Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Pseudococcus comstocki
(Comstock mealybug)

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Datasheet

Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudococcus comstocki
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Comstock mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation.
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation.
Copyright©Clemson University/USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation.
InfestationPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation.©Clemson University/USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Prepared and mounted on a microscopic slide. Collected by W.A.Ross. Niagra Falls, Ontario, Canada. September 1945.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Prepared and mounted on a microscopic slide. Collected by W.A.Ross. Niagra Falls, Ontario, Canada. September 1945.
Copyright©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Prepared and mounted on a microscopic slide. Collected by W.A.Ross. Niagra Falls, Ontario, Canada. September 1945.
Adult femalePseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adult female, ventral view. Prepared and mounted on a microscopic slide. Collected by W.A.Ross. Niagra Falls, Ontario, Canada. September 1945.©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); eggs, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.
TitleEggs
CaptionPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); eggs, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.
Copyright©CABI (image by Tim Haye)
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); eggs, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.
EggsPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); eggs, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.©CABI (image by Tim Haye)
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adults, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.
TitleAdults
CaptionPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adults, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.
Copyright©CABI (image by Tim Haye)
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adults, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.
AdultsPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); adults, in a labortory culture on potato (Solanum tuberosum), an unnatural host plant. CABI Swiss Centre, Delémont, Switzerland. April 2020.©CABI (image by Tim Haye)
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation on a mulberry tree (Morus spp.). USA. September 1967.
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation on a mulberry tree (Morus spp.). USA. September 1967.
Copyright©United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs/USDA Agricultural Research Service/Bugwood - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation on a mulberry tree (Morus spp.). USA. September 1967.
InfestationPseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug); infestation on a mulberry tree (Morus spp.). USA. September 1967.©United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs/USDA Agricultural Research Service/Bugwood - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)

Preferred Common Name

  • Comstock mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylopius comstocki Kuwana 1902
  • Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) Fernald, 1903

International Common Names

  • Spanish: chinches harinosos
  • French: cochenille de Comstock
  • Portuguese: cochonilha pulverulenta da laranjeira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Bananen-; Schmierlaus, Bananen-
  • Japan: kuwa-konakaigaramusi

EPPO code

  • PSECCO (Pseudococcus comstocki)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudococcus
  •                                         Species: Pseudococcus comstocki

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Saint HelenaPresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-TibetPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent, Localized
MalaysiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
North KoreaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Localized
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

CroatiaPresent, Few occurrences
FrancePresentIntroduced2004
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresentIntroducedFirst reported: <1952
GreecePresentIntroduced
PortugalPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Central RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Russia (Europe)Present, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized
UkrainePresent1973

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
MexicoPresent, Localized
United States
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / malformed skin
Fruit / mummification
Fruit / premature drop
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Stems / galls
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Allotropa burrelli Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Allotropa convexifrons Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anagyrus fujikona Parasite USSR mulberries
Anagyrus subalbipes Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Clausenia purpurea Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus gurneyi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USSR mulberries
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Beijing
Diadiplosis japonicus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Leptomastidea rubra Parasite
Leptomastix flava Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USSR mulberries
Pseudaphycus malinus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudaphycus mundus Parasite USSR mulberries
Zarhopalus corvinus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Zarhopalus sheldoni Parasite USSR mulberries

References

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Agnello AM, Spangler SM, Reissig SM, Lawson DS, Weires RW, 1992. Seasonal development and management strategies for Comstock mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in New York pear orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(1):212-225

Ahn SB, Cho WS, Lim SE, Kim TJ, Lee MH, Choi KM, 1990. Banana insect pest species and their damage in a vinyl house on Cheju Island. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 29(1):6-13

Al-Khateeb N, Louai Asslan, 2004. Ecological and biological studies on the parasitoid, Clausenia purpurea Ishii and its presence ratio compared to the other parasitiods of Pseudococcidae in the Syrian Coast. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control [Proceedings of the 1st Arab Conference for Applied Biological Pest Control, Cairo, Egypt, 5 to 7 April 2004.], 14(1):277-283

Babayan GA, Ohanesyan SB, 1983. On the mechanism of action of the Comstock mealybug in leaves of mulberry. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii, 36(4):344-345

