Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudotheraptus wayi
(coconut bug)

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Datasheet

Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudotheraptus wayi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coconut bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult, approx. 15 mm in length. Scottburgh South, South Africa. December 2018.
TitleAdult
CaptionPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult, approx. 15 mm in length. Scottburgh South, South Africa. December 2018.
Copyright©Peter Vos/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-NC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult, approx. 15 mm in length. Scottburgh South, South Africa. December 2018.
AdultPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult, approx. 15 mm in length. Scottburgh South, South Africa. December 2018.©Peter Vos/via iNaturalist.org - CC BY-NC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult.
Copyright©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult.
AdultPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); adult.©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); nymph.
TitleNymph
CaptionPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); nymph.
Copyright©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); nymph.
NymphPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); nymph.©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.
Copyright©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.
Damage symptomsPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.
Copyright©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.
Damage symptomsPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on mango.©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on avocado.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on avocado.
Copyright©ARC-ITSC
Pseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on avocado.
Damage symptomsPseudotheraptus wayi (coconut bug); damage symptoms on avocado.©ARC-ITSC

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown

Preferred Common Name

  • coconut bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Theraptus sp. (Way, 1951)

Local Common Names

  • South Africa: Kokosneutbesie; Kokosneutstinkbesie

EPPO code

  • PSDTWA (Pseudotheraptus wayi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Coreidae
  •                                 Genus: Pseudotheraptus
  •                                     Species: Pseudotheraptus wayi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / lesions
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / fall or shedding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anastatus Parasite Eggs
Anoplolepis custodiens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Oecophylla longinoda Predator Nymphs
Ooencyrtus Parasite Eggs
Ooencyrtus utetheisae Parasite
Trissolcus Parasite Eggs

References

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Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey

Brown ES, 1955. Pseudotheraptus wayi, a new genus and species of coreid (Hemiptera) injurious to coconuts in East Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 46:221-240

Bruwer IJ, 1987. Stinkbugs in macadamia orchards. Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Information Bulletin, 178:2-4

Bruwer IJ, 1992. The influence of various hemipteran species on macadamia and some factors which can limit nut damage. PhD Thesis. Stellenbosch, South Africa: University of Stellenbosch

CABI/EPPO, 2014. Pseudotheraptus wayi. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 789

De Villiers EA, 1990. Coconut bugs on avocados. Farming in South Africa, Avocado Series, H.5

De Villiers EA, 1992. Coconut bug on guavas. Guavas Series, H.3

De Villiers EA, 1994. Coconut bug in mangoes. Mangoes Series, H.4

De Villiers EA, Van den Berg MA, 1987b. Avocado insects of South Africa. South Africa Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook, 10:75-79

De Villiers EA, Wolmarans M, 1980a. Coconut bug, a pest on mango. Farming in South Africa, Mango Series, H.2

De Villiers EA, Wolmarans M, 1980b. Coconut bug - a pest on guava. Farming in South Africa, Guava Series, H.2

Dennill GB, Erasmus MJ, 1991. A packhouse survey of insect damage to avocados in the Nelspruit/Hazyview area during 1990. Yearbook - South African Avocado Growers' Association, 14:79-82

Du Toit WJ, De Villiers EA, 1990. Identifisering van avokadovrugletsels wat deur insekte veroorsaak word. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook, 13:56-60

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erichson C, Schoeman A, 1992. Economic losses due to insect pests on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit/Hazyview region of South Africa during 1991. Yearbook - South African Avocado Growers' Association, 15:49-54; 29 ref

Froneman IJ, De Villiers EA, 1993. Stinkbugs. In: The Cultivation of Macadamias. Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Bulletin, 426:49-52

Greathead DJ, 1971. A review of biological control in the Ethiopian Region. CIBC Technical Communication No. 5. Farnham Royal, UK: CAB International

Hill DS, 1975. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge UK, [12 +] 516 pp

Joubert PH, 1993. Kokosneutstinkbesie by avokado's. Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Information Bulletin, 252:6-7

Joubert PH, 1997. Future strategy for the control of macadamia pests and current control methods. The Southern Africa Macadamia Growers' Association Yearbook, 5:60-64

Joubert PH, Claassens VE, 1994. Stinkbug damage on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit region. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook, 17:106-108

Joubert PH, Neethling C, 1994. Kernel damage to pecan nuts in the Nelspruit area of South Africa. Journal of the Southern African Society for Horticultural Sciences, 4(2):42-44

Joubert PH, Neethling C, 1995. Stinkbug damage to pecan nuts on Mataffin farm. Subtropica, 16(5):16-20

Krause M, Nel A, Van Zyl K, 1996. A guide to the use of pesticides and fungicides in the Republic of South Africa. Thirty-seventh Revised Edition. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printer

Meulen Tvan der, 1992. Assessment of damage caused by the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi (Brown) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on guavas. Fruits (Paris), 47(2):317-320; 11 ref

Olotu, M. I., 2013. Potential of Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for management of Heliopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Pseudotheraptus wayi (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in cashew nuts. South Africa: North-West University. 139 pp.

Radzilani, T., Schoeman, P. S., Botha, B., Lange, H. C. de, 2014. Trap crop management strategies to monitor stink bug in litchi orchards with emphasis on Pseudotheraptus wayi (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Bathycoelia natalicola (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Acta Horticulturae, (No.1029), 433-438. http://www.actahort.org/books/1029/1029_55.htm

Schoeman P, Mohlala R, 2013. The impact of Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on premature fruit drop and yield of Litchi chinensis in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. International Journal of Pest Management, 59(4):303-305. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ttpm20

Schoeman, P. S., 2014. An overview of control strategies of economically important stinkbugs (Heteroptera) and Tortricidae moths occurring on litchis in South Africa. Acta Horticulturae, (No.1029), 401-408. http://www.actahort.org/books/1029/1029_51.htm

Schoeman, P. S., Steyn, W. P., Mohlala, R., 2009. Integrated management of litchi pests. In: SA Litchi Growers Association Yearbook, 21. 24-27.

Van den Berg, M. A., De Villiers, E. A., Joubert, P. H., 2010. Pests and beneficial arthropods of tropical and non-citrus subtropical crops in South Africa, Nelspruit, South Africa: Dynamic Ad.525 pp.

Van der Meulen T, 1989. Kokosneutstinkbesie ruk hande uit. Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Information Bulletin, 202:4-5

Vanderplank FL, 1953. Causes of coconut nutfall and gumosis. Nature, 1972:315-316

Vanderplank FL, 1958. Studies on the coconut pest, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Coreidae), in Zanzibar. 1. A method of assessing the damage caused by the insect. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 49:559-584

Viljoen HM, 1986. Kokosneutstinkbesie- 'n potensiële plaag op avokado's. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook, 9:72-74

Way MJ, 1951. An insect pest of coconuts and its relationship to certain ant species. Nature, 168:302

Way MJ, 1953. The relationship between certain ant species with particular reference to biological control of the coreid, Theraptus sp. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 44:669-691

Way MJ, 1953a. Studies on Theraptus sp. (Coreidae); The cause of the gumming diseases of coconuts in East Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 44:657-667

Distribution Maps

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