Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
(mulberry scale)

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Datasheet

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mulberry scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
InfestationPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).Public Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
InfestationPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).Public Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.
TitleFemales and larvae
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.
Copyright©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.
Females and larvaePseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.
TitleMales
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.
Copyright©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.
MalesPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females.
TitleFemales
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females.
Copyright©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females.
FemalesPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females. ©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.
Copyright©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.
Natural enemyPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)
TitleAdult female
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)
Copyright©CAB International
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)
Adult femalePseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)©CAB International
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.
TitlePygidium
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.
Copyright©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.
PygidiumPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.©T. Kozar

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti, 1886) MacGillivray, 1921

Preferred Common Name

  • mulberry scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus lanatus (Cockerell) Ferris, 1941
  • Aspidiotus vitiensis Maskell, 1895
  • Aulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti) Cockerell, 1902
  • Aulacaspis pentagona auranticolor (Cockerell) Carnes, 1907
  • Aulacaspis pentagona rubra (Maskell) Fernald, 1903
  • Chionaspis prunicola Maskell, 1895
  • Diaspis amygdali Tryon, 1889
  • Diaspis amygdali var. rubra Maskell, 1889
  • Diaspis auranticolor Cockerell, 1899
  • Diaspis geranii Maskell, 1897
  • Diaspis lanata (Cockerell) Green, 1896
  • Diaspis lanatus Cockerell, 1892
  • Diaspis patelliformis Sasaki, 1894
  • Diaspis pentagona Targioni Tozzetti, 1886
  • Diaspis rubra (Maskell) Scott, 1952
  • Epidiaspis vitiensis (Maskell) Lindinger, 1937
  • Howardia prunicola (Maskell) Kirkaldy, 1902
  • Pseudaulacaspis amygdali Tryon, 1889
  • Pseudaulacaspis prunicola
  • Sasakiaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti), Kuwana, 1926

International Common Names

  • English: peach scale; West Indian peach scale; white peach scale; white scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla algodonosa; escama de flecos (Colombia)
  • French: cochenille du mûrier; kermès du mûrier
  • Russian: tutovaya schitovka
  • Portuguese: cochonilha branca da amoreira

Local Common Names

  • France: chermes des murier; cochenille des murier
  • Germany: Mandel-Schildlaus; Maulbeer-Schildlaus
  • Hungary: eperfa pajzstetu; Japán pajzstetu
  • Italy: cocciniglia bianca del gelso e del pesco
  • Japan: kuwa-kaigaramusi
  • South Africa: wit perske-dopluis
  • Spain: cochinilla blanca del duraznero; escma de fleccos; piojo blanco del moral y melocotonero; piojo de la morera
  • Turkey: dut kabuklu biti; dut kosnili

EPPO code

  • PSEAPE (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona)
  • PSEAPR (Pseudaulacaspis prunicola)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudaulacaspis
  •                                         Species: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There is some debate as to whether P. pentagona and Pseudaulacaspis prunicola should be treated as separate species. Borchsenius (1966) treated P. prunicola as a synonym of P. pentagona. Some other authors called attention to the variability of characters of P. prunicola: Davidson et al. (1983), Danzig (1993), and Kosztarab (1996) treated them separately. The later opinions are followed in this data sheet; however, this question warrants further study.

Description

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The test of the female is slightly convex, white, ca 1.5-2.8 mm in diameter with central or sub-central yellow exuviae. Beneath the test, young adult females are pear shaped, orange-yellow; egg-laying females are almost circular. In adult females the pygidium has 3 pairs of well-developed lobes, notched on the outer margin. The plates between the lobes are partly pointed or fimbriated. Five perivulvar pore groups are present. There are high numbers of pores associated with the first pair of spiracles (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). Ghauri (1962) describes adult males. Male scales are smaller than females, narrow, with paralle sides and three parallel longitudinal ridges, white with a yellow spot at one end. Adult males each have one pair of wings, long antennae and limbs, no mouthparts and long genitalia.

Distribution

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P. pentagona originated in eastern Asia. It was accidentally introduced to Italy in the nineteenth century, and subsequently, to other regions: for example, USA, Argentina and Australia. It is currently widely distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic Regions (Kozar, 1990a). There are many publications concerning its detailed distribution and importance in different parts of the world (Konstantinova, 1976; Kozar and Konstantinova, 1981; Davidson and Miller, 1990; Kozar et al., 1994; Anon., 1996).

