description is given by Gimpel and Miller (1996). A diagnosis of the third-instar female is as follows: With 0-4 dorsal oral-rim tubular ducts on thorax and with 0-3 on abdomen. Without mediolateral oral-rim tubular ducts on dorsum of abdomen. Eye with a slightly sclerotized rim surrounding it and 2-6 discoidal pores on rim. Head with 2-3 oral-collar tubular ducts on each side of body and with 2-4 such ducts between cerarii 10 and 11. Some marginal oral-collar tubular ducts with slight rim.
DistributionTop of page
The distribution map includes records based on specimens of P. elisae from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the List of countries (NHM, 1982).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Netherlands||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey||15 survey observations in 2012.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
This species is most commonly found on banana. It has been reported on only six host genera in five families, but it is anticipated that a much wider range of hosts will be found when it is studied in the banana-growing areas of Central and South America.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / external feeding|
|Leaves / external feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Mealybugs in general have four female and five male instars (including the adults). The first instar is usually more mobile than the rest. The adult female lays her eggs in a waxy sac called an ovisac attached to the host-plant. The eggs usually hatch in a few hours to a few days and the first instars escape from the ovisac and crawl on the host searching for a suitable feeding site. First-instar larvae are sometimes transported by wind. Male first instars are similar to female first instars, but male second instars form a waxy sac and pass through two more non-feeding instars (the prepupa and pupa) before becoming winged adults. Females do not form an ovisac until they are adults. Adult males cannot feed and usually survive for no more than a day. It is assumed that most mealybug males locate females by a pheromone. Males can often be seen in flight early in the morning or late in the day when winds are generally calm. Mealybugs have from one to eight or nine generations a year depending on the weather conditions and species of mealybug.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Third-instar females of P. elisae are most similar to third instars of P. landoi but differ by having: longest anal-lobe seta greater than 100 mm long; and hind tibia 123-158 mm long. Whereas, P. landoi has: longest anal-lobe seta less than 90 mm long; and hind tibia 151-188 mm long. Third-instar females of P. elisae also are similar to P. jackbeardsleyi but differ by having: four or fewer oral-rim tubular ducts on thorax, fewer than three on abdomen; without mediolateral oral-rim tubular ducts on abdomen; cerarius 10 well developed; without oral-rim tubular ducts on submargin of venter from segment II to cerarius 13. Whereas, P. jackbeardsleyi has: four or more oral-rim tubular ducts on thorax, more than five on abdomen; with at least one mediolateral oral-rim tubular duct on abdomen; cerarius 10 usually absent or represented by one or two conical setae and five or fewer trilocular pores; with one or more oral-rim tubular ducts on submargin of venter from segment II to cerarius 13.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.There is no published information concerning control strategies for this species.
ReferencesTop of page
Beardsley JA, 1986. Taxonomic notes on Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, a mealybug new to the Hawaiian fauna (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 26:31-34.
Beardsley, J. W., Jr., 1986. Taxonomic notes on Pseudococcus elisae Borkhsenius, a mealybug new to the Hawaiian fauna (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 26, 31-34.
Culik MP; Martins Ddos S; Gullan PJ, 2006. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson), 6:6.23. http://www.insectscience.org/6.23/
Gimpel WFJr; Miller DR, 1996. Systematic analysis of the mealybugs in the Pseudococcus maritimus complex (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Contributions on Entomology, International, 2(1):163 pp.; 3 pp. of ref.
Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.
Niebla Rumbaut S; Jiménez Carbonell R; Castellanos González L; Suárez Perera E, 2010. Pseudococcids in the province of Cienfuegos and their hosts. (Pseudocóccidos en la provincia de cienfuegos y sus hospedantes.) Fitosanidad, 14(1):3-9. http://www.inisav.cu/fitosanidad.htm
Sugimoto S, 1994. Scale insects intercepted on banana fruits from Mindanao Is., the Philippines (Coccoidea: Homoptera). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 30:115-121; 19 ref.
Tokihiro G, 2006. List of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) intercepted at Japanese plant quarantine mainly from areas without a record of distribution. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No.42:59-61. http://www.pps.go.jp/
Williams DJ, 1988. The distribution of the neotropical mealybug Pseudococcus elisp Borchsenius in the Pacific region and Southern Asia (Hem.-Hom., Pseudococcidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 124(1488-1491):123-124
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Gullan P J, 2006. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson). 6.23. http://www.insectscience.org/6.23/ DOI:10.1673/2006_06_23.1
Gimpel W F Jr, Miller D R, 1996. Systematic analysis of the mealybugs in the Pseudococcus maritimus complex (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). In: Contributions on Entomology, International, 2 (1) Gainesville, USA: Associated Publishers. 163 pp.
Matile-Ferrero D, Étienne J, 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 28 (4), 161-190.
NHM, 1982. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
Niebla Rumbaut S, Jiménez Carbonell R, Castellanos González L, Suárez Perera E, 2010. Pseudococcids in the province of Cienfuegos and their hosts. (Pseudocóccidos en la provincia de cienfuegos y sus hospedantes.). Fitosanidad. 14 (1), 3-9. http://www.inisav.cu/fitosanidad.htm
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Rodríguez E B, Vicente I P, Rodríguez Castro Á M, 2003. Survey of the Pseudococcidos of Cuba. Results for the Period 2001-2002. (Encuesta de los Pseudococcidos de Cuba. Resultados del Periodo 2001-2002). Fitosanidad. 7 (2), 31-36. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/2091/209118162005.pdf
Tokihiro G, 2006. List of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) intercepted at Japanese plant quarantine mainly from areas without a record of distribution. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 59-61. http://www.pps.go.jp/
Distribution MapsTop of page
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CABI Summary Records
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