Bartlett BR, Clancy DW, 1972. The Comstock mealybug in California and observations on some of its natural enemies. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65(5):1329-1332

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp

Bezdetko AN, Tarziev ZSh, 1981. Under quarantine control. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 7:6-7

Bichna TI, Vaganova LD, 1985. Ensuring the healthiness of planting material. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 11:31

Borchsenius NS, 1949. Fauna of USSR, Homoptera, Pseudococcidae. Academy Science, Zoological Institute, 38(7):383

Boyce HR, 1948. Parasites of the Comstock mealybug in Ontario. Rep. Entomological Society Ontario, 78:68-70

Cecilia LVCS, Souto RF, Pedroso EM, 1992. Occurrence of mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana, 1902), (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in citrus rootstocks in Lavras, Minas Gerais Brazil, Ciencia e Pratica, 16(1):88-90

CIE, 1989. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural), No. 338, revised December 1989. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cox JM, 1977. Status of New Zealand records of Pseudococcus comstocki and P. maritimus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 4(2):165-166

Dantsig EM, Shtundyuk AV, 1975. Comstock's mealybug in the south of the Maritime Province. Zashchita Rastenii, No.2:28

Dong HF, 1993. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Pseudococcus comstocki (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) on Clivia miniata and its control with inundative release of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Col.: Coccinellidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 9(1):12-14

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ervin RT, Moffitt LJ, Meyerdirk DE, 1983. Comstock mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): cost analysis of a biological control program in California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(3):605-609

Fadeev YuN, Izhevskii SS, 1981. Introduction of beneficial organisms. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 7:18-19

Fernald ME, 1903. A Catalogue of the Coccidae of the World. Massachusettus Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 88

Ferris GF, 1950. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Series V. The Pseudococeidae (Part I). Stanford Univ. Pr., California; London, G. Cumberlege, Oxford Univ. Pr., vii+ 278 pp

Freiman TYa, 1984. The Comstock mealybug in the Maritime Territory. Zashchita Rasteni, No. 9:39

Glass EH, 1944. Feeding habits of two mealybugs, Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuw.) and Phenacoccus colemani (Ehrh.). Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 95:1-16

Granara de Willink MC, 1991. Mealybugs of economic importance found in Argentina: Taxonomic update and new host list. Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Cordoba), 59(3-4):259-271

Haeussler GJ, Clancy DW, 1944. Natural enemies of Comstock mealybug in the Eastern States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 37(4): 503-509

Hough WS, 1925. Biology and control of Comstock mealybug on the umbrella catalpa. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 29:17

Hough WS, 1925b. The anal lobe of Pseudococcus comstocki Kuw. (Homop.: Coccidae). Entomological News, 36:52-54

Johnson WT, Lyon HH, 1976. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. An illustrated practical guide. Ithaca, New York, USA:Cornell University Press

Kajita H, 1969. Studies on the utilization of natural enemies as 'biotic insecticides'. Density effect in the mass culture of Pseudaphycus malinus Gahan. Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 24(2):161-166

Kim JB, Kim KY, Kim JK, Kim SB, 1988. Studies on the development of fruit bags for improving fruit quality. 1. Physical characteristics of different types of bag and their relation to pear fruit quality. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Horticulture, 30(2):55-63

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp

Kreiter P, Germain JF, 2005. Pseudococcus comstocki, new species for France and Aonidiella citrina, new species for Corsica (Hem., Pseudococcidae and Diaspididae). (Pseudococcus comstocki, espèce nouvelle pour la France et Aonidiella citrina, nouvelle pour la Corse (Hem., Pseudococcidae et Diaspididae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 110(2):132

Kryachko ZF, 1978. Comstock's mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 10:57

Kuwana SI, 1902. Dactylopius comstocki. Proceedings of California Academy of Science, 3:52

Lin TH, 1971. Morphology of Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)(Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 13(4):162-165

McKenzie HL, 1962. Third taxonomic study of California mealybugs, including additional species from North and South America. Hilgardia, 32(14):637-688

McMullen RD, 1978. Two mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) new to British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist, 110(8):895

Merrill GB, 1953. A revision of the scale insects of Florida. Florida State Plant Board Bulletin, 1:1-143

Meyerdirk DE, Newell IM, 1979. Importation, colonization, and establishment of natural enemies on the Comstock mealybug in California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(1):70-73

