Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
(mulberry scale)

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Datasheet

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mulberry scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
InfestationPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).Public Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
TitleInfestation
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).
InfestationPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); infestation on Papaya (Carica papaya).Public Domain - Released by Scot Nelson/via flickr - CC0
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.
TitleFemales and larvae
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.
Copyright©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.
Females and larvaePseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); mature female (scale cover removed), female scales, and first instars.©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.
TitleMales
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.
Copyright©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.
MalesPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches with large colonies of males.©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females.
TitleFemales
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females.
Copyright©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females.
FemalesPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); branches infested with females. ©Mani/Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.
Copyright©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.
Natural enemyPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); female in a colony with the exit-hole of an endoparasitoid.©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)
TitleAdult female
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)
Copyright©CAB International
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)
Adult femalePseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); anatomic details of an adult female. 1. General aspect. 2. Pygidium. 3. Anterior spiracle. (Not to scale)©CAB International
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.
TitlePygidium
CaptionPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.
Copyright©T. Kozar
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.
PygidiumPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); pygidium of a female.©T. Kozar

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti, 1886) MacGillivray, 1921

Preferred Common Name

  • mulberry scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus lanatus (Cockerell) Ferris, 1941
  • Aspidiotus vitiensis Maskell, 1895
  • Aulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti) Cockerell, 1902
  • Aulacaspis pentagona auranticolor (Cockerell) Carnes, 1907
  • Aulacaspis pentagona rubra (Maskell) Fernald, 1903
  • Chionaspis prunicola Maskell, 1895
  • Diaspis amygdali Tryon, 1889
  • Diaspis amygdali var. rubra Maskell, 1889
  • Diaspis auranticolor Cockerell, 1899
  • Diaspis geranii Maskell, 1897
  • Diaspis lanata (Cockerell) Green, 1896
  • Diaspis lanatus Cockerell, 1892
  • Diaspis patelliformis Sasaki, 1894
  • Diaspis pentagona Targioni Tozzetti, 1886
  • Diaspis rubra (Maskell) Scott, 1952
  • Epidiaspis vitiensis (Maskell) Lindinger, 1937
  • Howardia prunicola (Maskell) Kirkaldy, 1902
  • Pseudaulacaspis amygdali Tryon, 1889
  • Pseudaulacaspis prunicola
  • Sasakiaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti), Kuwana, 1926

International Common Names

  • English: peach scale; West Indian peach scale; white peach scale; white scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla algodonosa; escama de flecos (Colombia)
  • French: cochenille du mûrier; kermès du mûrier
  • Russian: tutovaya schitovka
  • Portuguese: cochonilha branca da amoreira

Local Common Names

  • France: chermes des murier; cochenille des murier
  • Germany: Mandel-Schildlaus; Maulbeer-Schildlaus
  • Hungary: eperfa pajzstetu; Japán pajzstetu
  • Italy: cocciniglia bianca del gelso e del pesco
  • Japan: kuwa-kaigaramusi
  • South Africa: wit perske-dopluis
  • Spain: cochinilla blanca del duraznero; escma de fleccos; piojo blanco del moral y melocotonero; piojo de la morera
  • Turkey: dut kabuklu biti; dut kosnili

EPPO code

  • PSEAPE (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona)
  • PSEAPR (Pseudaulacaspis prunicola)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudaulacaspis
  •                                         Species: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There is some debate as to whether P. pentagona and Pseudaulacaspis prunicola should be treated as separate species. Borchsenius (1966) treated P. prunicola as a synonym of P. pentagona. Some other authors called attention to the variability of characters of P. prunicola: Davidson et al. (1983), Danzig (1993), and Kosztarab (1996) treated them separately. The later opinions are followed in this data sheet; however, this question warrants further study.

Description

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The test of the female is slightly convex, white, ca 1.5-2.8 mm in diameter with central or sub-central yellow exuviae. Beneath the test, young adult females are pear shaped, orange-yellow; egg-laying females are almost circular. In adult females the pygidium has 3 pairs of well-developed lobes, notched on the outer margin. The plates between the lobes are partly pointed or fimbriated. Five perivulvar pore groups are present. There are high numbers of pores associated with the first pair of spiracles (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). Ghauri (1962) describes adult males. Male scales are smaller than females, narrow, with paralle sides and three parallel longitudinal ridges, white with a yellow spot at one end. Adult males each have one pair of wings, long antennae and limbs, no mouthparts and long genitalia.

