Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas viridiflava
(bacterial leaf blight of tomato)

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 01 October 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas viridiflava
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial leaf blight of tomato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms on leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms on leaves.
CopyrightGiorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms on leaves.
SymptomsSymptoms on leaves.Giorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms on buds.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms on buds.
CopyrightGiorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Symptoms on buds.
SymptomsSymptoms on buds.Giorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder 1930) Dowson 1939

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial leaf blight of tomato

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium viridiflavum (Burkholder) Burgvits 1935
  • Chlorobacter viridiflavus (Burkholder) Patel & Kulkarni 1951
  • Phytomonas viridiflava Burkholder 1930

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial blight of kiwi; bacterial blossom blight of kiwi (New Zealand); bacterial leaf necrosis of basil (USA); bacterial rot of Chinese cabbage (Korea Republic); bacterial rot of lettuce (Korea Republic); bacterial soft rot of tomato (USA, Crete); greasy canker of poinsettia (USA); Hydrangea bud blight (USA)
  • French: dépérissement bactérien de l'abricotier

Local Common Names

  • Greece/Crete: bacterial soft rot of tomato
  • Italy: marciume molle di pomodoro

EPPO code

  • PSDMVF (Pseudomonas viridiflava)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas viridiflava

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
KenyaPresent
MoroccoPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
-GansuPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresentFound on Chinese cabbage.
-HunanPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresentFound on cucumber.
-YunnanPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
NepalPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CzechiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-UtahPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-PernambucoPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / discoloration of bark

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots

References

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Albu, S., Lai, M., Woods, P. W., Kumagai, L. B., 2018. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava as the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of Mexican heather in California. Plant Disease, 102(12), 2633-2634. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0405-PDN

Alimi M, Rahimian H, Hassanzadeh N, Darzi MT, Ahmadikhah A, Heydari A, Balestra GM, 2011. First detection of Pseudomonas viridiflava, the causal agent of blossom blight in apple by using specific designed primers. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(26):4708-4713. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/abstracts/abstracts/abstract%202011/16Nov/Alimi%20et%20al.htm

Alivizatos AS, 1986. Tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, 15(1):40-47

Arsenijevic M, 1990. Bacteria causing cauliflower and lettuce head rot in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 41(1):21-29

Bordjiba O, Prunier JP, 1991. Establishment of an epiphytic phase by three species of Pseudomonas on apricot trees. Acta Horticulturae, 293:487-494

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Brielmaier-Liebetanz U, K÷hn S, Wiedemann W, 1996. Pseudomonas viridiflava as a pathogen on Viola x wittrockiana-hybrids. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 48(5):96-98; 7 ref

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Pseudomonas viridiflava. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 917. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Caruso P, Catara V, 1996. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava leaf spot of red-leaved chicory. Plant Disease, 80(6):710; 1 ref

Choi JE, 1989. Identification of bacteria causing rot disease of vegetables in the fields and post-harvest period in Korea. I. Bacterial rot disease of Chinese cabbage. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1):20-24

Choi JE, Kim HY, 1989. Identification of bacteria causing rot disease of vegetables in the fields and post-harvest period in Korea IV. Bacterial rot disease of lettuce. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1):65-71

Colin JE, 1986. Identification and characterization of Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson isolated from greasy cankers of wilting tomato plants in Morocco. Parasitica, 42(3):93-95

Fiori M, Carta C, Franceschini A, 1982. Soft rot of tomatoes due to Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson. Studi Sassaresi, III, 29:441-447

Gaignard JL, Luisetti J, 1992. The ice nucleation activity of phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava involved in the bacterial infection on kiwifruits. Fruits (Paris), 47(4):495-501

Gardan L, Dorkar S-G, 1985. Observation of Hydrangea bud blight caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson. Revue Horticole, 253:48-49

