Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudococcus viburni
(obscure mealybug)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudococcus viburni
  • Preferred Common Name
  • obscure mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. viburni, commonly known as obscure mealybug, is an unarmoured scale insect and a common pest in the UK, Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, the French Riviera, Iran, California and Chile. It can affect a number of fruit and nursery pl...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, ventral view. Originally collected by G.M. Mess, 05 January 1949, England.
TitleAdult
CaptionPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, ventral view. Originally collected by G.M. Mess, 05 January 1949, England.
Copyright©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, ventral view. Originally collected by G.M. Mess, 05 January 1949, England.
AdultPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, ventral view. Originally collected by G.M. Mess, 05 January 1949, England.©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects, USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, on a Bromeliad spp. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, on a Bromeliad spp. USA.
Copyright©California Department of Food & Agriculture
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, on a Bromeliad spp. USA.
AdultPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); adult, on a Bromeliad spp. USA.©California Department of Food & Agriculture

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudococcus viburni Signoret

Preferred Common Name

  • obscure mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Dactylopius affinis Maskell, 1894
  • Dactylopius indicus Signoret, 1875
  • Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell, 1894)
  • Pseudococcus capensis Brain, 1912
  • Pseudococcus fathyi Bodenheimer, 1944
  • Pseudococcus indicus (Signoret, 1875)
  • Pseudococcus longispinus var. latipes
  • Pseudococcus malacearum
  • Pseudococcus nicotianae Leonardi, 1913
  • Pseudococcus obscurus Essig, 1909

International Common Names

  • English: Californian mealybug; greenhouse mealybug
  • Spanish: chinche harinoso; chinches harinosos; cochinilla harinosa
  • Portuguese: canchito blanco de la vid

Local Common Names

  • Australia: tuber mealybug
  • Germany: Affinis-Schmierlaus
  • Netherlands: Affiniswolluis
  • UK: glasshouse mealybug

EPPO code

  • PSECOB (Pseudococcus obscurus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

P. viburni, commonly known as obscure mealybug, is an unarmoured scale insect and a common pest in the UK, Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, the French Riviera, Iran, California and Chile. It can affect a number of fruit and nursery plants including apples, tomatoes, orchids and cacti and cause substantial damage to fruit orchards and vineyards. The degree of polyphagy of P. viburni, combined with its numerous economically important host-plants, have meant that it began to be carried on infested plant material between countries from an early date. The species was first recorded outside South America, in France by Signoret (1875), and its subsequent spread followed the trade routes between Europe and the rest of the world; the species is still increasing its geographical range. While obscure mealybug does not spread widely by its own means, human transport of infested plant material disseminates it over long distances very effectively. It has successfully adapted to life in a variety of ecological conditions and in the higher latitudes where it cannot survive winter outdoors, it thrives in greenhouses (Schoen and Martin, 1999).

P. viburni has been recorded transmitting plant virus diseases like the ampelovirus Grapevine Leafroll Associated Virus type III (GRLaV-3), which has seriously affected grapes in New Zealand and California.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudococcus
  •                                         Species: Pseudococcus viburni

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Pseudococcus viburni was spread from its area of origin early, by human transport of infested plants; subsequently, this has made it difficult to work out its area of origin. It is possible that P. viburni was brought into Europe on potatoes from South America via the Canary Islands, possibly in the sixteenth century (Charles, 2011). The mealybug was first described from France, as Dactylopius viburni (Signoret, 1875). Maskell (1894) described it from Australia as Dactylopius affinis. It reached California by 1898 (Gimpel and Miller, 1996) and Essig (1909) subsequently described it as Pseudococcus obscurus from there; Brain (1912) described it from South Africa as P. capensis. Leonardi (1913) described it from Italy as P. nicotianae, and Green (1917) described it from England as P. longispinus latipes. Bodenheimer (1944) described it again from Iran as P. fathyi.

Until about 1970, P. viburni was confused with P. maritimus (Ehrhorn), P. longispinus Targioni Tozzetti, P. obscurus, P. capensis, P. malacearum Ferris and P. affinis, e.g. by Ferris (1950) and McKenzie (1967). The morphological separation of P. viburni from P. maritimus was incrementally clarified by Cox (1987), Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) and Gimpel and Miller (1996). Von Ellenrieder and Watson (2016) provided an identification key to the Pseudococcus species found in the western hemisphere. Even now it is difficult to separate P. viburni from P. maritimus morphologically because both species show a lot of morphological variation (Gimpel and Miller, 1996); it is possible that what is presently called P. viburni may consist of several cryptic species (Charles, 2011). Molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene gives a separation. 

Description

Top of page

P. viburni, commonly known as obscure mealybug, is an unarmoured scale insect.

Live adult female 2.5-5 mm long, fairly flattened ovoid, body contents pinkish but surface coated with white mealy wax; margins with 17 pairs of projecting, slender white wax filaments, these often looking rather untidy; posteriormost one or two pairs of marginal filaments longest, 20-50% as long as the body. Antennae and legs fairly short, yellow; wings absent. At maturity, adult female secretes ovisac of white wax filaments below and behind abdomen, into which yellow eggs are laid. The three immature stages of the female are all similar to the adult but smaller; all lack wing buds.

Male with four immature stages: live first instar indistinguishable from that of female, feeds actively. Second instar feeds and secretes a cocoon of filamentous wax before moulting into a non-feeding pre-pupa with small wing buds; this in turn moults into a non-feeding pupa with larger wing buds, which eventually moults into the adult male with long antennae, well-developed legs and one pair of wings. The adult rests until two long white wax tail filaments have been secreted, before leaving the cocoon to seek females.

