Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudococcus longispinus
(long-tailed mealybug)

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Datasheet

Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudococcus longispinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • long-tailed mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation, on eggplant/aubergine (Solanum melongena).
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation, on eggplant/aubergine (Solanum melongena).
Copyright©Ko Ko Maung/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation, on eggplant/aubergine (Solanum melongena).
InfestationPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation, on eggplant/aubergine (Solanum melongena).©Ko Ko Maung/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults on sago palm (Cycas revoluta).
TitleAdults
CaptionPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults on sago palm (Cycas revoluta).
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults on sago palm (Cycas revoluta).
AdultsPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults on sago palm (Cycas revoluta).©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults. In laboratory. USA.
TitleAdults
CaptionPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults. In laboratory. USA.
Copyright©Jeffrey W. Lotz/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults. In laboratory. USA.
AdultsPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); adults. In laboratory. USA.©Jeffrey W. Lotz/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation.
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation.
InfestationPseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); infestation.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni Tozzetti

Preferred Common Name

  • long-tailed mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Boisduvalia lauri (Boisduval) Signoret
  • Coccus adonidum various authors (not Linnaeus)
  • Coccus laurinus Boisduval
  • Dactylopius adonidum (Linnaeus)
  • Dactylopius longifilis Comstock
  • Dactylopius longispinus Targioni Tozzetti
  • Dactylopius pteridis Signoret
  • Oudablis lauri (Boisduval) Cockerell
  • Pseudococcus adonidum (Linnaeus) Westwood
  • Pseudococcus laurinus (Boisduval) Fernald

International Common Names

  • English: mealybug, long-tailed
  • Spanish: chanchito blanco de cola larga; chinche harinosa largo-rabo
  • French: cochenille des serres; cochenille farineuse des serres

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: langfrynset uldlus; uldlus
  • Finland: kaunokilpikirva
  • Germany: Schmierlaus, Langdornige
  • Mexico: piojo harinoso del aguacate
  • Netherlands: Langstaartwolluis; Witte luis, langstaartige
  • Norway: langfrynset ull-lus
  • South Africa: langstert wolluis

EPPO code

  • PSECAD (Pseudococcus longispinus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudococcus
  •                                         Species: Pseudococcus longispinus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
ComorosPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresent
ChinaPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent, Widespread
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Nova ScotiaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresentPresent: at low prevalence
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
KiribatiPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Stems / external feeding
Stems / galls
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anagyrus fusciventris Parasite Adults Bermuda; California; Israel avocados; Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite Australia; Bermuda Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci Parasite California avocados
Arhopoideus peregrinus Parasite Australia; Bermuda; California; Israel; Seychelles avocados; Cocos nucifera; Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Bothriocraera bicolor Parasite California avocados
Cladosporium oxysporum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus gurneyi Parasite Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Cryptoscenea australiensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Decadiomus hughesi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Diadiplosis koebelei Predator Adults/Nymphs
Holcencyrtus myrmicoides Parasite Hawaii avocados
Hungariella peregrina Parasite Israel; South Australia
Hungariella pretiosa Parasite
Hyperaspis jucunda Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Hyperaspis lateralis Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Ophelosia charlesi Parasite
Parectromoides varipes Parasite
Pseudaphycus angelicus Parasite Bermuda; Seychelles; South Africa Cocos nucifera; ferns; Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Scymnus sordidus Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Sympherobius barberi Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Metroxylon sagu; Nerium oleander; Pittosporum
Tetracnemoidea brevicornis Parasite
Tetracnemoidea peregrina Parasite Nymphs
Tetracnemoidea sydneyensis Parasite Nymphs

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Barrass I, Brown D, 1993. Integrated control and cost reduction in pear orchards of the Goulburn Valley, Australia. Acta Horticulturae, No. 347:307-313; 6 ref

Barrass IC, Jerie P, Ward SA, 1994. Aerial dispersal of first- and second-instar longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(8):1205-1208

Barrass IC, Schenk AM, Webster AD, Wertheim SJ, 1993. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Integrated Fruit Production, Veldhoven, Netherlands, 24-28 August 1992. Acta Horticulturae, 347:303-306

Bartlett BR, 1978. Pseudococcidae. In: Clausen CP, ed. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agriculture Handbook No. 480, 137-170

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A Systematic Catalogue of the Mealybugs of the World. Andover, UK: Intercept Ltd, 397-400

Buckley R, Gullan P, 1991. More aggressive ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) provide better protection for soft scales and mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccidae, Pseudococcidae). Biotropica, 23(3):282-286