Distribution

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P. pentagona originated in eastern Asia. It was accidentally introduced to Italy in the nineteenth century, and subsequently, to other regions: for example, USA, Argentina and Australia. It is currently widely distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic Regions (Kozar, 1990a). There are many publications concerning its detailed distribution and importance in different parts of the world (Konstantinova, 1976; Kozar and Konstantinova, 1981; Davidson and Miller, 1990; Kozar et al., 1994; Anon., 1996).

This species is probably intercepted in most countries; however, interceptions go largely unreported. The species is thermophilous, so it only lives indoors in colder countries (for example, Sweden). In the past 20 years it has started to spread northwards in Europe in field conditions; this could be as a result of climate change. Where 'eradication' has been reported, P. pentagona may have died out locally because of unsuitable conditions, or it may persist at low densities. Under these circumstances, monitoring using pheromone traps may be advisable.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Cabo VerdePresent
ComorosPresent
EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
RéunionPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent, Widespread
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-AssamPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent, Widespread
CyprusPresentOriginal citation: Sisman and Ülgentürk (2010)
CzechiaPresent
FrancePresent, Localized
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
MaltaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PortugalPresent, Localized
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly present
-EnglandAbsent, Formerly present

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaAbsent, Formerly present
-OntarioAbsent, Formerly present
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuadeloupePresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
Netherlands AntillesPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint BarthélemyPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint MartinPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaAbsent, Formerly present
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiAbsent, Formerly present
-IndianaAbsent, Formerly present
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoAbsent, Formerly present
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Norfolk IslandPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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P. pentagona is the subject of quarantine regulations in many countries (Anon., 1976, 1993), but not in EU countries.