Distribution

Top of page

For a long time, P. viburni was confused with P. maritimus and several other Pseudococcus species, hampering attempts to trace its origin. Evidence suggests that P. viburni and its specific wasp parasitoid Acerophagus maculipennis co-evolved in the temperate regions of South America, possibly in south-central Chile (Charles, 2011). The mealybug seems to thrive best in cool-warm temperate climates (Charles, 2011). Records from Ecuador in the literature have been shown to be incorrect; surveys by the national plant protection organization of Ecuador in 2013-2014 showed that P. viburni does not occur there (EPPO, 2015).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MoroccoPresentIntroduced
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroduced
GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
IranPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroduced

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresentIntroduced2006
CyprusPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Sisman and Ülgentürk (2010)
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced
GermanyPresent, LocalizedIntroducedTransient in one location (Baden-Wurttenberg), under eradication
GreecePresentIntroduced
HungaryPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroduced
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Longo et al. (1995)
-SicilyPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Longo et al. (1995)
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced
-AzoresPresentIntroduced2005First recorded in 2005 on Pico and Terceira Islands
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Southern RussiaPresent
SloveniaPresentIntroduced2000
SpainPresentIntroduced
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresentIntroduced
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroduced
-EnglandPresent
-ScotlandPresent
-WalesPresent

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Kozár et al. (1989)
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasive
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasive
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHawaii Island
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IowaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasive
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UtahPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced
EcuadorAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
French GuianaPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

It is now thought that P. viburni probably originated from South America, possibly from south-central Chile (Charles, 2011), but by the late 1800s it had spread to France and Australia, and by the early 1900s it was present in California, South Africa, Italy and England (Signoret, 1875; Maskell, 1894; Essig, 1909; Brain, 1912; Leonardi, 1913; Green, 1917). It then spread into the Middle East (Bodenheimer, 1944) and has continued extending its geographical range to the present day.

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Azores 2005 Yes No Bettencourt and Simoes (2008)
Croatia 2006 No No Milek and Simala (2008)
Slovenia 2000 No No Seljak (2008)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The degree of polyphagy of P. viburni, its numerous economically important host-plants, and the rapid escalation of international trade in fresh plant material and produce, mean that this species presents a high risk of introduction.

Habitat

Top of page

P. viburni can occur on all parts of the host-plant. On grapevines in California, it mostly feeds under the bark on the trunk and older stems, but some immature stages feed on the leaf undersides (UC IPM, 2015). In dry conditions in Australia, the mealybugs feed on the roots of fruit trees (Williams, 1985).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
OtherStored products Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)ZingiberaceaeUnknown
    Bambusa (bamboo)PoaceaeOther
      BrassicaBrassicaceaeOther
        Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
          CitrusRutaceaeMain
            CrassulaceaeCrassulaceaeMain
              Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeOther
                Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeUnknown
                  Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeOther
                    Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                      GardeniaRubiaceaeOther
                        Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
                          Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
                            Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
                              Orchidaceae (orchids)OrchidaceaeMain
                                Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeMain
                                  Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
                                    Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
                                      Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeMain
                                        Saintpaulia (african violet)GesneriaceaeOther
                                          Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                            Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
                                              Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

                                                Growth Stages

                                                Top of page
                                                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                Top of page
                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                Fruit / external feeding
                                                Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Growing point / external feeding
                                                Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Inflorescence / external feeding
                                                Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
                                                Leaves / external feeding
                                                Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
                                                Leaves / wilting
                                                Roots / external feeding
                                                Stems / external feeding
                                                Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
                                                Vegetative organs / external feeding
                                                Whole plant / early senescence
                                                Whole plant / external feeding

                                                Biology and Ecology

                                                Top of page

                                                Genetics

                                                Aspects of the chromosome system of P. viburni were documented under the name P. obscurus (Nur 1962a, 1962b, 1966a, 1966b, 1977).

                                                Reproductive Biology

                                                P. viburni reproduces sexually and there are 2-3 generations each year. Overwintering occurs under the bark, mostly as eggs and first instars, although there is no true dormancy; however, eggs will not hatch while conditions are too cold (UC IPM, 2015). The overwinter mortality of nymphs is high, but a few individuals (normally the ones quickest to hatch) survive and feed and develop on the first spring leaves. Usually the adult females return to the bark on old wood, to each lay several hundred yellow to orange eggs in an ovisac of white wax filaments formed beneath and behind the abdomen. The eggs hatch into first-instar crawlers in 5-10 days depending on temperature. Females of the first generation often take 6-9 weeks to reach maturity, although at high temperatures maturation may take only about 22 days. Adult females emit a sex pheromone to attract the ephemeral, winged males; pheromone production ceases once mating has occurred.

                                                Activity Patterns

                                                In late spring on grapevines some individuals move from the trunk and large branches to the new leaves to feed, later colonizing the fruit clusters; but most of the mealybugs remain hidden under the bark on the trunk and old branches (UC IPM, 2015).

                                                Nutrition

                                                P. viburni sucks large quantities of sugary phloem sap in order to obtain sufficient amino acids, depriving the host-plant of water and carbohydrates. The mealybugs therefore excrete copious quantities of sugary honeydew, which fouls the plant surfaces and gives rise to sooty mould growth.

                                                Associations

                                                Sugary honeydew excreted by P. viburni attracts attendant ants, e.g. Formica spp. or the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile. The ants benefit from a reliable source of carbohydrate and defend the mealybugs from attack by their natural enemies (Phillips and Sherk, 1991).

                                                Environmental Requirements

                                                The spread of P. viburni to many parts of the world and different latitudes indicates that it is an adaptable species that can tolerate a wide range of conditions. It seems to thrive best in cool-warm temperate climates such as those in the southern Mediterranean, southern Africa, southern Australia and New Zealand (Charles, 2011). A detailed study of its environmental tolerances has not been done.