Charles JG, 1981. Distribution and life history of the longtailed mealy bug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Auckland vineyards. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 8(2):285-293

Charles JG, 1982. Economic damage and preliminary economic thresholds for mealybugs (Pseudococcus longispinus T-T.) in Auckland vineyards. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 25(3):415-420

Charles JG, 1985. Diadiplosis koebelei Koebele (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a predator of Pseudococcus longispinus T.-T. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), newly recorded from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 12(3):331-333

Charles JG, 1993. A survey of mealybugs and their natural enemies in horticultural crops in North Island, New Zealand, with implications for biological control. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3(4):405-418

CIE, 1984. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 93. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cox JM, 1979. Longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), life cycle. DSIR, New Zealand, Information Series, 105/32:1-2

Culik MP, Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Peronti ALBG, Gullan PJ, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en

Culik MP, Ventura JA, Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218. http://www.actahort.org

De Lotto G, 1965. The nomenclatural status of the common long tailed mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 27:226-229

Dentener PR, Alexander SM, Lester PJ, Petry RJ, Maindonald JH, McDonald RM, 1996. Hot air treatment for disinfestation of lightbrown apple moth and longtailed mealy bug on persimmons. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 8(2):143-151; 25 ref

Dentener PR, Bennett KV, Hoy LE, Lewthwaite SE, Lester PJ, Maindoland JH, Connolly PG, 1997. Postharvest disinfestation of lightbrown apple moth and longtailed mealybug on persimmons using heat and cold. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 12(3):255-264; 26 ref

El-Minshawy AH, Karam HH, El-Sawaf SK, 1974. Biological studies on the long tailed mealy bug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targ. and Tozzeti) (Homoptera:Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 58:385-391

Furness GO, 1976. The dispersal, age-structure and natural enemies of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), in relation to sampling and control. Australian Journal of Zoology, 24(2):237-247

Furness GO, 1977. Chemical and integrated control of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in the Riverland of South Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 28(2):319-332

Gollifer DE, Jackson GVH, Dabek AJ, Plumb RT, May YY, 1977. The occurrence and transmission of viruses of edible aroids in the Solomon Islands and the Southwest Pacific. PANS, 23(2):171-177

Hansen JD, Hara AH, Tenbrink VL, 1992. Insecticidal dips for disinfesting commercial tropical cut flowers and foliage. Tropical Pest Management, 38(3):245-249

Hata TY, Hara AH, Jang EB, Imaino LS, Hu BKS, Tenbrink VL, 1992. Pest management before harvest and insecticidal dip after harvest as a systems approach to quarantine security for red ginger. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6):2310-2316

IPPC, 2018. (Primer reporte oficial de escama harinosa (Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni Tozzetti)). IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NIC-17/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

James HC, 1937. Sex ratios and the status of the male Pseudococcinae. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 28:429-461

Lester PJ, Dentener PR, Petry RJ, Alexander SM, 1995. Hot-water immersion for disinfestation of lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) and longtailed mealy bug (Pseudococcus longispinus) on persimmons. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 6(3/4):349-356

Lit IL Jr, Calilung VJ, 1994. Philippine mealybugs of the genus Pseudococcus (Pseudococcidae, Coccoidea, Hemiptera). Philippine Entomologist, 9(3):254-267

Notte Pla, Buzkan N, Choueiri E, Minafra A, Martelli GP, 1997. Acquisition and transmission of grapevine virus A by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 78(1):79-85; 25 ref

Panis A, 1969. Observations faunistiques et biologiques sur quelques Pseudococcidae (Homoptera, Coccoidea) vivant dans le midi de la France. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim., 1:211-244

Petersen CL, Charles JG, 1997. Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses by Pseudococcus longispinus and P. calceolariae. Plant Pathology, 46(4):509-515; 34 ref

Petty GJ, 1987. Control of mealybugs and scale on pineapples by methyl bromide fumigation of planting material. Phytophylactica, 19(3):255-258

Rao MN, 1989. A crawler-proof cage for breeding mealybugs and their natural enemies. Journal of Biological Control, 3(1):70

Rosciglione B, Gugerli P, 1986. Leaf roll and stem pitting diseases of grapevine: microscopic and serological analysis. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 18(4):207-211

Salazar Torres JC, Solis Aguilar JF, 1990. Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) present on four species of fruit trees of the family Rosaceae in Zacatlan, Puebla. Revista Chapingo, 15(67-68):135-137

Salazar Torres JC, Solis Aguilar JF, 1990. Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) present on four species of fruit trees of the family Rosaceae in Zacatlan, Puebla. Revista Chapingo, 15(67-68):135-137

