Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci
(wildfire)

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (wildfire)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wildfire
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Wolf & Foster, 1917) Young et al., 1978

Preferred Common Name

  • wildfire

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium angulatum Fromme & Murray, 1919
  • Bacterium tabaci Wolf & Foster, 1917
  • Chlorobacter angulatum (Fromme & Murray) Patel & Kulkarni, 1951
  • Chlorobacter tabaci (Wolf & Foster) Patel & Kulkarni, 1951
  • Phytomonas angulata (Fromme & Murray) Bergey et al., 1930
  • Phytomonas tabaci (Wolf & Foster) Bergey et al., 1923
  • Pseudomonas angulata (Fromme & Murray) Stevens, 1925
  • Pseudomonas tabaci (Wolf & Foster) Stevens, 1925

International Common Names

  • English: angular leaf spot; blackfire; field-fire; firing
  • Spanish: fuego silvestre del tabaco; mildiú del tabaco; moho azul del tabaco
  • French: feu sauvage
  • Chinese: ye-huo-bing

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: fogo selavagem
  • Former USSR: rya-boukha
  • Germany: Eckige Blattfleckenkrankheit: Tabak; Schwarzer Bakterienbrand: Tabak; Wildfeuer: Tabak
  • Italy: fuoco selvaggio
  • Japan: nobi-yo
  • Spain: fuego salvaje

EPPO code

  • PSDMTA (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Republic of thePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentJavaid and Ashraf (1978); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentFisher and Mpofu (1992); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
AzerbaijanPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentChen YunJuan et al. (2007)
-ZhejiangPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
LebanonPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentBradbury (1986); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentBradbury (1986); Yi et al. (1990); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentScaramuzzi (1949); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsAbsent, Formerly presentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Central RussiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)PresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996)
-SiberiaPresentBradbury (1986);
-Southern RussiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
SpainPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresent, Few occurrences1988UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-Rhode IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-VermontPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996)
-WisconsinPresentFulton (1980); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentFahy and Lloyd (1983)
-QueenslandPresentFahy and Lloyd (1983); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentEPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-BahiaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCarnielli et al. (1992)
-Minas GeraisPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-PernambucoPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentBradbury (1986)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI (Undated); Bradbury (1986)Original citation: Destéfano et al. (2010)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

References

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Allington WB, 1945. Wildfire disease of soybeans. Phytopathology, 35:857-869.

Anzai H; Yoneyama K; Yamaguchi I, 1989. Transgenic tobacco resistant to a bacterial disease by the detoxification of a pathogenic toxin. Molecular and General Genetics, 219(3):492-494

Anzai H; Yoneyama K; Yamaguchi I, 1990. The nucleotide sequence of tabtoxin resistance gene (ttr) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Nucleic Acids Research, 18(7):1890

Avezdzhanov RM; Avezdzhanova GP, 1982. Types of bacterial spot of buckwheat. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva imeni N.I. Vavilova, No.124:62-65

Bakpva EV, 1976. Bacterial diseases of soybean in the Alma-Ata region. Nauch. Trudy Kazakhsk. S.-Kh. Inst., 19(1):77-83

Balaz J, 1977. Pseudomonas tabaci (Wolf & Foster) Stevens as a parasite of tobacco in Vojvodina. Zastita Bilja, 28(139):85-95

Bian J, 1992. New sun-cured tobacco variety Long Yan 3. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 2:36.

Bradbury JF, 1967. Pseudomonas tabaci. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 129. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Braun AC, 1937. A comparative study of Bacterium tabacum Wolf and Foster and Bacterium angulatum Fromme and Murray. Phytopathology, 27: 283-304.

Carlson PS, 1973. Methionine sulfoximine-resistant mutants of tobacco. Science, 180:1366-1368.

Carnielli A; de Souza-Kiihl RA; Almeida LA; da Silva CM, 1992. Cultivares de soja EMBRAPA 2 e EMBRAPA 3. Comunicado Tecnico Unidade de Executao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Dourados, 46:1-3.

Chamberlain DW, 1956. Methods of inoculation for wildfire of soybean and the effect of bacterial pustule on wildfire development. Phytopathology, 46:96-98.

Chen YunJuan; Liu YaTing; Li YongZhong; Huang XinE; Rao ShengHe; Wang RuiJian, 2007. Study on strains differentiation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in Yunnan. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 22(4):491-494.

Clayton EE, 1947. A wildfire resistant tobacco. Journal of Heredity, 38:35-40.

Crosthwaite LM; Sheen SJ, 1979. Inhibition of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase by a toxin isolated from Pseudomonas tabaci. Phytopathology, 69(4):376-379

Dagutat H; Van Zyl E; Steyn PL, 1991. Taxonomic relationships between Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, P. angulata and P. aeruginosa by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proceedings of the 4th International Working Group on Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars, Florence, Italy, 404-411.

De Paula-Junior TJ; da Silva MB; Vieira RF, 1994. Doentas causadas por bacterias em hortalitas leguminosas. Informe Agropecuario, 17:72-73.