This species is probably intercepted in most countries; however, interceptions go largely unreported. The species is thermophilous, so it only lives indoors in colder countries (for example, Sweden). In the past 20 years it has started to spread northwards in Europe in field conditions; this could be as a result of climate change. Where 'eradication' has been reported, P. pentagona may have died out locally because of unsuitable conditions, or it may persist at low densities. Under these circumstances, monitoring using pheromone traps may be advisable.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Cabo VerdePresent
ComorosPresent
EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
RéunionPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent, Widespread
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent, Widespread
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-AssamPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresentIntroduced1954
CroatiaPresent, Widespread
CyprusPresentOriginal citation: Sisman and Ülgentürk (2010)
CzechiaPresentIntroduced2005
FrancePresent, Localized
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced1930
GermanyPresentIntroducedFirst reported: <1952
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresentIntroduced1886
-SardiniaPresentIntroduced1916
MaltaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresentIntroduced1960Original location reported: Macedonia
PolandPresent, Localized
PortugalPresent, Localized
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresentIntroduced1900
SpainPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly present
-EnglandAbsent, Formerly present

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaAbsent, Formerly present
-OntarioAbsent, Formerly present
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuadeloupePresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
Netherlands AntillesPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint BarthélemyPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint MartinPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaAbsent, Formerly present
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiAbsent, Formerly present
-IndianaAbsent, Formerly present
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoAbsent, Formerly present
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1898
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Norfolk IslandPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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P. pentagona is the subject of quarantine regulations in many countries (Anon., 1976, 1993), but not in EU countries.