Meyerdirk DE, Newell IM, 1979. Seasonal development and flight activity of Pseudococcus comstocki in California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 72(4):492-494

Meyerdirk DE, Newell IM, Warkentin RW, 1981. Biological control of Comstock mealybug. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(1):79-84

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Korić, B., 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009], [ed. by Maček, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Miller DR, 1985. Superfamily Coccoidea. Scale Insects. In: Drooz AT, ed., Insects of eastern forests. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication, Washington, DC, 1426: 87-123

Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref

Moreno D, 1983. Efficiency of pheromone traps in citrus pest detection. Citrograph, 68(4):77-79

Moreno D, Reed DK, Shaw JG, Newell IM, 1972. Sex lure survey trap for Comstock mealybug. Citrograph, 58:43

Morimoto R, 1976. A study of the biological control of Comstock mealybugs, Pseudococcus comstocki Kuwana. Review of Plant Protection Research, 9:72-89

Murakami Y, 1965. Studies on the natural enemies of the Comstock mealybug. I.M. Members of the natural enemies and their geographic distribution. Bulletin Horticultural Research Station, Japan, Ser. A, 4:125-144

Muspv SA, Bushkov NM, 1977. Fumigation of pomegranate fruits against eggs of the Comstock mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 1:56

Myartseva SN, 1980. New species of encyrtids of the genus Leptomastidea Mercet (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) from Turkmenia. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 3:58-67

Nikitenko VG, Ponomarev VG, 1981. A quarantine lifted. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 12:44

Oganesyan SB, Babayan GA, 1979. The influence of air temperature and humidity on the survival of eggs and duration of embryonic development of the Comstock mealybug. Ekologiya, No. 4:98-100

Park JD, Hong KH, 1992. Species, damage and population density of Pseudococcidae injuring pear fruits. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 31(2):133-138

Romanchenko AA, Bel'skaya NM, 1981. The Comstock mealybug in the Odessa region. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 4:41

Santa-Cecília LVC, Simões JC, Souza IF, 2002. Population dynamics and preferential feeding of mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki) to purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). (Dinâmica de populações e preferência alimentar da cochonilha-da-raiz (Pseudococcus comstocki) pela tiririca.) Planta Daninha, 20(1):39-43

Shashkova RV, Sorokina ZF, Astanov T, 1977. The use of Pseudaphycus in Turkmenia. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:51

Sheffer VV, 1974. The destruction of Comstock's mealybug. Zaschita Rastenii, No.5:43

Shelukhin VI, 1992. The quarantine situation in North Caucasus. Zashchita Rastenii^breve~ (Moskva), No. 8:44-45

Shirasaki S, Sekita N, Yamada M, Oyama N, Tsugawa C, 1969. Preservation and utilization of natural enemies and useful insects in apple orchards. II. On biological control of Comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) by parasite, Pseudaphycus malinus Gahan. Aomori Apple Experiment Station Bulletin, 13:1-226

Shiyan NA, Samadov MS, Chernenko NI, Sikura AI, Zhimerikin VN, Simchuk PA, Zurabova eR, 1984. Ways of preventing the spread of quarantine organisms. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 11:42-43

Smetnik AI, Rozinskaya EM, 1988. A new method is introduced. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 3:42-43

Szita, É., Fetykó, K. G., Benedicty, Z. K., Kozár, F., Partsinevelos, G., Milonas, P., Kaydan, M. B., 2017. Data on the scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) fauna of Greece, with description of two new species. Zootaxa, 4329(5), 463-476. http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4329.5.4 doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4329.5.4

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China. I. Shanxi Agricultural University Press, Taigu, Shanxi, China, 2:122-133

Uchida M, Nakagawa K, Negishi T, Asano S, Mori K, 1981. Syntheses of 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-heptadien-3-ol acetate, the pheromone of the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki Kuwana, and its analogs. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 45(2):369-372

Weires RW, 1984. Economic impact of a flucythrinate-induced resurgence of the Comstock mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on apple. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(1):186-189

Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Zhou Xia, Tang FangDe, Xie YingPing, 2001. Influence of air pollution of Comstocki mealybug's population in the Ginkgo and Fraxinus. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 37(4):65-70

Distribution References

Agnello A M, Spangler S M, Reissig S M, Lawson D S, Weires R W, 1992. Seasonal development and management strategies for Comstock mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in New York pear orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology. 85 (1), 212-225. DOI:10.1093/jee/85.1.212

Ahn S B, Cho W S, Lim S E, Kim T J, Lee M H, Choi K M, 1990. Banana insect pest species and their damage in a vinyl house on Cheju Island. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 29 (1), 6-13.