                                                Climate

                                                Top of page
                                                ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
                                                BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
                                                Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
                                                Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
                                                Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
                                                Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

                                                Latitude/Altitude Ranges

                                                Top of page
                                                Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                45 45

                                                Natural enemies

                                                Top of page
                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                Acerophagus flavidulus Parasite to species USA (California) Vineyards
                                                Acerophagus maculipennis Parasite to species Southern Europe Vineyards
                                                Anagyrus fusciventris Parasite
                                                Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite California Citrus
                                                Chrysoplatycerus splendens Parasite South Africa pears
                                                Coccophagus gurneyi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator All Stages not specific On crops under glass
                                                Cryptoscenea australiensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                Diadiplosis koebelei Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                Leptomastix dactylopii Parasite
                                                Nephus reunioni Predator Adults/Nymphs France clementines
                                                Ophelosia charlesi Parasite
                                                Pseudaphycus flavidulus Parasite Chile
                                                Scymnus guttigera Predator Adults/Nymphs South Africa pears
                                                Scymnus sordidus Predator Adults/Nymphs South Africa pears
                                                Sympherobius maculipennis Predator Adults/Nymphs Chile
                                                Tetracnemoidea brevicornis Parasite
                                                Tetracnemoidea peregrina Parasite
                                                Tetracnemoidea sydneyensis Parasite
                                                Zarhopalus corvinus Parasite South Africa pears

                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                Top of page

                                                As the locality of the origin of the species is still rather uncertain, associated natural enemies are relatively uncertain (Charles, 2011). Ants attending P. viburni for the sugary honeydew it excretes defend the mealybugs from their natural enemies, allowing the pest to multiply. The density of P. viburni in California coastal vineyards increased significantly when tended by Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) and the density of encyrtid parasitoids and predators decreased in vineyards with Argentine ants (Phillips and Sherk, 1991). 

                                                Means of Movement and Dispersal

                                                Top of page

                                                Natural Dispersal

                                                Dispersal of P. viburni within the host-plant is mostly the result of walking by first-instar crawlers and other developmental stages of the female. In late spring on grapevines, some individuals move to the leaves to feed, but most remain hidden under the bark or inside tight clusters of fruits. Passive dispersal over greater distances may be aided by wind.

                                                Vector Transmission

                                                Ants attending the mealybugs for their honeydew may carry them to other parts of the plant, particularly when conditions are unfavourable. The density of P. viburni in California coastal vineyards increased significantly when tended by Linepithema humile (Phillips and Sherk, 1991).

                                                Passive dispersal over greater distances may be aided by animal agencies such as birds or humans.

                                                Accidental Introduction

                                                Passive dispersal over long distances may be aided by transport on dirty agricultural equipment, or by the movement of infested plant material from one place to another. 

                                                In the growing season, plant collectors, of for example, orchids, bamboos and proteas may share plant material by mail and hence cause dispersal of the obscure mealybug locally or over long distances. 

                                                Pathway Causes

                                                Top of page
                                                CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                Botanical gardens and zoosOn imported plants Yes
                                                Breeding and propagationOn nursery stock Yes Yes
                                                Crop productionOn infested plants e.g. grapevines, fruit trees, and on fruits Yes
                                                Cut flower tradeOn cut flowers Yes
                                                Escape from confinement or garden escapeOn ornamental plants Yes
                                                Garden waste disposalOn infested prunings Yes
                                                HitchhikerOn farm machinery used in infested vineyards or orchards Yes Yes
                                                HorticultureOn planting stock Yes Yes
                                                Internet salesOn ornamental plants Yes Yes
                                                Landscape improvementOn ornamental shrubs and trees Yes Yes
                                                Nursery tradeOn ornamental plants, shrubs and trees Yes Yes
                                                Ornamental purposesOn ornamental nursery plants Yes Yes
                                                People sharing resourcesHarvest time; sharing produce with friends and relatives Yes Yes
                                                SmugglingHarvest time; sending parcels of fruits or plants without going through quarantine Yes Yes

                                                Pathway Vectors

                                                Top of page
                                                VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                AircraftOccasional, females on fresh cut plant material and fruits Yes
                                                Bulk freight or cargoOften, all stages, in nursery plant shipments Yes
                                                Clothing, footwear and possessionsHarvest time, crawlers, on clothes of vineyard workers Yes
                                                Land vehiclesHarvest time, crawlers, on hired or shared farm vehicles Yes
                                                Machinery and equipmentHarvest time, crawlers, on hired or shared farm machinery Yes
                                                MailOccasional, all stages, in parcels of fruits or plants without going through quarantine Yes
                                                Plants or parts of plantsOccasional, all stages, on cut flowers, whole plants Yes
                                                WindGrowing season; first-instar crawlers blown away Yes
                                                Containers and packaging - wood Yes

                                                Plant Trade

                                                Top of page
                                                Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                Bark adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Fruits (inc. pods) adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Growing medium accompanying plants nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Roots adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

                                                Wood Packaging

                                                Top of page
                                                Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
                                                Solid wood packing material without bark Fresh wood with bark attached Yes

                                                Impact Summary

                                                Top of page
                                                CategoryImpact
                                                Cultural/amenity Negative
                                                Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                Environment (generally) Negative

                                                Economic Impact

                                                Top of page

                                                P. viburni is the commonest greenhouse mealybug in the UK (Williams, 1962), and is a pest of tomatoes under glass in the Netherlands (Schoen and Martin, 1999). Under glass it weakens plants by extracting sap, and honeydew fouling with associated sooty mould growth spoils the appearance of fruit and nursery plants and may cause leaf drop, especially on orchids, coleus, cacti and Solanum species. In vineyards and fruit orchards, P. viburni is the most important underground mealybug pest in Australia (Williams, 1985); it is a pest on apples in Israel (Ben-Dov, 1990), on citrus in the French Riviera (Panis, 1986); on tea in Iran, on grapevines in California (Phillips and Sherk, 1991) and in intensive horticulture in Chile (González, 2003). Obscure mealybug has caused particularly substantial damage to vineyards in the north and central parts of California (UC IPM, 2015), where it is an introduced species (Charles, 2011). Grapes are damaged by contamination of the fruit clusters with mealybugs, egg sacs, honeydew and sooty mould (UC IPM, 2015), rendering wine grapes unsuitable for crushing, grapes unsuitable for drying to produce raisins, and reducing the market value of table grapes. P. viburni is now rarely seen in New Zealand fruit crops, thanks to IPM and A. maculipennis

                                                P. viburni has been recorded transmitting plant virus diseases like the ampelovirus Grapevine Leafroll Associated Virus type III (GRLaV-3), which has seriously affected grapes in New Zealand, reducing crop yield by up to 60% (Charles et al., 2006). This is also a problem in California. Physiological symptoms of GLRaV-3 infected vines include degeneration of phloem cells in leaves, stems and fruit petioles, usually accompanied by an accumulation of starch in infected leaves, which may be the feedback mechanism whereby photosynthetic activities are shut down. Photosynthesis is reduced by 25-65%, depending on cultivar and environment, directly affecting growth and yield even in vines that do not reveal visual symptoms. Cane weight, stem girth and even root growth may be reduced (Charles et al., 2006).