Deall MW; Cole JS, 1986. A comparative study of the pathogenicity and epidemiology of strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci that cause wildfire and angular leaf spot diseases of tobacco in Zimbabwe. Plant Pathology, 35(1):74-81

Destéfano SAL; Rodrigues LMR; Beriam LOS; Patrício FRA; Thomaziello RA; Rodrigues Neto J, 2010. Bacterial leaf spot of coffee caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in Brazil. New Disease Reports, 22:Article 5. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=22005

Destéfano SAL; Rodrigues LMR; Beriam LOS; Patrício FRA; Thomaziello RA; Rodrigues Neto J, 2010. Bacterial leaf spot of coffee caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in Brazil. Plant Pathology, 59(6):1162-1163. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Diana G, 1994. Diseases of tobacco: bacteria. Informatore Fitopatologico, 44(5):29-32

Durbin RD; Langstone-Unkefer PJ, 1988. The mechanisms for self protection against bacterial phytotoxins. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 26:313-329

Durbin RD; Uchytil TF; Steele JA; Ribeiro RLDde, 1978. Tabtoxinine- beta -lactam from Pseudomonas tabaci. Phytochemistry, 17(1):147

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fahy PC; Lloyd AB, 1983. Pseudomonas: The fluorescent Pseudomonads. In: Fahy PC, Persley GJ, eds. Plant Bacterial Diseases. Australia: Academic Press, 141-188.

Fisher CR; Mpofu SI, 1992. Plant pathology. Annual Report and Accounts - Tobacco Research Board (Harare) for the year ended 30 June 1992. Harare, Zimbabwe: Tobacco Research Board, 17-18

Fulton RW, 1980. Tobacco blackfire disease in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 64(1):100

GRAHAM JH, 1953. Overwintering of three bacterial pathogens of Soybean. Phytopathology, 43(4):189-192 pp.

Gwynn GR; Barker KR; Reilly JJ; Komn DA; Burk LG; Reed SM, 1986. Genetic resistance to tobacco mosaic virus, cyst nematodes, root-knot nematodes, and wildfire from Nicotiana repanda incorporated into N. tabacum. Plant Disease, 70(10):958-962

Hildebrand DC; Schroth MN; Sands DC, 1988. Pseudomonas. In: Schaad NW, ed. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. 2nd edn. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 60-80.

IMI, 1996. IMI Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 293, edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Izquierdo Tamayo A; Duran Grande M; Munoz Noguera C, 1979. Bacterial diseases of tobacco in Spain. (Critical notes). Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Proteccion Vegetal, No.11:23-28

Javaid I; Ashraf M, 1978. Some observations on soybean diseases in Zambia and occurrence of Pyrenochpta glycines on certain varieties. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):46-47

Johnson JL; Palleroni NJ, 1989. Deoxyribonucleic acid similarities among Pseudomonas species. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 39:230-235.

Knight TJ; Durbin RD; Langston-Unkefer PJ, 1986. Role of glutamine synthetase adenylylation in the self-protection of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. "tabaci" from its toxin, tabtoxinine--lactam. Journal of Bacteriology, 166(1):224-229

Knoche KK; Clayton MK; Fulton RW, 1987. Comparison of resistance in tobacco to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci races 0 and 1 by infectivity titrations and bacterial multiplications. Phytopathology, 77(9):1364-1368

Knoche KK; Durbin RD, 1991. Tabtoxinine-b-lactam, the toxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci: its role in pathogenesis. Proceedings of the 4th International Working Group on Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars, Florence, Italy, 61-63.

Knoche KK; Parke JL; Durbin RD, 1994. Relationship of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci races to the rhizosphere of Wisconsin-grown tobacco. Plant and Soil, 158(1):91-97

Levi C; Durbin RD, 1986. The isolation and properties of a tabtoxin-hydrolysing aminopeptidase from the periplasm of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 28(3):345-352

Nishimura K; Hamamura H; Hayashi M; Shimada T, 1985. Ecological studies on the occurrence of the angular leaf spot disease in the fields of tobacco. Bulletin of the Kagoshima Tobacco Experiment Station, No.26:35-43

Ono K, 1980. Occurrence of yellow symptoms on the top of tobacco plant caused by Pseudomonas tabaci (Wolf & Foster) Stevens. Bulletin of the Okayama Tobacco Experiment Station, No. 41:67-72

Ono K; Akazawa J, 1983. Certain strains of angular leafspot pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, in Japan. Bulletin of the Okayama Tobacco Experiment Station, No. 42:155-163

Ribeiro R de LD; Hagedorn DJ; Durbin RD; Uchytil TF, 1979. Characterization of the bacterium inciting bean wildfire in Brazil. Phytopathology, 69(3):208-212

Rose JL, 1989. Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean) cv. Manark. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 29(4):601; 1 ref.

Scaramuzzi G, 1949. Il "seccume concentrico" alterazione batterica di carattere epidemico del tabacco. Il Tabacco, 53:242-254.