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. pentagona is a polyphagous species. The host plant range could be much wider than is listed. However, P. pentagonia cannot complete development on some of the hosts listed, which indicates that some may not be true host plants. P. pentagonia is mainly a pest of deciduous fruits, including peach, currant, grape, kiwi, walnut; it also attacks some woody ornamental plants, including Morus, Sophora, Syringa, Catalpa, Euonymus and Paulownia (APPPC, 1987; Borchsenius, 1966; Konstantinova, 1976; Davidson and Miller, 1990; Kozar, 1990a; Kosztarab, 1996).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
    Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeOther
      Acer (maples)AceraceaeOther
        Acnistus arborescensSolanaceaeUnknown
        • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
        ActinidiaActinidiaceaeMain
          Aesculus (buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
            AleuritesEuphorbiaceaeOther
              AllamandaApocynaceaeOther
                Argyreia (asia glory)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                  Azadirachta indica (neem tree)MeliaceaeOther
                    Bauhinia (camel's foot)FabaceaeOther
                      Berberis (barberries)BerberidaceaeOther
                        BignoniaBignoniaceaeOther
                          BouvardiaRubiaceaeOther
                            Brachychiton acerifolius (flame tree)SterculiaceaeOther
                              BroussonetiaMoraceaeOther
                                Buddleia (Butterflybush)LoganiaceaeOther
                                  CajanusFabaceaeOther
                                    Callicarpa (beautyberry)LamiaceaeOther
                                      CalotropisApocynaceaeOther
                                        Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
                                          CampsisBignoniaceaeOther
                                            Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
                                              CaricaCaricaceaeMain
                                                Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
                                                Cassia (sennas)FabaceaeOther
                                                  Casuarina (beefwood)CasuarinaceaeOther
                                                    CatalpaBignoniaceaeMain
                                                      Catalpa bignonioides (Southern catalpa)BignoniaceaeOther
                                                        CedrelaMeliaceaeOther
                                                          Celtis (nettle tree)UlmaceaeMain
                                                            Chenopodium botrysChenopodiaceaeUnknown
                                                            CinnamomumLauraceaeOther
                                                              CitrusRutaceaeOther
                                                                ClematisRanunculaceaeOther
                                                                  Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                    Consolida ambigua (rocket larkspur)RanunculaceaeOther
                                                                      Cornus (Dogwood)CornaceaeOther
                                                                        Cornus alba (red-barked dogwood)CornaceaeOther
                                                                          CycasCycadaceaeOther
                                                                          • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                                                                          Cydonia (quince)RosaceaeOther
                                                                            Cytisus (Broom)FabaceaeOther
                                                                              Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeOther
                                                                                Diospyros virginiana (persimmon (common))EbenaceaeUnknown
                                                                                EhretiaBoraginaceaeOther
                                                                                  Erythrina spp.FabaceaeOther
                                                                                    Euonymus (spindle trees)CelastraceaeMain
                                                                                      Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                        FicusMoraceaeMain
                                                                                          FirmianaSterculiaceaeOther
                                                                                            Flacourtia jangomas (Indian plum)FlacourtiaceaeOther
                                                                                              Flacourtia rukam (rukam)FlacourtiaceaeOther
                                                                                                Forsythia intermedia (Golden bells)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Fraxinus (ashes)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Fraxinus americana (white ash)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                        FuchsiaOnagraceaeOther
                                                                                                          Genista (broom)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeOther
                                                                                                              GinkgoGinkgoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                    GuazumaSterculiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      GymnocladusFabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Heliotropium arborescens (cherry-pie)BoraginaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                            Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                              • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                                                                                                                              Hypericum (st Johnsworts)ClusiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                Jasminum (jasmine)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  Juglans (walnuts)JuglandaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                    Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      KalanchoeCrassulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                        Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)CrassulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          KoelreuteriaSapindaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                            Ligustrum (privet)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              Mallotus japonicusEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                                                                                                                                                Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                  Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    ManihotEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                      Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                      Mikania ternataAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                        Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Morus nigra (black mulberry)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                          Nephelium (rambutan)SapindaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Nerium (oleander)ApocynaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                              Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                              • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                                                                                                                                                              Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                OstryaBetulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                  Paeonia (peonies)PaeoniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      PaulowniaScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)GeraniaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                            • Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006)
                                                                                                                                                                            Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                              Phellodendron (cork tree)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                Philadelphus coronarius (mock orange)HydrangeaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                  Phoenix (date palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)PhytolaccaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pinckneya bracteataUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                    Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        PolystictusTyrannidaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                            Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prunus japonica (Japanese bush cherry tree)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Prunus tomentosa (Nanking cherry tree)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              PteleaRutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pterocarya (wing nut)JuglandaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rhus (Sumach)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ribes (currants)GrossulariaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RicinusEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Robinia (locust)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Salix (willows)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Schinus (pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sedum (stonecrop)CrassulaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SidaMalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SophoraFabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sorbus (rowan)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SpartiumFabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sterculia urens (kateera gum)SterculiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      StrelitziaStrelitziaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Styphnolobium japonicum (pagoda tree)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Symphoricarpos (snowberry)CaprifoliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TecomaBignoniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tetradium ruticarpumRutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TheobromaMalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tylophora asthmaticaAsclepiadaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ulmus pumila (dwarf elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Veronica (Speedwell)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        VincetoxicumAsclepiadaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ZamiaZamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zanthoxylum (prickly-ash)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ZelkovaUlmaceaeOther

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Growth Stages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heavy infestations are often found as thick crusts on tree trunks and older branches in temperate regions, and rarely on the roots. The leaves and fruits are not usually infested. The large white colonies of females and males on the branches that make up a heavy infestation are easy to recognize.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the case of heavy infestations, branches or entire trees can die. Heavily infested plants may die some years after the onset of infestation. Younger plants are more susceptible.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                List of Symptoms/Signs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Leaves / yellowed or dead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Roots / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stems / dieback
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stems / discoloration of bark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stems / distortion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stems / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whole plant / early senescence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                P. pentagona has between one and four generations per year in different parts of the world. Development under local conditions are described by Bobb et al. (1973); Shinano et al. (1976); Paloukis (1979); Stimmel (1982); Park and Kim (1990), Hanks and Denno (1993), and Erkilic and Uygun (1997a). It overwinters in cold countries as adult females. In Central Europe, egg-laying starts during mid-May. In Southern Europe, egg-laying starts 1 month earlier. Crawlers appear after 1-2 months. Females each lay ca 100 eggs (Ball, 1980). Males of the first generation start to fly at the begining of July, and the second generation flies in mid-September in Central Europe (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). In South Europe, flight commences about 1 month earlier.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Natural enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aphytis chilensis Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aphytis chrysomphali Parasite Adults/Nymphs China; Shanghai apricots; cherries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aphytis diaspidis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; Jamaica cotton; mulberries; Nerium oleander; pawpaws
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aphytis proclia Parasite Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; Italy mulberries; Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aprostocetus purpureus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Archenomus orientalis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Italy mulberries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arrhenophagus albitibiae Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azotus atomon Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azotus lepidus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azotus pentagona Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azotus perspeciosus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azotus platensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus cacti Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; Sao Tome and Principe Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus circumdatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus hupehanus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; China; Shanghai apricots; cherries; Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus politus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chilocorus similis Predator Adults/Nymphs USA peaches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coccidophilus cariba Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coccidophilus citricola Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coccophagoides kuwanai Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA peaches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Comperiella bifasciata Parasite Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cryptognatha simillima Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cybocephalus fodori minor Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cybocephalus gibbulus Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; South Africa Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cybocephalus nipponicus Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Decadiomus hughesi Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dentifibula viburni Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia amicula Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia berlesei Parasite Adults/Nymphs Argentina; Austria; Bermuda; Brazil; France; Iran; Italy; Madagascar; Peru; Puerto Rico; Spain; Switzerland; Uruguay; USSR; Western Samoa; Greece mulberries; Nerium oleander; pawpaws; peaches; woody plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia diaspidicola Parasite Adults/Nymphs Bermuda; Western Samoa Nerium oleander; woody plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia fasciata Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Encarsia perniciosi Parasite Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Epitetracnemus comis Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Epitetracnemus zetterstedtii Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heteroconis picticornis Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Marietta leopardina Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Orius minutus Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pentilia insidiosa Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pharoscymnus pharoides Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pharoscymnus tomeensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prodilis sp. nr. gorhami Predator Adults/Nymphs Bermuda Nerium oleander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pteroptrix orientalis Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae Italy Citrus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Signiphora aspidioti Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sticholotis quadrisignata Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sukunahikona prapawan Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zaomma lambinus Parasite

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Notes on Natural Enemies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                P. pentagona is attacked by a large number of parasitoids and predators, which have been studied in detail especially in the Palaearctic region (Trapitzin, 1978; Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988). Studies of natural enemies of P. pentagona include: Zaets (1970); Rosen and DeBach (1976); Gordon (1978); Yasuda (1981); Darling and Johnson (1984); Noyes and Hui (1987); Liebregts et al. (1989); Gordon and Hilburn (1990); Habibian (1991); Li (1991), and Hanks and Denno (1993). A comprehensive list of the natural enemies of P. pentagona is provided by Waterhouse and Norris (1987).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                These natural enemies are efficient regulators of P. pentagona; they keep pest density down in natural habitats. Where chemical control has been used against P. pentagona in orchards, its natural enemies can be killed causing local outbreaks. P. pentagona has caused major problems in areas where it was accidentally introduced, in the absence of its natural regulators. The efficiency of natural enemies is reduced in urban areas by pollution. Consequently, P. pentagona can cause severe damage to ornamental plants in towns and cities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There have been a number of successful biological control programmes against P. pentagona in different parts of the world, especially in the USA, Europe and Russia. Usually Encarsia (Prospaltella) berlesei is reared, released, and established, according to the protocols of Rosen (1991) (see also Greathead, 1976). E. berlesei was released in several European countries, and spread into neighbouring countries. Encarsia diaspidicola has been successfully released in Western Samoa (Sands et al., 1990).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Many of the listed parasitoids of P. pentagona may also be hyperparasitoids.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Crop losses caused by P. pentagona are difficult to assess. Trees lose vigour, and their lives are shortened. When P. pentagona becomes newly established in a region this may lead to the loss of whole trees and plantations. This species is a quarantine pest in many parts of the world; infested plants may be refused entry into many countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In recent years, outbreaks have been observed in different parts of the world on several species of fruit, especially kiwi, and peach (Whitmore et al., 1974; Kozarzevskaja and Vlainic, 1981; Kozarzevskaja et al., 1986; Ram and Pathak, 1987; Hickel et al., 1997). In Europe, heavy outbreaks have occurred on ornamental plants in Hungary (Kosztarab and Kozar, 1988) and Switzerland (Kozar et al., 1994; Mani et al., 1995).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Detection and Inspection