                                                Risk and Impact Factors

                                                Top of page
                                                Invasiveness
                                                • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                • Highly adaptable to different environments
                                                • Is a habitat generalist
                                                • Tolerant of shade
                                                • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
                                                • Has high reproductive potential
                                                Impact outcomes
                                                • Host damage
                                                • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
                                                • Damages animal/plant products
                                                • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
                                                Impact mechanisms
                                                • Competition - monopolizing resources
                                                • Pest and disease transmission
                                                • Fouling
                                                Likelihood of entry/control
                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
                                                • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
                                                • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                                • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                • Difficult/costly to control

                                                Detection and Inspection

                                                Top of page

                                                Field diagnosis

                                                On grapevines, P. viburni can occur together with grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus), longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) and citrophilus mealybug (Pseudococcus calceolariae). In both P. viburni and P. maritimus, live adult female elongate oval, 1.5-3.5 mm long, coated with a white layer of mealy wax. Body with 17 pairs of slender white lateral wax filaments, often crooked and untidy-looking, the posteriormost pair of filaments longest, 20-50% as long as the body. When aggressively disturbed, both P. viburni and P. maritimus exude droplets of tissue fluid through the paired ostiolar openings near the front or rear ends; in P. viburni, the ostiolar fluid is clear and colourless to slightly pink, whereas in P. maritimus it is more opaque and orange-red (UC IPM, 2015).

                                                In live adult female P. longispinus, body with 17 pairs of slender white lateral wax filaments, the posterior two pairs as long as or longer than the body, much longer than in P. viburni or P. maritimus. In contrast, P. ficus has 18 pairs of short, rather thick lateral wax filaments with rough surfaces, the posteriormost being less than 20% as long as the body.

                                                Authoritative identification of P. viburni requires expert study of slide-mounted adult females under high magnification. A method for preparation of stained slide mounts of female mealybugs was provided by Sirisena et al. (2013). Slide-mounted adult female described and illustrated by Ferris (1950), McKenzie (1967), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Cox (1987), Williams and Granara de Willink (1992), Gimpel and Miller (1996) and Williams (2004). The morphology of the first instar was described by Ter-Grigorian (1973), and a description and illustration of the third-instar nymph was provided by Gimpel and Miller (1996). Gullan (2000) provided an identification key to immature mealybugs (including P. viburni) on citrus in Australia.

                                                Separation of the genus Pseudococcus from other species of mealybug

                                                Body of slide-mounted adult female oval, 2-4 mm long. Cerarii on margins numbering 17 pairs or fewer. Anal lobe cerarii each containing 2 conical setae, with or without auxiliary setae; other cerarii usually each containing only 2 conical setae, auxiliary setae usually present. Oral rim ducts present somewhere on the body, in some species each duct closely associated with discoidal pores or 1 or 2 setae. Discoidal pores sparsely scattered throughout body, in some species closely associated with the eyes and in a few species, these pores enclosed in a sclerotized rim around the eye. Anterior and posterior ostioles present. Anal lobes moderately developed, each with ventral sclerotization triangular to rectangular. Antenna usually 8 segmented. Legs well developed; claw without any denticle. Translucent pores present on hind tibia and sometimes on hind femur. Body setae normally flagellate but a few species have some conical dorsal setae. Circulus often present, divided by intersegmental line. Anal ring bearing numerous pores in two rows. Multilocular disc pores present on venter of abdomen, sometimes further anteriorly; in a few species, also present on dorsum. Oral collar ducts, sometimes of more than one size, present on venter in rows across some abdominal segments; sometimes also present submarginally or submedially on head and thorax (Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992Gimpel and Miller, 1996; von Ellenrieder and Watson, 2012).

                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                Top of page

                                                Separation of slide-mounted adult female P. viburni from other species of Pseudococcus

                                                Adult female P. viburni has eyes associated with discoidal pores not set in a sclerotized rim; circulus 70-150 μm wide; multilocular pores absent from dorsum, present on venter as far forwards as abdominal segment five at least, absent from anterior to clypeus; translucent pores present on both hind femur and tibia; cerarii numbering 15-17 pairs; dorsal oral rim tubular duct absent from area between preocular and ocular cerarii (cerarius 15 and cerarius 16) and anterior ostiole. In contrast, P. maritimus has dorsal oral rim tubular duct absent from area between preocular and ocular cerarii (cerarius 15 and cerarius 16) and anterior ostiole (von Ellenrieder and Watson, 2016). Molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene gives an authoritative identification.

                                                Field diagnosis

                                                On grapevines, P. viburni can occur together with grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus), longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) and vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus ). In both P. viburni and P. maritimus, live adult female elongate oval, 1.5-3.5 mm long, coated with a white layer of mealy wax. Body with 17 pairs of slender white lateral wax filaments, often crooked and untidy-looking, the posteriormost pair of filaments longest, 20-50% as long as the body. When aggressively disturbed, both P. viburni and P. maritimus exude droplets of tissue fluid through the paired ostiolar openings near the front or rear ends; in P. viburni, the ostiolar fluid is clear and colourless to slightly pink, whereas in P. maritimus it is more opaque and orange-red (UC IPM, 2015).

                                                In live adult female P. longispinus, body with 17 pairs of slender white lateral wax filaments, the posterior two pairs as long as or longer than the body, much longer than in P. viburni or P. maritimus. In contrast, P. ficus has 18 pairs of short, rather thick lateral wax filaments with rough surfaces, the posteriormost being less than 20% as long as the body.

                                                Prevention and Control

                                                Top of page

                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                Prevention

                                                Dispersal by wind is an important factor in new infestations in vineyards or orchards but obscure mealybug can also be introduced by planting infested stock, and can spread between plants that are touching; so plant with mealybug-free stock and prune to prevent canopies touching (UC IPM, 2015). Infested prunings should be taken away and burned or buried. In glasshouses, new plants should be quarantined for about a month and treated if signs of mealybug infestation develop. Infestations can be reduced by pruning, or washing with a high-powered spray; on cacti, brushing may help to reduce mealybug infestation before treatment (UC IPM, 2015). 