Al-Khateeb N, Louai Asslan, 2004. Ecological and biological studies on the parasitoid, Clausenia purpurea Ishii and its presence ratio compared to the other parasitiods of Pseudococcidae in the Syrian Coast. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 14 (1), 277-283.

Babayan G A, Ohanesyan S B, 1983. On the mechanism of action of the Comstock mealybug in leaves of mulberry. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii. 36 (4), 344-345.

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dong H F, 1993. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Pseudococcus comstocki (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) on Clivia miniata and its control with inundative release of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Col.: Coccinellidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control. 9 (1), 12-14.

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Ervin R T, Moffitt L J, Meyerdirk D E, 1983. Comstock mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): cost analysis of a biological control program in California. Journal of Economic Entomology. 76 (3), 605-609. DOI:10.1093/jee/76.3.605

Fadeev Yu N, Izhevskii S S, 1981. Introduction of beneficial organisms. Zashchita Rastenii. 18-19.

Freĭman T Ya, 1984. The Comstock mealybug in the Maritime Territory. Zashchita Rasteniıbreve˜. 39.

Kim J B, Kim K Y, Kim J K, Kim S B, 1988. Studies on the development of fruit bags for improving fruit quality. 1. Physical characteristics of different types of bag and their relation to pear fruit quality. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Horticulture. 30 (2), 55-63.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution., Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History. 650 pp.

Kreiter P, Germain J F, 2005. Pseudococcus comstocki, new species for France and Aonidiella citrina, new species for Corsica (Hem., Pseudococcidae and Diaspididae). (Pseudococcus comstocki, espèce nouvelle pour la France et Aonidiella citrina, nouvelle pour la Corse (Hem., Pseudococcidae et Diaspididae).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 110 (2), 132.

Kryachko Z F, 1978. Comstock's mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii. 57.

Lin T H, 1971. Morphology of Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)(Homoptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae). Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan. 13 (4), 162-165.

McMullen R D, 1978. Two mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) new to British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist. 110 (8), 895.

Merrill G B, 1953. A revision of the scale insects of Florida. Florida State Plant Board Bulletin. 1-143.

Meyerdirk D E, Newell I M, 1979. Importation, colonization, and establishment of natural enemies on the Comstock mealybug in California. Journal of Economic Entomology. 72 (1), 70-73. DOI:10.1093/jee/72.1.70

Meyerdirk D E, Newell I M, 1979a. Seasonal development and flight activity of Pseudococcus comstocki in California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 72 (4), 492-494. DOI:10.1093/aesa/72.4.492

Meyerdirk D E, Newell I M, Warkentin R W, 1981. Biological control of Comstock mealybug. Journal of Economic Entomology. 74 (1), 79-84. DOI:10.1093/jee/74.1.79

Milek T M, Šimala M, Korić B, 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Miller D R, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 98 (1), 68-86.

Moreno D, 1983. Efficiency of pheromone traps in citrus pest detection. Citrograph. 68 (4), 77-79.

Myartseva S N, 1980. New species of encyrtids of the genus Leptomastidea Mercet (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) from Turkmenia. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk. 58-67.

Park J D, Hong K H, 1992. Species, damage and population density of Pseudococcidae injuring pear fruits. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 31 (2), 133-138.

Romanchenko A A, Bel'skaya N M, 1981. The Comstock mealybug in the Odessa region. Zashchita Rastenii. 41.

Santa-Cecília L V C, Simões J C, Souza I F, 2002. Population dynamics and preferential feeding of mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki) to purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). (Dinâmica de populações e preferência alimentar da cochonilha-da-raiz (Pseudococcus comstocki) pela tiririca.). Planta Daninha. 20 (1), 39-43. DOI:10.1590/S0100-83582002000100006

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