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. pentagona is a polyphagous species. The host plant range could be much wider than is listed. However, P. pentagonia cannot complete development on some of the hosts listed, which indicates that some may not be true host plants. P. pentagonia is mainly a pest of deciduous fruits, including peach, currant, grape, kiwi, walnut; it also attacks some woody ornamental plants, including Morus, Sophora, Syringa, Catalpa, Euonymus and Paulownia (APPPC, 1987; Borchsenius, 1966; Konstantinova, 1976; Davidson and Miller, 1990; Kozar, 1990a; Kosztarab, 1996).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeOther
Acacia saligna (coojong)FabaceaeUnknown
Acer (maples)AceraceaeOther
Acnistus arborescensSolanaceaeUnknown
Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
ActinidiaActinidiaceaeMain
Aesculus (buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
Aesculus x carnea (red horse-chestnut)HippocastanaceaeUnknown
AleuritesEuphorbiaceaeOther
AllamandaApocynaceaeOther
Argyreia (asia glory)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Azadirachta indica (neem tree)MeliaceaeOther
Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeOther
Berberis (barberries)BerberidaceaeOther
BignoniaBignoniaceaeOther
BouvardiaRubiaceaeOther
Brachychiton acerifolius (flame tree)SterculiaceaeOther
BroussonetiaMoraceaeOther
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeUnknown
Buddleia (Butterflybush)LoganiaceaeOther
CajanusFabaceaeOther
Callicarpa (beautyberry)LamiaceaeOther
CalotropisApocynaceaeOther
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
CampsisBignoniaceaeOther
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
CaricaCaricaceaeMain
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
Follett (2006); Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Cassia (sennas)FabaceaeOther
Casuarina (beefwood)CasuarinaceaeOther
CatalpaBignoniaceaeMain
Catalpa bignonioides (Southern catalpa)BignoniaceaeOther
CedrelaMeliaceaeOther
Celtis (nettle tree)UlmaceaeMain
Chenopodium botrysChenopodiaceaeUnknown
CinnamomumLauraceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeOther
ClematisRanunculaceaeOther
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeOther
Consolida ambigua (rocket larkspur)RanunculaceaeOther
Cornus (Dogwood)CornaceaeOther
Cornus alba (red-barked dogwood)CornaceaeOther
CycasCycadaceaeOther
Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Cydonia (quince)RosaceaeOther
Cytisus (Broom)FabaceaeOther
Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeOther
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon (common))EbenaceaeUnknown
DracaenaAgavaceaeUnknown
EhretiaBoraginaceaeOther
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive)ElaeagnaceaeUnknown
Erythrina spp.FabaceaeOther
Euonymus (spindle trees)CelastraceaeMain
Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
FicusMoraceaeMain
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
FirmianaSterculiaceaeOther
Flacourtia jangomas (Indian plum)FlacourtiaceaeOther
Flacourtia rukam (rukam)FlacourtiaceaeOther
Forsythia intermedia (Golden bells)OleaceaeOther
Fraxinus (ashes)OleaceaeOther
Fraxinus americana (white ash)OleaceaeOther
Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeOther
FuchsiaOnagraceaeOther
Genista (broom)FabaceaeOther
Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeOther
GinkgoGinkgoaceaeOther
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)FabaceaeOther
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
GuazumaSterculiaceaeOther
GymnocladusFabaceaeOther
Heliotropium arborescens (cherry-pie)BoraginaceaeOther
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeUnknown
Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hypericum (st Johnsworts)ClusiaceaeOther
Jasminum (jasmine)OleaceaeOther
Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeMain
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
KalanchoeCrassulaceaeOther
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)CrassulaceaeOther
KoelreuteriaSapindaceaeOther
Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
Ligustrum (privet)OleaceaeOther
Mallotus japonicusEuphorbiaceaeOther
Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeUnknown
Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
ManihotEuphorbiaceaeOther
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
Mikania ternataAsteraceaeOther
MorusMain
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeOther
Nephelium (rambutan)SapindaceaeOther
Nerium (oleander)ApocynaceaeMain
Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
OstryaBetulaceaeOther
Paeonia (peonies)PaeoniaceaeOther
Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeOther
PaulowniaScrophulariaceaeOther
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeOther
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)GeraniaceaeUnknown
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)GeraniaceaeUnknown
Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
Phellodendron (cork tree)RutaceaeOther
Philadelphus coronarius (mock orange)HydrangeaceaeMain
Phoenix (date palm)ArecaceaeOther
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)PhytolaccaceaeUnknown
Pinckneya bracteataUnknown
Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeOther
Platanus acerifolia (London planetree)PlatanaceaeUnknown
Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
PolystictusTyrannidaeOther
Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeOther
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeMain
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeMain
Prunus japonica (Japanese bush cherry tree)RosaceaeMain
Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeMain
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus tomentosa (Nanking cherry tree)RosaceaeMain
Psidium (guava)LithomyrtusOther
PteleaRutaceaeOther
Pterocarya (wing nut)JuglandaceaeOther
Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)FabaceaeUnknown
Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeMain
Rhus (Sumach)AnacardiaceaeOther
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)AnacardiaceaeOther
Ribes (currants)GrossulariaceaeMain
Ribes aureum (golden currant)GrossulariaceaeUnknown
RicinusEuphorbiaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Robinia (locust)FabaceaeOther
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Rosa hybridaRosaceaeUnknown
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeMain
Salix (willows)SalicaceaeOther
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeOther
Schinus (pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
Sedum (stonecrop)CrassulaceaeMain
SidaMalvaceaeOther
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
SophoraFabaceaeMain
Sorbus (rowan)RosaceaeMain
SpartiumFabaceaeOther
Sterculia urens (kateera gum)SterculiaceaeOther
StrelitziaStrelitziaceaeOther
Styphnolobium japonicum (pagoda tree)FabaceaeOther
Symphoricarpos (snowberry)CaprifoliaceaeOther
Syringa persica (lilac)OleaceaeUnknown
Syringa vulgaris (lilac)OleaceaeUnknown
TecomaBignoniaceaeOther
Tetradium ruticarpumRutaceaeOther
TheobromaMalvaceaeOther
Tilia tomentosa (silver lime)TiliaceaeUnknown
Tylophora asthmaticaAsclepiadaceaeOther
Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeOther
Ulmus pumila (dwarf elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
Veronica (Speedwell)ScrophulariaceaeOther
VincetoxicumAsclepiadaceaeOther
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
ZamiaZamiaceaeOther
Zanthoxylum (prickly-ash)RutaceaeOther
ZelkovaUlmaceaeOther

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Heavy infestations are often found as thick crusts on tree trunks and older branches in temperate regions, and rarely on the roots. The leaves and fruits are not usually infested. The large white colonies of females and males on the branches that make up a heavy infestation are easy to recognize.