                                                In vineyards, honeydew-seeking ants must be controlled to allow natural enemies to attack the mealybugs; sometimes this is sufficient to result in full control (Phillips and Sherk, 1991). Ant populations can be reduced by tillage or use of cover crops of common vetch (Vicia sativa), whose extra-floral nectaries lure the ants out of the vines, leaving the mealybugs undefended from attack by their natural enemies (UC IPM, 2015).

                                                Early Warning Systems

                                                On grapes, detecting and marking infestations during harvest and pruning is key to monitoring populations the following season. Pheromone-baited sticky traps could be used to detect male P. viburni in vineyards; however, the males of P. viburni and P. maritimus, both of which can occur in vineyards, are morphologically indistinguishable. Their sex pheromones remain a reliable indicator for monitoring presence or absence though (JG Charles, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, New Zealand, personal communication, 2017). 

                                                Control

                                                Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

                                                Obscure mealybug is usually introduced by planting infested stock, and only spreads between plants that are touching; so plant with mealybug-free stock and prune to prevent canopies touching. On grapes, detecting and marking infestations during harvest is key to monitoring populations the following season (UC IPM, 2015). In glasshouses, new plants should be quarantined for about a month and treated if signs of mealybug infestation develop. Infestations can be reduced by pruning, or washing with a high-powered spray; on cacti, brushing may help to reduce mealybug infestation before treatment (Barker, 2016).

                                                Honeydew-seeking ants must be controlled to allow natural enemies to attack the mealybugs; sometimes this is sufficient to result in full control (Phillips and Sherk, 1991). Ant populations can be reduced by tillage or use of cover crops of common vetch (Vicia sativa), whose extra-floral nectaries lure the ants out of the vines, leaving the mealybugs undefended from attack by their natural enemies (UC IPM, 2015).

                                                Pheromone-baited sticky traps could be used to detect male P. viburni in vineyards; however, the males of P. viburni and P. maritimus, both of which can occur in vineyards, are morphologically indistinguishable.

                                                Physical/Mechanical Control

                                                Pruning

                                                P. viburni only spreads between plants that are touching; so prune to prevent canopies touching. Infested prunings should be taken away and burned or buried, not left on the ground where mealybugs may be able to walk back onto the host-plant.

                                                Biological Control

                                                Control of ants attending the mealybugs allows natural enemies access to the pests, which can result in population reduction or even full control (Phillips and Sherk, 1991). Natural enemies recorded attacking P. viburni include predators like Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Nephus sp. and Scymnus spp.; and nine species of parasitoid wasp (García et al., 2016). The parasitoid Acerophagus flavidulus from Chile has been introduced and is established in California (Daane et al., 2008), and Acerophagus maculipennis (probably of Chilean origin) has been used in Australia (New South Wales) (Page and Nimmo, 2000), New Zealand and the Republic of Georgia, and provides effective biological control of P. viburni in southern France (Charles, 2011). Both these species of Acerophagus are thought to be native to Chile and Argentina (Charles, 2011). P. viburni can encapsulate the eggs of Leptomastix epona and L. dactylopii Howard (Daane et al., 2008); but L. epona has been used successfully to control P. viburni in glasshouses (Charles, 2011). Under glass, the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri is effective for controlling obscure mealybug in high light intensities and above 20°C (Barker, 2016).

                                                Chemical Control

                                                Attendant ants can be controlled by the use of ant baits, or sprays of chlorpyrifos on the soil surface. In any one year, chlorpyriphos can be used to control either ants or mealybugs in the vineyard but not both at the same time (UC IPM, 2015). Once ants are controlled, biological control will help keep mealybug populations down, but an infestation may gradually spread if not controlled with insecticides. Spot treatment with pesticide allows natural enemies to thrive in untreated parts of the vineyard. If widespread treatment is necessary it is wise to leave one in 10 acres untreated (or treated with a pesticide not toxic to parasites) to serve as a natural enemy refuge (UC IPM, 2015).

                                                Since obscure mealybug's waxy coating and habit of seeking sheltered feeding sites protect it from water-based contact pesticides (Charles, 2004), oil-based organophosphate pesticides are more effective in reducing population density in orchards, though such pesticides can harm plants if applied after the first budding. However, some New Zealand obscure mealybug populations have developed resistance to organophosphate pesticides (Charles, 2004). Systemic insecticides can be used as an alternative. Field workers can be educated to recognize mealybug infestations and flag the vines for spot treatment (UC IPM, 2015). Under glass, insecticidal soaps (which block the spiracles so the insects suffocate) can be effective.

                                                IPM

                                                The IPM practices used to control P. viburni on grapevines in California are described by UC IPM (2015), and the practices used in New Zealand orchards are discussed by Charles (2004).

                                                Monitoring and Surveillance

                                                On grapes, detecting and marking infestations during harvest and pruning is key to monitoring populations the following season. Pheromone-baited sticky traps could be used to detect male P. viburni in vineyards; however, the males of P. viburni and P. maritimus, both of which can occur in vineyards, are morphologically indistinguishable.

                                                Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

                                                Top of page

                                                A detailed study of the environmental tolerances of P. viburni has not been done. A CLIMEX analysis might be very informative about its environmental requirements and which parts of the world are at risk of invasion by this mealybug.

                                                Molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene and some nuclear genes from multiple populations from around the world would clarify whether P. viburni is a single species or a cryptic species complex.

                                                References

                                                Top of page

                                                Charles JG, 1989: Pseudococcidae, mealybugs (Homoptera). pp223-236. in:- Cameron, P.J. et al.(eds): A review of Biological Control of invertebrate pests and weeds in New Zealand 1874 -1987. Tech. Comm. CAB International, UK. 424pp.

                                                Charles JG, Allan DJ, Rogers DJ, Cole LM, Shaw PW, Wallis DR, 2004. Mass-rearing, establishment and dispersal of Pseudaphycus maculipennis, a biocontrol agent for obscure mealybug. New Zealand Plant Protection 57: 177-182.