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heavy infestations on the bark of trees produce large, visible white colonies of female and male scales. Some infestations may be confirmed by laboratory examination with stereomicroscopic analyses of the branches, following the survey system described in detail by Kozar (1990b,c).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The structure and composition of the P. pentagona pheromone is known. P. pentagona pheromones are emitted by females and attract males, but not parasitoids. Pheromone traps are widely used for detection in newly infested regions, especially in Europe (Kozar et al., 1997). Colour and sticky traps were have also been developed to monitor the flight and dispersal of males and parasitoids (Kozar, 1990c, and Kozar et al., 1995).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Only microscopic characteristics can be used to identify the species definitively. Kosztarab and Kozar (1988) and Williams and Watson (1988) describe the methodology of slide mounting. This species can be differentiated from P. prunicola according to the number and shape of plates. P. pentagona has mostly bifurcated plates, whilst P. prunicola usually has spine-like plates. These characters show great variability depending on temperature, geographic locality and host plant (Danzig, 1993).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prevention and Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Regulatory Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                For details of quarantine regulations for P. pentagona see Anon. (1976, 1993). Quarantine recommendations and requirements for the treatment of seedlings and other nursery materials have included irradiation, fumigation, cold-treatment and heat-treatment (Angerilli and Fitzgibbon, 1990; Balsari and Tamagnone, 1997).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Obtaining scale-free nursery material is very important, because young plants can die very quickly after infestation. The removal of heavily infested parts of the trees and the cleaning of bark from infestation can improve the efficacy of chemical treatments. Surrounding vegetation can be a source of re-infestation by pests and/or a refugium for natural enemies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There are no varieties that exhibit real resistance to this pest (Arru, 1976). There are several tolerant varieties of different fruit tree species, but these varieties are not usually marketable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Biological Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The biological control of P. pentagona is well-studied (see Natural Enemies). Coccinellids and a number of parasitoids including Encarsia berlesei can be effective control agents. However, the effect of biological control programmes can only be observed over a relatively long period, and only in the absence of insecticides. The use of a range of different introduced parasitoid agents and predators, along with the encouragement of indigenous natural enemies can increase the efficacy of control. However, biological control is unlikely to be of significant use in controlling infestations on stressed ornamental plants in urban areas in Europe at times when the weather favours pest development.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chemical Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fumigation of seedlings has traditionally been the most important means by which early infestation by P. pentagona is prevented.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Oil sprays have proved effective for the treatment of infested plantations (Meyer and Nalepa, 1991). Other insecticides may have different efficacy in different parts of the world (Torrel et al., 1987; Isufi and Mirtha, 1996; Erkilic and Uygun, 1997b). In orchards, insecticides (organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids) are very efficient against crawlers. These chemicals are often used in the summer against other orchard pests, such as codling moth (Cydia pomonella), leafrollers, leafminers and mites. However, chemical control should be avoided if biological control is in place, to avoid killing natural enemies of the scale.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Early Warning Systems

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kozar (1990b,c) studied monitoring and forecasting systems for P. pentagona in detail. Yellow sticky traps are useful for monitoring males and parasitoids, and pheromone traps collect males. The percentage of infested fruit can be monitored, with control being implemented when infestation levels pass a threshold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                IPM programmes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                IPM programmes against orchard pests including scale insects have been developed by Kozar and Varjas (1976), Darvas and Zseller (1985), Parisot (1990), Semisi et al. (1992), Paloukis and Navzoridis (1995), and Jenser et al. (1997). These programmes incorporate the use of insect growth regulators (Rosen, 1991) which are effective against scale insects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                References

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Top of page

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Angerilli NPD, Fitzgibbon F, 1990. Effects of cobalt gamma radiation on San Jose scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) survival on apples in cold and controlled-atmosphere storage. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):892-895