In the case of heavy infestations, branches or entire trees can die. Heavily infested plants may die some years after the onset of infestation. Younger plants are more susceptible.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / external feeding
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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P. pentagona has between one and four generations per year in different parts of the world. Development under local conditions are described by Bobb et al. (1973); Shinano et al. (1976); Paloukis (1979); Stimmel (1982); Park and Kim (1990), Hanks and Denno (1993), and Erkilic and Uygun (1997a). It overwinters in cold countries as adult females. In Central Europe, egg-laying starts during mid-May. In Southern Europe, egg-laying starts 1 month earlier. Crawlers appear after 1-2 months. Females each lay ca 100 eggs (Ball, 1980). Males of the first generation start to fly at the begining of July, and the second generation flies in mid-September in Central Europe (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). In South Europe, flight commences about 1 month earlier.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Aphytis chilensis Parasite
Aphytis chrysomphali Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs China; Shanghai apricots; cherries
Aphytis diaspidis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; Jamaica cotton; mulberries; Nerium oleander; pawpaws
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Aphytis proclia Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; Italy mulberries; Nerium oleander
Aprostocetus purpureus Parasite
Archenomus orientalis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Italy mulberries
Arrhenophagus albitibiae Parasite
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite
Azotus atomon Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Azotus lepidus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Azotus pentagona Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Azotus perspeciosus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Azotus platensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus cacti Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; Sao Tome and Principe Nerium oleander
Chilocorus circumdatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Chilocorus hupehanus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; China; Shanghai apricots; cherries; Nerium oleander
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus politus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Chilocorus similis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USA peaches
Coccidophilus cariba Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Coccidophilus citricola Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Coccophagoides kuwanai Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs USA peaches
Comperiella bifasciata Parasite Bermuda Nerium oleander
Cryptognatha simillima Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Cybocephalus fodori minor Predator
Cybocephalus gibbulus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; South Africa Nerium oleander
Cybocephalus nipponicus Predator
Decadiomus hughesi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Dentifibula viburni Predator
Encarsia amicula Parasite
Encarsia berlesei Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Argentina; Austria; Bermuda; Brazil; France; Iran; Italy; Madagascar; Peru; Puerto Rico; Spain; Switzerland; Uruguay; USSR; Western Samoa; Greece mulberries; Nerium oleander; pawpaws; peaches; woody plants
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia diaspidicola Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; Western Samoa Nerium oleander; woody plants
Encarsia fasciata Parasite
Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
Encarsia perniciosi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Epitetracnemus comis Parasite
Epitetracnemus zetterstedtii Parasite
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Heteroconis picticornis Bermuda Nerium oleander
Marietta leopardina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Orius minutus Predator
Pentilia insidiosa Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pharoscymnus pharoides Predator
Pharoscymnus tomeensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Prodilis sp. nr. gorhami Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
Pteroptrix orientalis Parasite
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae Italy Citrus
Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Signiphora aspidioti Parasite
Sticholotis quadrisignata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Sukunahikona prapawan Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Zaomma lambinus Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

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P. pentagona is attacked by a large number of parasitoids and predators, which have been studied in detail especially in the Palaearctic region (Trapitzin, 1978; Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). Studies of natural enemies of P. pentagona include: Zaets (1970); Rosen and DeBach (1976); Gordon (1978); Yasuda (1981); Darling and Johnson (1984); Noyes and Hui (1987); Liebregts et al. (1989); Gordon and Hilburn (1990); Habibian (1991); Li (1991), and Hanks and Denno (1993). A comprehensive list of the natural enemies of P. pentagona is provided by Waterhouse and Norris (1987).

These natural enemies are efficient regulators of P. pentagona; they keep pest density down in natural habitats. Where chemical control has been used against P. pentagona in orchards, its natural enemies can be killed causing local outbreaks. P. pentagona has caused major problems in areas where it was accidentally introduced, in the absence of its natural regulators. The efficiency of natural enemies is reduced in urban areas by pollution. Consequently, P. pentagona can cause severe damage to ornamental plants in towns and cities.

There have been a number of successful biological control programmes against P. pentagona in different parts of the world, especially in the USA, Europe and Russia. Usually Encarsia (Prospaltella) berlesei is reared, released, and established, according to the protocols of Rosen (1991) (see also Greathead, 1976). E. berlesei was released in several European countries, and spread into neighbouring countries. Encarsia diaspidicola has been successfully released in Western Samoa (Sands et al., 1990).

Many of the listed parasitoids of P. pentagona may also be hyperparasitoids.