Gardan L, Shafik HL, Grimont PAD, 1997. DNA relatedness among pathovars of P. syringae and related bacteria. In: Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars and Related Pathogens. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Working Group on Pseudomonas syringae pathovars and related pathogens, September 1995, Berlin, pp. 445-448. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluyver Academic Publications, 445-448

Gitaitis R, Sumner D, Gay D, Smittle D, McDonald G, Maw B, Johnson WCIII, Tollner B, Hung Y, 1997. Bacterial streak and bulb rot of onion: I. A diagnostic medium for the semiselective isolation and enumeration of Pseudomonas viridiflava. Plant Disease, 81(8):897-900; 24 ref

Gitaitis, R., MacDonald, G., Torrance, R., Hartley, R., Sumner, D. R., Gay, J. D., Johnson, W. C., III, 1998. Bacterial streak and bulb rot of sweet onion: II. Epiphytic survival of Pseudomonas viridiflava in association with multiple weed hosts. Plant Disease, 82(8), 935-938. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.8.935

Goto M, Goto T, Inaba T, 1989. Identification of ice nucleation-active bacteria isolated from frost-damaged vegetables leaves. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 55(3):330-335

Goto M, Matsumoto K, 1986. Taxonomic study on soft rot bacteria isolated from diseased rhizomes and roots of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.). Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 52(1):69-77

Harzallah D, Sadallah S, Larous L, 2004. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences [56th International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, Belgium, 4 May 2004. Part II.], 69(4):443-447. http://fltbwww.rug.ac.be/

Hu FP, Young JM, Fletcher MJ, 1998. Preliminary description of biocidal (syringomycin) activity in fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85(2):365-371; 27 ref

Ibrahim Y, Molan Y, 2010. Occurrence of bacterial leaf spot disease on lettuce caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Plant Pathology, 59(2):402. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Jakob, K., Goss, E. M., Araki, H., Van, T., Kreitman, M., Bergelson, J., 2002. Pseudomonas viridiflava and P. syringae - natural pathogens of Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 15(12), 1195-1203. doi: 10.1094/MPMI.2002.15.12.1195

Jones JB, Jones JP, 1984. Leaf blight of bell pepper in Florida incited by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Plant Disease, 68(11):1016

Kersters K, Ludwig W, Vancanneyt M, Vos Pde, Gillis M, Schleifer KH, 1996. Recent changes in the classification of the pseudomonads: an overview. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 19(4):465-477; 91 ref

Kohn S, Krebs EK, 1990. Pseudomonas viridiflava Dowson causing rot on Chrysanthemum indicum hybrids. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 42(2):29-30

Kudela V, Trynerova E, 1987. Occurrence of bacterial blight of coriander. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 23(1):9-16

Lacroix M, Vezina L, Desjardins S, Beaulieu C, 1995. Comparison of identification methods for Erwinia and Pseudomonas species causing soft rot diseases. Phytoprotection, 76(1):27-37

Leath KT, Lukezic FL, Pennypacker BW, Kendall WA, Levine RG, Hill RRJr, 1989. Interaction of Fusarium avenaceum and Pseudomonas viridiflava in root rot of red clover. Phytopathology, 79(4):436-440; 27 ref

Lelliott RA, Billing E, Hayward AC, 1966. A determinative scheme for the fluorescent plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 29:470-489

Liao CH, Hung HY, Chatterjee AK, 1988. An extracellular pectate lyase is the pathogenicity factor of the soft-rotting bacterium Pseudomonas viridiflava. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 1(5):199-206

Lipps, SM, Lenz, P, Samac, DA, 2019. First Report of Bacterial Stem Blight of Alfalfa Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in California and Utah. Plant Disease, 103(12), 3274.

Little EL, Gilbertson RL, Koike ST, 1994. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava causing a leaf necrosis on basil. Plant Disease, 78(8):831

Liu ChangYuan, Zhao KuiHua, Fu JunFan, Miao ZeYan, Liang ChunHao, Wang Hui, Wang Ping, 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudomonas viridiflava CU-PV 07 and establishment of PCR detection method. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 40(4):421-425

Liu, C, 2010. First Report of Cucumber White Spot Disease Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in China. In: 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Chengdu, China, 2010 . Chengdu, China: 1-3.