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Anon., 1976. Interior quarantine enemies and measures for their restriction on the territory of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, Romania: The papers of the 5th Interbalcanic Plant Protection Conference. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 4:119-123.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Anon., 1996. Pseudaulacaspis pentagona. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 58(2 rev). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gordon RD, Hilburn DJ, 1990. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of Bermuda. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 98(3):265-309

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hanks LM, Denno RF, 1993. Natural enemies and plant water relations influence the distribution of an armored scale insect. Ecology, 74(4):1081-1091

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hickel ER, Schuck E, 1996. Kiwi pests in Santa Catarina: first occurrences, symptoms of attack and prospects for the future. Agropecua^acute~ria Catarinense, 9(2):18-22; 8 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                IPPC, 2008. Outbreaks of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona in the Czech Republic, No. CZ-2/1. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Liebregts WJMM, Sands DPA, Bourne AS, 1989. Population studies and biological control of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Hempitera: Diaspididae) on passion fruit in Western Samoa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 79(1):163-171

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Liu JianFeng, Deng Xian, Yang MaoFa, Sang WeiJun, Song QiongZhang, Hu JiFeng, Yang JiaLin, 2012. Investigation on insect pests and their natural enemies of Evodia rutaecarpa in Guizhou. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, No.9:133-135, 139

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mani E, Kozßr F, Schwaller F, Hippe C, 1997. The occurrence and biology of the mulberry scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), in Switzerland. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 70(3/4):399-408; 23 ref

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Meyer JR, Nalepa CA, 1991. Effect of dormant oil treatments on white peach scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its overwintering parasite complex. Journal of Entomological Science, 26(1):27-32

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Bjeliš, M., Pintar, M., Markotic, V., 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 121, 91-97. https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mordkovich YaB, Chernei LB, 1993. Phostoxin for fumigation of planting stock. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 12:30

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Noyes JS, Hui R, 1987. Two new species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera) reared from diaspidid scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in China. Entomotaxonomia, 9(3):167-174

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ozawa A, 1994. The occurrence of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in tea fields and its chemical control. III. Effect of various pesticides in the control of the scale. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No. 41:257-259

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Paloukis SS, 1979. The most important scale insects of fruit trees in northern Greece. Plant Protection Institute. Thessaloniki Greece, 148 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Paloukis SS, Navrozidis EI, Kukuryanis VH, 1995. Contribution to the integrated control of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targ.-Toz. (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on kiwifruit trees (Actinidia chinensis). In: Sfakiotakis E, Porlingis J, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of Kiwifruit, Thessaloniki, Greece, 19-22 September. Acta-Horticulturae, No. 444, 797-802

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Parisot E, 1990. Research programme on temperate fruits in Reunion Island evolution and perspectives. Acta Horticulturae, No. 279:139-154

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pellizzari, G., Porcelli, F., Seljak, G., Kozár, F., 2011. Some additions to the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Crete with a check list of the species known from the island. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 43(3), 291-300. http://users.unimi.it/˜agra/entomo/Bulletin.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ram S, Pathak KA, 1987. Occurrence and distribution of pest complex of some tropical and temperate fruits in Manipur. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi), 28(1):12-18

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rosen D, 1991. Armored Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. B. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 688 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rosen D, DeBach P, 1976. Biosystematic studies on the species of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Mushi, 49(1):1-17

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sands DPA, Broe R, Liebregts WJMM, 1990. Identity of Encarsia spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) introduced into Western Samoa for biological control of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 92(1):135-138

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Semisi ST, Braune H, Peters AM, Iosefa T, 1992. Integrated pest management in Western Samoa. Integrated pest management in the Asia-Pacific region (edited by Ooi PAC, Lim GS, Ho TH, Manalo PL, Waage JK). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 383-398

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Seymour PR, 1989. Invertebrates of economic importance in Britain. Common and scientific names. Reference Book - Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 406:vii + 147 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Shinano K, Terada T, Imanishi M, 1976. The frequency of generations of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona on tea plants. Bulletin of the Nara Agricultural Experiment Station, No.7, 47-52