                                                Barker, 2016. Greenhouse mealybug - Pseudococcus viburni (most common species). Oak Leaf Gardening monthly e-newsletter. London, UK: Oak Leaf Gardening. http://www.oakleafgardening.com/problems/greenhouse-mealy-bug-pseudococcus-viburni/

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1987. Observations on scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Middle East - III. Israel Journal of Entomology, 21:111-117.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1990. Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell), an apple pest in Israel. Hassadeh, 71(2):230-231.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 686 pp.

                                                Bettencourt SCX, Simoes AMA, 2008. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press, 215-252.

                                                Bodenheimer FS, 1944. Note on the Coccoidea of Iran, with description of new species. Bulletin de la Société Fouad 1er d'Entomologie, 28:85-100.

                                                Brain CK, 1912. Contribution to the knowledge of mealybugs, genus Pseudococcus, in the vicinity of cape Town, South Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 5:177-189.

                                                Carnero Hernandez A, Perez Guerra G, 1986. Coccids (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Canary Islands. Comunicaciones I.N.I.A., Proteccion Vegetal, No. 25:85pp.

                                                Charles JG, 2004. Pesticide resistance management strategy. Auckland, New Zealand: http://resistance.nzpps.org/index. Auckland, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc). http://resistance.nzpps.org/index.php?p=insecticides/mealybug

                                                Charles JG, 2011. Using parasitoids to infer a native range for the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, in South America. BioControl, 56(2):155-161. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853

                                                Charles JG, Cohen D, Walker JTS, Forgie SA, Bell VA, Breen KC, 2006. A review of the ecology of grapevine leafroll associated virus type 3 (GLRaV-3). New Zealand Plant Protection [New Zealand Plant Protection Society Annual Conference, Blenheim, New Zealand, 8-10 August 2006.], 59:330-337. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/

                                                Charles, J. G., Bell, V. A., Hall, A. J., Suckling, D. M., Walker, J. T. S., Cole, L. M., Shaw, P. W., Wallis, D. R., Millar, J. G., 2015. Evaluation of the synthetic sex pheromone of the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, as an attractant to conspecific males, and to females of the parasitoid Acerophagus maculipennis., Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 157(2):188-197 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1570-7458

                                                Charles, J. G., Bell, V. A., Lo, P. L., Cole, L. M., Chhagan, A., 2010. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and their natural enemies in New Zealand vineyards from 1993 to 2009, New Zealand Entomologist :84-91

                                                Cox JM, 1987. Pseudococcidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Fauna of New Zealand, 11. Wellington, New Zealand: DSIR Science Information Publishing Centre, 229 pp.

                                                Culik MP, Gullan PJ, 2005. A new pest of tomato and other records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Zootaxa, 964:1-8.

                                                Culik MP, Ventura JA, Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218. http://www.actahort.org

                                                Daane KM, Cooper ML, Triapitsyn SV, Andrews JW Jr, Ripa R, 2008. Parasitoids of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hem.: Pseudococcidae) in California: establishment of Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hym.: Encyrtidae) and discussion of related parasitoid species. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 18(1/2):43-57.

                                                Dapoto GL, Olave A, Bondoni M, Giganti H, 2011. Obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni) in pear trees in the Alto Valle of Rio Negro and Neuquen, Argentina. Acta Horticulturae [XI International Pear Symposium, Patagonia, Argentina, 16-19 November 2010.], No.909:497-504. http://www.actahort.org/books/909/909_58.htm

                                                DE LOTTO G, 1968. Second contribution to the knowledge of the African Coccoidea (Homoptera) [in which the changes include the transference of Akermes andersoni Newst. (RAE A 5 456; 24 520) to Cribrolecanium]. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 31(1):83-86 pp.

                                                Ellenrieder Nvon, Watson G, 2016. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World. Zootaxa, 4105(1):65-87.

                                                EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

                                                EPPO, 2015. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

                                                Essig EO, 1909. The genus Pseudococcus in California. Pomona College Journal of Entomology, 1:35-46.

                                                Ferris GF, 1950. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. (ser. 5): The Pseudococcidae (Part I). Palo Alto, USA: Stanford University Press, 278 pp.

                                                Foldi I, Kozar F, 2006. New species of Cataenococcus and Puto from Brazil and Venezuela, with data on others species (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 22(4):305-312.

                                                Garcia M, Denno B, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB, 2016. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Maryland, USA: ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info

                                                Gimpel WFJr, Miller DR, 1996. Systematic analysis of the mealybugs in the Pseudococcus maritimus complex (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Contributions on Entomology, International, 2(1):163 pp.; 3 pp. of ref.

                                                Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1937. Coccidos de Espana. Estacion, Madrid, Spain: Instituto de Investigaciones Agronomicas, 432 pp.

                                                Gonzalez RH, 1983. Management of grapevine pests. Manejo de plagas de la vid. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Veterinarias y Forestales, Universidad de Chile Santiago Chile, 115 pp.

                                                Gonzalez RH, 2003. Chanchitos blancos de importancia agricola y cuarentenaria en huertos frutales de Chile (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Revista Fruticola, 24(1):5-17.

                                                Granara de Willink MC, Scatoni IB, Terra AL, Frioni MI, 1997. Mealybugs (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) that affect crops and wild plants in Uruguay. Updated list of the host plants. (Cochinillas harinosas (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) que afectan plantas cultivadas y silvestres en Uruguay lista actualizada de plantas hospederas.) Agrociencia (Montevideo), 1(1):96-99.

                                                Granara Willink MCde, 1991. Economically important mealybugs found in Argentina: recent species and new list of hosts. (Cochinillas harinosas de importancia economica encontradas en la Argentina: actualizacion sistematica y nueva lista de hospederos.) Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Cordoba, Argentina), 59(3/4):259-271.

                                                Green EE, 1917. Observations on British Coccidae: with descriptions of new species. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 53:201-210, 260-269.

                                                Gullan PJ, 2000. Identification of the immature instars of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 39(3):160-166; 14 ref.

                                                Hata TY, Hara AH, 1992. Evaluation of insecticides against pests of red ginger in Hawaii. Tropical Pest Management, 38(3):234-236.

                                                Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale insects of northeastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, vii + 650 pp.; 34 pp. of ref.