Scholz BK; Jakobek JL; Lindgren PB, 1994. Restriction fragment length polymorphism evidence for genetic homology within a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60(4):1093-1100

Sigee DC; El-Masry MH, 1989. Changes in cell size and flagellation in the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci cultured in vitro and in planta: a comparative electron microscope study. Journal of Phytopathology, 125(3):217-230

Skerman VBD; McGowan V; Sneath PHA, 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 30(1):255-420

Smeeton BW; Ternouth RAF, 1992. Sources of resistance to powdery mildew, wildfire, angular leaf spot, and Alternaria. Bulletin d'Information - CORESTA, 3-4:127-135

Stavely JR, 1979. Disease resistance. In: Durbin RD, ed. Nicotiana: procedures for experimental use. USA: US Department of Agriculture, 87-110.

Stewart WW, 1971. Isolation and proof of structure of wildfire toxin. Nature, 229:174-178.

Tanaka Y; Tomaru K, 1970. Serotypes, distribution, and some characteristics of Pseudomonas tabaci in Japan. Bulletin of the Hatano Tobacco Experiment Station, 68:87-94.

Thomas MD; Durbin RD, 1985. Glutamine synthetase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci: properties and inhibition by tabtoxinine--lactam. Journal of General Microbiology, 131(5):1061-1067

Turner JG, 1981. Tabtoxin, produced by Pseudomonas tabaci, decreases Nicotiana tabacum glutamine synthetase in vivo and causes accumulation of ammonia. Physiological Plant Pathology, 19(1):57-67

Turner JG, 1986. Activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and glutamine synthetase in isolated mesophyll cells exposed to tabtoxin. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 29(1):59-68

Turner JG, 1988. Inhibition of photosynthesis in Nicotiana tabacum leaves treated with tabtoxin and its relation to pigment loss. Physiologia Plantarum, 74(3):549-555

Turner JG; Debbage JM, 1982. Tabtoxin-induced symptoms are associated with the accumulation of ammonia formed during photorespiration. Physiological Plant Pathology, 20(2):223-233

Turner JG; Taha RR, 1984. Contribution of tabtoxin to the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Physiological Plant Pathology, 25(1):55-69

Turner JG; Taha RR; Debbage J, 1986. Effects of tabtoxin on nitrogen metabolism. Physiologia Plantarum, 67(4):649-653

Valleau WD, 1952. Breeding tobacco for disease resistance. Economic Botany, 6:69-102.

Valleau WD; Johnson EM; Diachun S, 1944. Root infection of crop plants and weeds by tobacco leaf-spot bacteria. Phytopathology, 34:163-174.

Valleau WD; Litton CC; Johnson EM, 1962. Susceptibility of wildfire resistant tobacco varieties to certain strains of Pseudomonas tabaci and Pseudomonas angulata. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:36-37.

Woodend JJ; Mudzengerere E, 1992. Inheritance of resistance to wildfire and angular leaf spot derived from Nicotiana rustica var. Brasilea. Euphytica, 64(1-2):149-156

Yi YK; Park EK; Kim JH, 1990. Occurrence of angular leaf spot symptom on tobacco plants caused by non-toxin-forming mutant of wild fire pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):81-85

Yoneyama K; Anzai H, 1991. Gene technological study on disease control by the inactivation of pathogenic toxins in transgenic plants. Journal of Pesticide Science, 16(2):291-299

Young JM; Dye DW; Bradbury JF; Panagopoulos CG; Robbs CF, 1978. A proposed nomenclature and classification for plant pathogenic bacteria. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 21(1):153-177

Yuan ML, 1994. Controlling effect of bactericide on wildfire of tobacco. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 16:18-23.

Distribution References

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carnielli A, de Souza-Kiihl RA, Almeida LA, da Silva CM, 1992. (Cultivares de soja EMBRAPA). In: Comunicado Tecnico Unidade de Executao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Dourados, 46 1-3.

Chen YunJuan, Liu YaTing, Li YongZhong, Huang XinE, Rao ShengHe, Wang RuiJian, 2007. Study on strains differentiation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in Yunnan. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University. 22 (4), 491-494.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fahy PC, Lloyd AB, 1983. Pseudomonas: The fluorescent Pseudomonads. In: Plant Bacterial Diseases, [ed. by Fahy PC, Persley GJ]. Australia: Academic Press. 141-188.

Fisher C R, Mpofu S I, 1992. Annual Report and Accounts - Tobacco Research Board (Harare) for the year ended 30 June 1992. Harare, Zimbabwe: Tobacco Research Board. 17-18.

Fulton R W, 1980. Tobacco blackfire disease in Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 64 (1), 100. DOI:10.1094/PD-64-100

Javaid I, Ashraf M, 1978. Some observations on soybean diseases in Zambia and occurrence of Pyrenochaeta glycines on certain varieties. Plant Disease Reporter. 62 (1), 46-47.

Scaramuzzi G, 1949. 'Concentric wilt', an epidemic bacterial disease of Tobacco. (Il 'secume concentrico', alterazione batterica di carattere epidemico del Tabacco.). Tabacco. 53 (601), 242-254 pp.

UK, CAB International, 1996. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 293.

Yi Y K, Park E K, Kim J H, 1990. Occurrence of angular leaf spot symptom on tobacco plants caused by non-toxin-forming mutant of wild fire pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 6 (1), 81-85.

Distribution Maps

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