Liu, Y, Guan, XY, Kong, XD, Wu, Xl, Liu, SN , Ren, JH, Guo, M, Zhang, YW, 2019. First Report of Bacterial Leaf Spot Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava on Chinese Cabbage in China. Plant Disease, 103(7), 1764. doi: 10.1111/ppa.13051

Malathrakis NE, Goumas DE, 1987. Bacterial soft rot of tomato in plastic greenhouses in Crete. Annals of Applied Biology, 111(1):115-123

Mariano RLR, McCarter SM, 1992. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, P. syringae pv. syringae and P. viridiflava: survival on seeds and epiphytic growth on tomato seedlings originated from contaminated seeds. Summa Phytopathologica, 18(3-4):247-254

Mariano RLR, McCarter SM, 1993. Epiphytic survival of Pseudomonas viridiflava on tomato and selected weed species. Microbial Ecology, 26(1):47-58

Morris CE, Wen AM, Xu XH, Di YB, 1992. Ice nucleation-active bacteria on Chinese cabbage in northern China: population dynamics and characteristics and their possible role in storage decay. Phytopathology, 82(7):739-746

Myung IS, Lee YK, Lee SW, Kim WG, Shim HS, Ra DS, 2010. A new disease, bacterial leaf spot of rape, caused by atypical Pseudomonas viridiflava in South Korea. Plant Disease, 94(9):1164-1165. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Palleroni NJ, 1984. Genus I. Pseudomonas Migula 1894. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG, eds. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 1. Baltimore, USA: Williams and Wilkins, 141-199

Parisi, L., Morgaint, B., Blanco-Garcia, J., Guilbaud, C., Chandeysson, C., Bourgeay, J. F., Moronvalle, A., Brun, L., Brachet, M. L., Morris, C. E., 2019. Bacteria from four phylogroups of the Pseudomonas syringae complex can cause bacterial canker of apricot. Plant Pathology, 68(7), 1249-1258. doi: 10.1111/ppa.13051

Pekhtereva ES, Kornev KP, Matveeva EV, Polityko VA, Budenkov NI, Ignatov AN, Schaad NW, 2009. Pith necrosis of tomato in Russia. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Tomato Diseases, Kusadasi, Turkey, 8-12 October 2007.], No.808:251-253. http://www.actahort.org

Pérez Faggiani E, Silvera Pérez E, Gepp Ward V, 2004. Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson: causal agent of necrotic spots on onion and garlic (Allium spp.) leaves in Uruguay. (Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson: agente causal de manchas necróticas en hojas de cebolla y ajo (Allium spp.) en Uruguay.) Agrociencia (Montevideo), 8(2):33-37

Popovic T, Ivanovic Z, Ignjatov M, 2015. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava causing pith necrosis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Serbia. Plant Disease, 99(7):1033. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Prunier J-P, Cotta J, 1987. Le deperissement bacterien (Pseudomonas spp.) de I'abricotier: situation en France. EPPO Bulletin/EPPO Bulletin 17:251-256

Rossetti, A., Mazzaglia, A., Muganu, M., Paolocci, M., Sguizzato, M., Esposito, E., Cortesi, R., Balestra, G. M., 2017. Microparticles containing gallic and ellagic acids for the biological control of bacterial diseases of kiwifruit plants. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 124(6), 563-575. doi: 10.1007/s41348-017-0096-6

Rouhrazi K, Rahimian H, 2012. Sleeping hibiscus a new host for Pseudomonas viridiflava. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.99. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Sarris PF, Trantas EA, Mpalantinaki E, Ververidis FN, Gouma SE, Goumas DE, 2012. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava causing a bacterial blight of artichoke bract leaves. Plant Disease, 96(8):1223-1224. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Scortichini M, Morone C, 1997. Apoplexy of peach trees caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(8/9):397-399; 11 ref