Samways MJ, Grech NM, 1986. Assessment of the fungus Cladosporium oxysporum (Berk. and Curt.) as a potential biocontrol agent against certain Homoptera. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15(4):231-239

Souza B, Santa-Cecília LVC, Prado E, Souza JCde, 2008. Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) on coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. (Cochonilhas-farinhentas (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.) em Minas Gerais.) Coffee Science, 3(2):104-107. http://www.coffeescience.ufla.br/

Steven D, Sale PR, 1985. Insect control trials on persimmons. Proceedings, New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference, No. 38:203-206; 4 ref

Swart PL, 1977. Mealybugs: more economic management on apples and pears. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 27(6):186-191

Swirski E, Izhar Y, Wysoki M, Gurevitz E, Greenberg S, 1980. Integrated control of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hom.: Pseudococcidae), in avocado plantations in Israel. Entomophaga, 25(4):415-426

Swirski E, Wysoki M, Yizhar J, Gurevitz E, Greenberg S, 1979. The honeydew moth (Cryptoblabes gnidiella) and the long-tailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) in avocado plantations. Alon Hanotea, 34(2):83-86

Villiers EA de, Toit WJdu, 1984. Effect of pyrethroid insecticides on the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula, on macadamia nuts. Information Bulletin, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, No.146:17-20

Villiers EAde, 1978. Guava pests. Farming in South Africa, No. H.1:3 pp

Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp

Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Wysoki M, 1977. Overwintering, oversummering, and the effect of extreme temperature and humidity levels on the parasitic wasp Hungariella peregrina Compere (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Phytoparasitica, 5(1):15-25

Wysoki M, Izhar I, Swirsky E, Gurevitz A, Greenberg S, 1976. Damage, host and susceptibility of avocado varieties to the long-tailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus Targ.-Tozz.). Special Publication, Agricultural Research Organization, Israel, 65, 81-90

Wysoki M, Swirski E, Izhar Y, 1981. Biological control of avocado pests in Israel. Protection Ecology, 3(1):25-28

Distribution References

Agboton B V, Salifu D, Seguni Z, Sijaona M E, Shomari S, Ekesi S, Maniania N K, 2013. Bioecology of some key cashew insect pests and diseases in diverse habitats and landscapes in Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology. 137 (10), 782-789. DOI:10.1111/jen.12069

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore, Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

Borges I, Soares A O, Hemptinne J L, 2006. Abundance and spatial distribution of aphids and scales select for different life histories in their ladybird beetle predators. Journal of Applied Entomology. 130 (6/7), 356-359. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2006.01071.x

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Gullan P J, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

Culik M P, Ventura J A, Martins D dos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae. 215-218. http://www.actahort.org

IPPC, 2018. (Primer reporte oficial de escama harinosa (Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni Tozzetti)). In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Lit I L Jr, Calilung V J, 1994. Philippine mealybugs of the genus Pseudococcus (Pseudococcidae, Coccoidea, Hemiptera). Philippine Entomologist. 9 (3), 254-267.

Naik C M, Chakravarthy A K, Doddabasappa B, 2012. Seasonal distribution of insect pests associated with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Karnataka. Environment and Ecology. 30 (4), 1321-1323.

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Souza B, Santa-Cecília L V C, Prado E, Souza J C de, 2008. Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) on coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. (Cochonilhas-farinhentas (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.) em Minas Gerais.). Coffee Science. 3 (2), 104-107. http://www.coffeescience.ufla.br/

Srinivasnaik S, Suganthy M, Kumar S M, Jegadeeswari V, 2016. Survey, documentation and identification of entomofauna of cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. in major cocoa growing regions of South India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 8 (3), 1444-1451. http://jans.ansfoundation.org/previous-issues/volume-8-year-2016--issue-3#TOC-Physiological-and-biochemical-response-to-higher-temperature-stress-in-hot-pepper-Capsicum-annuum-L.-

Sunil Joshi, Sangma R H Ch, 2015. Natural enemies associated with aphids and coccids from Sikkim, India. Journal of Biological Control. 29 (1), 3-7. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/75778/59026

Szita É, Fetykó K G, Benedicty Z K, Kozár F, Partsinevelos G, Milonas P, Kaydan M B, 2017. Data on the scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) fauna of Greece, with description of two new species. Zootaxa. 4329 (5), 463-476. http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4329.5.4 DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4329.5.4

UK, CAB International, 1984. Pseudococcus longispinus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 93 (Revised). DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600093

Williams D J, Granara de Willink M C, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 635 pp.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1988. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The armoured scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 290pp.

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