                                                Kozar F, 1980. The scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Bakony Mountains and surrounding area. Veszprem Megyei Muzeumok Kozlemenyei, 15:65-72.

                                                Kozar F, Fowjhan MA, Zarrabi M, 1996. Check-list of Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea (Homoptera) of Afghanistan and Iran, with additional data to the scale insects of fruit trees in Iran. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 31:61-74.

                                                Kozar F, Franco JC, 1995. Some new data to the scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) from Continental Portugal. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 56:69-74.

                                                Kozar F, Humble LM, Foottit RG, Otvos IS, 1989. New and little known scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) from British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 86:70-77

                                                Kozar F, Tzalev M, Viktorin RA, Horvath J, 1979. New data to the knowledge of the scale-insects of Bulgaria (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 32(2):129-132

                                                Kozßr F, Hippe C, 1996. A new species from the genus Greenisca Borchsenius, 1948 and additional data on the occurrence of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in Switzerland. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 62:91-96; 13 ref.

                                                Leonardi G, 1913. Cocciniglia dannosa al tabacco. Bollettino Tecnico, R. Istituto Sperimentale Tabacchi, 12:76-80.

                                                Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

                                                Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

                                                Malumphy C, 2011. Fletcher scale Parthenolecanium fletcheri (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a North American pest of cypress and yew, new to Britain. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 24(4):211-216. http://www.benhs.org.uk

                                                Maskell WM, 1894. Further coccid notes with descriptions of several new species and discussion of various points of interest. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 26:65-105.

                                                Matile-Ferrero D, Etienne J, 2006. Cochenilles des Antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles Caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. Revue francaise d'Entomologie, 28(4):161-190.

                                                McKenzie HL, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp.

                                                McKenzie HL, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp.

                                                McKenzie HL, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp.

                                                Milek TM, Simala M, 2008. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press, 105-119.

                                                Milonas PG, Kozár F, Kontodimas DC, 2008. List of scale insects of Greece. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007:143-147.

                                                Nur U, 1962. A supernumerary chromosome with an accumulation mechanism in the lecanoid genetic system. Chromosoma, Berlin, 13:249-271.

                                                Nur U, 1962. Sperms, sperm bundles and fertilization in a mealy bug, Pseudococcus obscurus Essig (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Journal of Morphology, 111:173-199.

                                                Nur U, 1966. Harmful supernumerary chromosomes in a mealy bug population. Genetics, 54:1225-1238.

                                                Nur U, 1966. The effect of supernumerary chromosomes on the development of mealy bugs. Genetics, 54:1239-1249.

                                                Nur U, 1977. Maternal inheritence of enzymes in the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus (Homoptera). Genetics, 86:149-160.

                                                Page F, Nimmo P, 2000. Biological control of grapevine (tuber) mealybug. AP512. New South Wales, Australia: Horticultural Research and Development Corporation, 30 pp. http://apal.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/AP512-Biological-control-of-tuber-mealybug.pdf

                                                Panis A, 1986. Integrated pest control in citrus-groves: Proceedings of the Experts' Meeting, Acireale, 26-29 March 1985 [ed. by Cavalloro, R. \Martino, Di]. Boston, USA: Commission of the European Communities, 600 pp.

                                                Phillips PA, Sherk CJ, 1991. To control mealybugs, stop honeydew-seeking ants. California Agriculture, 45(2):26-28.

                                                Salazar T J, 1972. Contribution to knowledge of the Pseudococcidae of Peru. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 15:277-303

                                                Schoen L, Martin C, 1999. A "new" type of scale on tomatoes. Pseudococcus viburni, a potential greenhouse pest. (Une "nouvelle" cochenille sur tomate. Pseudococcus viburni, ravageur potentiel en serre.) Phytoma, No. 514:39-40.

                                                Seljak G, 2008. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press, 121-127.

                                                Signoret V, 1875. Essay on the gall forming insects (Homoptera - Coccidae), 15th Part. (Essai sur les cochenilles ou gallinsectes (Homoptères - Coccides), 15e partie.) Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France (serie 5), 5:305-352.

                                                Sirisena UGAI, Watson GW, Hemachandra KS, Wijayagunasekara HNP, 2013. A modified technique for the preparation of specimens of Sternorrhyncha for taxonomic studies. Tropical Agricultural Research Journal, 24(2):139-149.

                                                Sisman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34(2):219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

                                                Ter-Grigorian MA, 1973. Fauna of the Armenian SSR: Scale insects (Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Erevan, Armenia: Akademii Nauk Armiansky SSR, 246 pp.

                                                Timofeeva TV, 1979. A parasite of the maritime mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 6:45.

                                                Tranfaglia A, 1973. Study on the Homoptera Coccoidea I. On the discovery of Pseudococcus obscurus Essig in Campania, first record for the Italian fauna. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 30:294-299.

                                                UC IPM, 2015. How to manage pests. Grape mealybugs (Pseudococcus). UC Pest Management Guidelines. California, USA: University of California IPM Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. http://ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r302301811.html

                                                Uygun N, Sengonca C, Erkilic L, Schade M, 1998. The Coccoidea fauna and their host plants in cultivated and non-cultivated areas in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 33(1/2):183-191; 31 ref.

                                                Ward A, 1966. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Hawke's Bay orchards. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 9:452-454.

                                                Williams DJ, 1962. The British Pseudococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 12:1-79.

                                                Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp.

                                                Williams DJ, 2004. Mealybugs of southern Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Southdene SDN. BHD, 896 pp.

                                                Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                Zahradnik J, 1990. 3.9.9.1 Conifers. In: Armored scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control [Series title: World Crop Pests, Vol. 48} [ed. by Rosen, D.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 688 pp.

                                                Distribution References

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1987. Observations on scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Middle East - III. In: Israel Journal of Entomology, 21 111-117.

                                                Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

                                                Bettencourt SCX, Simoes AMA, 2008. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007., Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 215-252.

                                                Bodenheimer FS, 1944. Note on the Coccoidea of Iran, with description of new species. In: Bulletin de la Société Fouad 1er d'Entomologie, 28 85-100.