Shakya DD, Vinther F, 1989. Occurrence of Pseudomonas viridiflava in seedlings of radish. Journal of Phytopathology, 124(1-4):123-127

Shirakawa T, Hosaka M, Horiuchi S, 1996. Occurrence of Japanese hornwort bacterial spot caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 47:59-61

Suslow, T. V., McCain, A. H., 1981. Greasy canker of poinsettia caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Plant Disease, 65(6), 513-514. doi: 10.1094/PD-65-513

Tamura K, Teraoka T, Hosokawa D, Watanabe M, 1994. Some pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae producing syringomycin-like toxin. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 60(4):478-482; 9 ref

Vantomme R, Sarrazyn R, Goor M, Verdonck L, Kersters K, Ley Jde, 1989. Bacterial rot of witloof chicory caused by strains of Erwinia and Pseudomonas: symptoms, isolation and characterization. Journal of Phytopathology, 124(1-4):337-365

Varvaro L, Fabi A, 1992. The role of ice nucleation active Pseudomonas viridiflava in frost injury to kiwifruit plants. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 2(3):85-90

Végh A, Hevesi M, Némethy Z, Palkovics L, 2012. First report of bacterial leaf spot of basil caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in Hungary. Plant Disease, 96(1):141. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wang Y, Zeng CY, Chen XR, Yang CD, 2015. First report of leaf blight on Saposhnikovia divaricata by Pseudomonas viridiflava in Gansu, China. Plant Disease, 99(2):281-282. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wright PJ, Hale CN, Fullerton RA, 1993. Effect of husbandry practices and water applications during field curing on the incidence of bacterial soft rot of onions in store. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 21(2):161-164

Xue, W, 2008. Dissertation. In: Dissertation . Jilin, China: Jilin Agric. Univ.

Yildiz HN, Aysan Y, Cinar O, 2009. Chemical and physical seed treatments for eliminating tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. In: Acta Horticulturae, No.808 [ed. by Saygili, H.\Sahin, F.\Aysan, Y.]. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), 95-98. http://www.actahort.org

Young JM, 1974. Effect of water on bacterial multiplication in plant tissue. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 17:115-119

Young JM, 1987. Ice-nucleation on kiwifruit. Annals of Applied Biology, 111(3):697-704

Young JM, 1988. Bacterial blight of kiwifruit in New Zealand. Bulletin OEPP, 18(1):131-140

Young JM, Cheesmur GJ, Welham FV, Henshall WR, 1988. Bacterial blight of kiwifruit. Annals of Applied Biology, 112(1):91-105

Young JM, Fletcher MJ, 1997. Catalogue: International Collection of Micro-organisms from Plants. Lincoln, New Zealand: Landcare Research, 27

Young JM, Gardan L, Ren XZ, Hu FP, 1997. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of the bacterium causing blight of kiwifruit in New Zealand. Plant Pathology, 46(6):857-864; 21 ref

Distribution References

Aksoy H M, Ozturk M, Aktas A, 2017. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava causing cabbage bacterial leaf spot in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 801. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3929/2573

Albu S, Lai M, Woods P W, Kumagai L B, 2018. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava as the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of Mexican heather in California. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2633-2634. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0405-PDN

Alimi M, Rahimian H, Hassanzadeh N, Darzi M T, Ahmadikhah A, Heydari A, Balestra G M, 2011. First detection of Pseudomonas viridiflava, the causal agent of blossom blight in apple by using specific designed primers. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5 (26), 4708-4713. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/abstracts/abstracts/abstract%202011/16Nov/Alimi%20et%20al.htm

Alippi A M, Dal Bo E, Ronco L B, López M V, López A C, Aguilar O M, 2003. Pseudomonas populations causing pith necrosis of tomato and pepper in Argentina are highly diverse. Plant Pathology. 52 (3), 287-302. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00850.x

Alivizatos A S, 1986. Tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki. 15 (1), 40-47.