Impact

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Crop losses caused by P. pentagona are difficult to assess. Trees lose vigour, and their lives are shortened. When P. pentagona becomes newly established in a region this may lead to the loss of whole trees and plantations. This species is a quarantine pest in many parts of the world; infested plants may be refused entry into many countries.

In recent years, outbreaks have been observed in different parts of the world on several species of fruit, especially kiwi, and peach (Whitmore et al., 1974; Kozarzevskaja and Vlainic, 1981; Kozarzevskaja et al., 1986; Ram and Pathak, 1987; Hickel et al., 1997). In Europe, heavy outbreaks have occurred on ornamental plants in Hungary (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988) and Switzerland (Kozar et al., 1994; Mani et al., 1995).

Detection and Inspection

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Heavy infestations on the bark of trees produce large, visible white colonies of female and male scales. Some infestations may be confirmed by laboratory examination with stereomicroscopic analyses of the branches, following the survey system described in detail by Kozar (1990b,c).

The structure and composition of the P. pentagona pheromone is known. P. pentagona pheromones are emitted by females and attract males, but not parasitoids. Pheromone traps are widely used for detection in newly infested regions, especially in Europe (Kozar et al., 1997). Colour and sticky traps were have also been developed to monitor the flight and dispersal of males and parasitoids (Kozar, 1990c, and Kozar et al., 1995).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Only microscopic characteristics can be used to identify the species definitively. Kosztarab and Kozar (1988) and Williams and Watson (1988) describe the methodology of slide mounting. This species can be differentiated from P. prunicola according to the number and shape of plates. P. pentagona has mostly bifurcated plates, whilst P. prunicola usually has spine-like plates. These characters show great variability depending on temperature, geographic locality and host plant (Danzig, 1993).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Regulatory Control

For details of quarantine regulations for P. pentagona see Anon. (1976, 1993). Quarantine recommendations and requirements for the treatment of seedlings and other nursery materials have included irradiation, fumigation, cold-treatment and heat-treatment (Angerilli and Fitzgibbon, 1990; Balsari and Tamagnone, 1997).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Obtaining scale-free nursery material is very important, because young plants can die very quickly after infestation. The removal of heavily infested parts of the trees and the cleaning of bark from infestation can improve the efficacy of chemical treatments. Surrounding vegetation can be a source of re-infestation by pests and/or a refugium for natural enemies.

Host-Plant Resistance

There are no varieties that exhibit real resistance to this pest (Arru, 1976). There are several tolerant varieties of different fruit tree species, but these varieties are not usually marketable.

Biological Control

The biological control of P. pentagona is well-studied (see Natural Enemies). Coccinellids and a number of parasitoids including Encarsia berlesei can be effective control agents. However, the effect of biological control programmes can only be observed over a relatively long period, and only in the absence of insecticides. The use of a range of different introduced parasitoid agents and predators, along with the encouragement of indigenous natural enemies can increase the efficacy of control. However, biological control is unlikely to be of significant use in controlling infestations on stressed ornamental plants in urban areas in Europe at times when the weather favours pest development.

Chemical Control

Fumigation of seedlings has traditionally been the most important means by which early infestation by P. pentagona is prevented.

Oil sprays have proved effective for the treatment of infested plantations (Meyer and Nalepa, 1991). Other insecticides may have different efficacy in different parts of the world (Torrel et al., 1987; Isufi and Mirtha, 1996; Erkilic and Uygun, 1997b). In orchards, insecticides (organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids) are very efficient against crawlers. These chemicals are often used in the summer against other orchard pests, such as codling moth (Cydia pomonella), leafrollers, leafminers and mites. However, chemical control should be avoided if biological control is in place, to avoid killing natural enemies of the scale.

Early Warning Systems

Kozar (1990b,c) studied monitoring and forecasting systems for P. pentagona in detail. Yellow sticky traps are useful for monitoring males and parasitoids, and pheromone traps collect males. The percentage of infested fruit can be monitored, with control being implemented when infestation levels pass a threshold.

IPM programmes

IPM programmes against orchard pests including scale insects have been developed by Kozar and Varjas (1976), Darvas and Zseller (1985), Parisot (1990), Semisi et al. (1992), Paloukis and Navzoridis (1995), and Jenser et al. (1997). These programmes incorporate the use of insect growth regulators (Rosen, 1991) which are effective against scale insects.

References

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Yasuda S, 1981. Natural enemies of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and their seasonal prevalence. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 25(4):236-243

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Distribution References

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