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stimmel JF, 1982. Seasonal history of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ.-Tozz.) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in northeastern Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 84(1):128-133

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Torrell A, Mates C, Barrios G, Virgili A, 1987. Trial of insecticides against the peach tree scale (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targ). Fulls d'Informacio Tecnica, No. 130:6 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Trjapitzin VA, 1978. Superfamily Chalcidoidea. In: Medvedev GS, ed. Insect Determination Manual for the European part of USSR. Hymenoptera, 3(2):28-538

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wang YouNian, Xing YanFeng, Zhou ShiLong, Meng HaiLing, Guan Wei, Shi GuangLu, 2009. Structure, dynamics and niche of dominant population of insect community in peach orchards of Beijing. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 45(4):88-94. http://lyke.chinajournal.net.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whitmore JL, Medina Gaud S, 1974. White peach scale attack on toon in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of The University of Puerto Rico, 58(2):276-278

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wood M, 2012. Pesky white peach scale targeted in tropical studies. USDA-ARS News & Events, 24 September 2012., USA: USDA-ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2009/090717.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yasuda S, 1981. Natural enemies of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and their seasonal prevalence. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 25(4):236-243

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zaets VG, 1970. The biological control of quarantine pests of fruit trees. Zashchita Rastenii, 15(12):45-46

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Distribution References

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Anon, 1989. Reference Book - Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. [ed. by Seymour P R]. vii + 147 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Borchsenius NS, 1966. A Catalogue of the Armoured Scale Insects (Diaspidoidea) of the World., Leningrad, Russia: Akademii Nauk SSR Zoologicheskogo Instituta. 449 pp.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Graora D, Spasić R, Vučetić A, 2009. Parasitoids and predators of armored scales in some orchards in Serbia. (Parazitoidi i predatori štitastih vašiju iz familije Diaspididae u nekim voćnjacima u Srbiji.). Pesticidi i Fitomedicina. 24 (4), 295-301.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                IPPC, 2008. Outbreaks of Pseudaulacaspis pentagona in the Czech Republic. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution., Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650. 650 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kosztarab M, Kozár F, 1988. Scale insects of Central Europe. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 455 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Liu JianFeng, Deng Xian, Yang MaoFa, Sang WeiJun, Song QiongZhang, Hu JiFeng, Yang JiaLin, 2012. Investigation on insect pests and their natural enemies of Evodia rutaecarpa in Guizhou. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences. 133-135, 139.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Matile-Ferrero D, Étienne J, 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 28 (4), 161-190.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Milek T M, Šimala M, Bjeliš M, Pintar M, Markotić V, 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 91-97. https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mohammed E, Ülgentürk S, Uygun N, Garonna A P, Szentkiralayi F, Fent M, Hayat M, 2016. The distribution, host plants and natural enemies of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in Ankara Province. Munis Entomology & Zoology. 11 (2), 650-656. http://www.munisentzool.org

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States., Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine. 110 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1961. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1971. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1976. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NHM, 1994. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ozawa A, 1994. The occurrence of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in tea fields and its chemical control. III. Effect of various pesticides in the control of the scale. Proceedings of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society. 257-259.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pellizzari G, Porcelli F, Seljak G, Kozár F, 2011. Some additions to the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Crete with a check list of the species known from the island. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research. 43 (3), 291-300. http://users.unimi.it/˜agra/entomo/Bulletin.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pencheva A, Yovkova M, 2016. New data on alien insect pests of ornamental plants in Bulgaria. Forestry Ideas. 22 (1), 17-33. http://forestry-ideas.info/issues/issues_Index.php?pageNum_rsIssue=1&totalRows_rsIssue=9&journalFilter=55

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wang YouNian, Xing YanFeng, Zhou ShiLong, Meng HaiLing, Guan Wei, Shi GuangLu, 2009. Structure, dynamics and niche of dominant population of insect community in peach orchards of Beijing. Scientia Silvae Sinicae. 45 (4), 88-94. http://lyke.chinajournal.net.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Williams D J, Watson G W, 1988. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The armoured scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 290pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wood M, 2012. Pesky white peach scale targeted in tropical studies. In: USDA-ARS News & Events, 24 September 2012, USA: USDA-ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2009/090717.htm

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