Arsenijević M, 1990. Bacteria causing cauliflower and lettuce head rot in Yugoslavia. (Bakterije prouzrokovači truleži glavica karfiola i salate u Jugoslaviji.). Zaštita Bilja. 41 (1), 21-29.

Aysan Y, Mİrİk M, Abak K, Yİldİz M, Sahİn F, 2007. Pseudomonas viridiflava: a new bacterial pathogen of melon and watermelon in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae. 363-365. http://www.actahort.org

Aysan Y, Mİrİk M, Ala A, Sahİn F, Cİnar O, 2003. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava on melon in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 52 (6), 800. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2003.00909.x

Balestra G M, Mazzaglia A, Rossetti A, 2008. Outbreak of bacterial blossom blight caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava on Actinidia chinensis kiwifruit plants in Italy. Plant Disease. 92 (12), 1707. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-12-1707A

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2004. Pseudomonas viridiflava. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 917. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500917

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Choi J E, 1989. Identification of bacteria causing rot disease of vegetables in the fields and post-harvest period in Korea. I. Bacterial rot disease of Chinese cabbage. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 5 (1), 20-24.

Choi J E, Kim H Y, 1989. Identification of bacteria causing rot disease of vegetables in the fields and post-harvest period in Korea IV. Bacterial rot disease of lettuce. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 5 (1), 65-71.

Colin J E, 1986. Identification and characterization of Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson isolated from greasy cankers of wilting tomato plants in Morocco. (Identification et caractérisation de Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson, isolé de chancres graisses de plantes de tomate en flétrissement au Maroc.). Parasitica. 42 (3), 93-95.

Fiori M, Carta C, Franceschini A, 1982. Soft rot of tomatoes due to Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson. (Il "marciume molle" dei frutti di pomodoro da Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson.). Studi Sassaresi, III. 441-447.

González A J, Rodicio M R, 2006. Pseudomonas viridiflava causing necrotic leaf spots and defoliation on Hebe spp. in Northern Spain. Plant Disease. 90 (6), 830. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0830A

Harzallah D, Sadallah S, Larous L, 2004. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. 69 (4), 443-447. http://fltbwww.rug.ac.be/

Ibrahim Y, Molan Y, 2010. Occurrence of bacterial leaf spot disease on lettuce caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Plant Pathology. 59 (2), 402. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02167.x

Lipps SM, Lenz P, Samac DA, 2019. First Report of Bacterial Stem Blight of Alfalfa Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in California and Utah. Plant Disease. 103 (12), 3274.

Liu C, 2010. First Report of Cucumber White Spot Disease Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in China. In: 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Chengdu, China, 2010 [4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Chengdu, China, 2010], Chengdu, China: 1-3.

Liu Y, Guan XY, Kong XD, Wu Xl, Liu SN , Ren JH, Guo M, Zhang YW, 2019. First Report of Bacterial Leaf Spot Caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava on Chinese Cabbage in China. Plant Disease. 103 (7), 1764. DOI:10.1111/ppa.13051

Martín-Sanz A, Palomo J L, Vega M P de la, Caminero C, 2010. First report of bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava on pea in Spain. Plant Disease. 94 (1), 128. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0128A

Minuto A, Minuto G, Martini P, Odasso M, Biondi E, Mucini S, Scortichini M, 2008. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava in basil seedlings and plants in soilless crop in Italy. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 3 (1), 165. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08064

Mİrİk M, Aysan Y, Cetİnkaya-Yİldİz R, Sahİn F, Saygİlİ H, 2004. Watermelon as a new host of Pseudomonas viridiflava, causal agent of leaf and stem necrosis, discovered in Turkey. Plant Disease. 88 (8), 907. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.907C

Myung I S, Lee Y K, Lee S W, Kim W G, Shim H S, Ra D S, 2010. A new disease, bacterial leaf spot of rape, caused by atypical Pseudomonas viridiflava in South Korea. Plant Disease. 94 (9), 1164-1165. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-9-1164C

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