                                                Borges I, Soares A O, Hemptinne J L, 2006. Abundance and spatial distribution of aphids and scales select for different life histories in their ladybird beetle predators. Journal of Applied Entomology. 130 (6/7), 356-359. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2006.01071.x

                                                CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                Carnero Hernandez A, Perez Guerra G, 1986. Coccids (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Canary Islands. (Cóccidos (Homoptera: Coccoidea) de las Islas Canarias.). In: Comunicaciones I.N.I.A., Protección Vegetal, 85pp.

                                                Culik M P, Gullan P J, 2005. A new pest of tomato and other records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Zootaxa. 1-8.

                                                Dapoto G L, Olave A, Bondoni M, Giganti H, 2011. Obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni) in pear trees in the Alto Valle of Rio Negro and Neuquen, Argentina. Acta Horticulturae. 497-504. http://www.actahort.org/books/909/909_58.htm

                                                EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                Foldi I, Kozár F, 2005. New species of Cataenococcus and Puto from Brazil and Venezuela, with data on others species (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie. 22 (4), 305-312.

                                                Garcia M, Denno B, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB, 2016. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics., Maryland, USA: ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info

                                                Gimpel W F Jr, Miller D R, 1996. Systematic analysis of the mealybugs in the Pseudococcus maritimus complex (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). In: Contributions on Entomology, International, 2 (1) Gainesville, USA: Associated Publishers. 163 pp.

                                                Gomez-Menor Ortega J, 1937. Coccidos de Espana. Madrid, Spain: Universidad de Madrid.

                                                Granara de Willink M C, Scatoni I B, Terra A L, Frioni M I, 1997. Mealybugs (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) that affect crops and wild plants in Uruguay. Updated list of the host plants. (Cochinillas harinosas (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) que afectan plantas cultivadas y silvestres en Uruguay lista actualizada de plantas hospederas.). Agrociencia (Montevideo). 1 (1), 96-99.

                                                Granara Willink MCde, 1991. Economically important mealybugs found in Argentina: recent species and new list of hosts. (Cochinillas harinosas de importancia economica encontradas en la Argentina: actualizacion sistematica y nueva lista de hospederos). In: Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Cordoba, Argentina), 59 (3/4) 259-271.

                                                Gullan P J, 2000. Identification of the immature instars of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 39 (3), 160-166.

                                                Hata T Y, Hara A H, 1992. Evaluation of insecticides against pests of red ginger in Hawaii. Tropical Pest Management. 38 (3), 234-236.

                                                Șİșman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 34 (2), 219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

                                                Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale insects of northeastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History. vii + 650 pp.

                                                Kozar F, 1980. The scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Bakony Mountains and surrounding area. In: Veszprem Megyei Muzeumok Kozlemenyei, 15 65-72.

                                                Kozar F, Fowjhan MA, Zarrabi M, 1996. Check-list of Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea (Homoptera) of Afghanistan and Iran, with additional data to the scale insects of fruit trees in Iran. In: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 31 61-74.

                                                Kozar F, Franco JC, 1995. Some new data to the scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccoidea) from Continental Portugal. In: Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 56 69-74.

                                                Kozar F, Tzalev M, Viktorin R A, Horvath J, 1979. New data to the knowledge of the scale-insects of Bulgaria (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Folia Entomologica Hungarica. 32 (2), 129-132.

                                                Malumphy C, 2011. Fletcher scale Parthenolecanium fletcheri (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a North American pest of cypress and yew, new to Britain. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. 24 (4), 211-216. http://www.benhs.org.uk

                                                Maskell WM, 1894. Further coccid notes with descriptions of several new species and discussion of various points of interest. In: Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 26 65-105.

                                                Matile-Ferrero D, Etienne J, 2006. (Cochenilles des Antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles Caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). In: Revue francaise d'Entomologie, 28 (4) 161-190.

                                                Milek TM, Simala M, 2008. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007., Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 105-119.

                                                Milonas PG, Kozár F, Kontodimas DC, 2008. List of scale insects of Greece. [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007], 143-147.

                                                Salazar T J, 1972. Contribution to knowledge of the Pseudococcidae of Peru. (Contribucion al conocimiento de los Pseudococcidae del Peru.). Revista Peruana de Entomologia. 277-303.

                                                Seljak G, 2008. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007., Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 121-127.

                                                Timofeeva T V, 1979. A parasite of the maritime mealybug. Zashchita Rastenii. 45.

                                                Tranfaglia A, 1973. Study on the Homoptera Coccoidea I. On the discovery of Pseudococcus obscurus Essig in Campania, first record for the Italian fauna. In: Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 30 294-299.

                                                Uygun N, Sengonca C, Erkiliç L, Schade M, 1998. The Coccoidea fauna and their host plants in cultivated and non-cultivated areas in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. 33 (1/2), 183-191.

                                                Ward A, 1966. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Hawke's Bay orchards. In: New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 9 452-454.

                                                Williams D J, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, United Kingdom: British Museum (Natural History). viii + 431 pp.

                                                Williams DJ, 1962. The British Pseudococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). In: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 12 1-79.

                                                Williams DJ, 2004. Mealybugs of southern Asia., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Southdene SDN. BHD. 896 pp.

                                                Zahradnik J, 1990. 3.9.9.1 Conifers. In: Armored scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control [Series title: World Crop Pests], 48 [ed. by Rosen D]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 688 pp.

                                                Links to Websites

                                                Top of page
                                                WebsiteURLComment
                                                EPPO Global Databasehttp://gd.eppo.int
                                                Scalenethttp://scalenet.info

                                                Organizations

                                                Top of page

                                                France: European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 21 boulevard Richard Lenoir 75011 Paris, https://www.eppo.int

                                                Principal Source

                                                Top of page

                                                Draft datasheet under review

                                                Contributors

                                                Top of page

                                                31/05/16 Original text by: 

                                                Gillian Watson, California Department of Food and Agriculture, California, USA

                                                Distribution Maps

                                                Top of page
                                                You can pan and zoom the map
                                                Save map
                                                Select a dataset
                                                Map Legends
                                                • CABI Summary Records
                                                Map Filters
                                                Extent
                                                Invasive
                                                Origin
                                                Third party data sources: