Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae
(bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits))

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits))

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 01 October 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration beneath. USA.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration beneath. USA.
Copyright©University of Georgia Plant Pathology/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration beneath. USA.
SymptomsPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration beneath. USA.©University of Georgia Plant Pathology/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration of wood. USA.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration of wood. USA.
Copyright©University of Georgia Plant Pathology/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration of wood. USA.
SymptomsPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); symptoms. on peach (Prunus persica), bark peeled to show discoloration of wood. USA.©University of Georgia Plant Pathology/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); bacterial blight of coffee.
TitleSymptoms on coffee
CaptionPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); bacterial blight of coffee.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); bacterial blight of coffee.
Symptoms on coffeePseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); bacterial blight of coffee.©CABI BioScience
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); blossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.
TitleSymptoms on pear
CaptionPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); blossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); blossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.
Symptoms on pearPseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); blossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall 1902

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus cerasi (Griffin) Holland 1920
  • Bacillus gummis (Comes) Trevisan 1889
  • Bacillus matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Stapp 1928
  • Bacillus spongiosus Aderhold & Ruhland 1905
  • Bacterium cerasi (Griffin) Elliott 1930
  • Bacterium cerasi var. prunicola
  • Bacterium citrarefaciens Lee 1917
  • Bacterium citriputeale C.O. Smith 1913
  • Bacterium gummis Comes 1884
  • Bacterium hibisci Nakada & Takimoto 1923
  • Bacterium holci Kendrick 1926
  • Bacterium matthiolae Briosi & Pavarino 1912
  • Bacterium nectarophilum Doidge 1917
  • Bacterium prunicola (Wormald) Burgvitz 1935
  • Bacterium rimaefaciens (Koning) Dowson 1939
  • Bacterium spongiosum (Aderhold & Ruhland) Elliott 1930
  • Bacterium syringae (van Hall) Smith 1905
  • Bacterium trifoliorum Jones, Williamson, Wolf & McCulloch 1923
  • Bacterium utiformica (Clara) Burgvits 1935
  • Bacterium vignae Gardner & Kendrick 1923
  • Bacterium vignae var. leguminophilum (Burkholder) Burgvits 1935
  • Bacterium viridifaciens Tisdale & Williams 1923
  • Chlorobacter syringae (van Hall) Patel & Kulkarni 1951
  • Phytomonas cerasi (Griffin) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas cerasi var. prunicola (Wilson) Burkholder 1939
  • Phytomonas citrarefaciens (Lee) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Phytomonas citriputealis (Smith) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas hibisci (Nakada & Takomoto) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas holci (Kendrick) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas nectarophila (Doidge) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas prunicola Wormald 1930
  • Phytomonas rimaefaciens (Koning 1938) Dowson 1943
  • Phytomonas spongiosa (Aderhold & Ruhland) Magrou 1937
  • Phytomonas syringae (van Hall) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas trifoliorum (Jones et al.) Burkholder 1926
  • Phytomonas utiformica (Clara) Clara 1934
  • Phytomonas vignae (Gardner & Kendrick) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Phytomonas vignae var. leguminophila Burkholder 1930
  • Phytomonas viridifaciens (Tisdale & Williams) Bergey et al. 1925
  • Pseudomonas cerasi Griffin 1911
  • Pseudomonas cerasi f.sp. pyri
  • Pseudomonas cerasi var. prunicola Wilson 1933
  • Pseudomonas cerasi var. pyri
  • Pseudomonas citrarefaciens (Lee) Stevens 1925
  • Pseudomonas citriputealis (Smith) Stevens 1925
  • Pseudomonas hibisci (Nakada & Takimoto) Stapp 1928
  • Pseudomonas holci Kendrick 1926
  • Pseudomonas japonica Loehnis & Hansen
  • Pseudomonas matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Dowson 1943
  • Pseudomonas medicaginis Sackett
  • Pseudomonas nectarophila (Doidge) Clara 1932
  • Pseudomonas oryzicola Klement 1955
  • Pseudomonas prunicola Wormald 1930
  • Pseudomonas spongiosa (Aderhold & Ruhland) Kolkwitz 1915
  • Pseudomonas striafaciens var. japonica
  • Pseudomonas syringae van Hall 1902
  • Pseudomonas syringae f.sp. prunicola (Wormald) Dowson 1949
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. japonica (Mukoo 1955) Dye et al. 1980
  • Pseudomonas trifoliorum Jones et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas utiformica Clara 1932
  • Pseudomonas vignae Gardner & Kendrick 1923
  • Pseudomonas vignae var. leguminophila (Burkholder) Magrou & Prévot 1948
  • Pseudomonas viridifaciens Tisdale & Williams 1923

International Common Names

  • English: apoplexy of apricots; bacterial black spot; bacterial brown spot (beans); bacterial canker of lilac; bacterial canker of stone fruits; bacterial eye spot; bacterial leaf spot; bacterial necrosis on kiwifruit; bacterial sheath rot; bacterial stem blight of alfalfa; blast of citrus; blister spot of apple; peach-tree short-life; pear blossom blight
  • Spanish: chancro bacteriano (ciruelo)
  • French: bactériose des agrumes; bactériose des arbres fruitiers à noyau; bactériose du poirier; black pit des agrumes; blast des agrumes; chancre bactérien des fruits à noyau; coulure bactérienne du poirier; taches bactériennes du haricot; taches bactériennes du maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Brand, Bakterien-: Kernobst; Brand, Bakterien-: Sauerkirsche; Brand, Bakterien-: Steinobst; Brand, Bakterien-: Zitrus; Brand, Feuchter: Flieder; Fliederseuche
  • Italy: necrosi fiorale batterica del kiwi

EPPO code

  • PSDMSY (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LesothoPresent
LibyaPresent, Widespread
MalawiPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
South KoreaPresentNorthern Gyeongbuk
Sri LankaPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent1987
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Russian Far EastPresent
SerbiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-EnglandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-AlaskaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / ooze
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / odour
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / unusual odour

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsWeeds Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes

References

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Adhikari, A. D., Nielsen, K. A., Harveson, R. M., Graham, C., Beck, R., Mathew, F. M., 2018. Bacterial blight of lentil (Lens culinaris) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Plant Health Progress, (No.March), PHP-11-17-0073-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=11012

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Arcila MJ, Trujillo G, 1989. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, causal agent of brown spot of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), infects seeds of Sieva bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 15(3-4):235-242

Balaz J, Ilicic R, Masirevic S, Josic D, Kojic S, 2014. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causing bacterial leaf spots of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepa) in Serbia. Plant Disease, 98(5):684. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Balestra GM, Varvaro L, 1997. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causal agent of disease on floral buds of Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) Liang et Ferguson in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(8/9):375-378; 21 ref

Bertus AL, 2004. Citrus blast. Agfact H2.AB.6., USA: NSW Agriculture. www.agric.nsw.gov.au

Bhat AH, Masoodi SD, Bhat NA, 2006. Occurrence and etiology of bacterial canker of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] in Kashmir. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 14(1):162-165

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

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Cameron HR, 1962. Diseases of deciduous fruit trees incited by Pseudomonas syringae van Hall. Oregon Agric. Ext. Stn. Tech. Bull., 66:1-64

Cao T, Sayler RJ, DeJong TM, Kirkpatrick BC, Bostock RM, Shackel KA, 1999. Influence of stem diameter, water content, and freezing-thawing on bacterial canker development in excised stems of dormant stone fruit. Phytopathology, 89(10):962-966; 18 ref

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Dreo T, Seljak G, Dem?ar T, Ravnikar M, 2004. Bacterial spot of stone fruits in Slovenia. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Integrated plant protection in stone fruit', Opatjia, Croatia, 14-16 October 2002.], 27(5):123-125

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Dye, D. W., Bradbury, J. F., Goto, M., Hayward, A. C., Lelliott, R. A., Schroth, M. N., 1980. International standards for naming pathovars of phytopathogenic bacteria and a list of pathovar names and pathotype strains. Review of Plant Pathology, 59(4), 153-168.

Endert E, Ritchie DF, 1984. Overwintering and survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and symptom development in peach trees. Plant Disease, 68(6):468-470

Endert-Kirkpatrick E, Ritchie DF, 1988. Involvement of pH in the competition between Cytospora cincta and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Phytopathology, 78(5):619-624

Fogg ML, Reedy RM, Kobayashi DY, Johnston SA, Kline WL, 2004. Occurrence of bacterial blight of fenugreek caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and isolation of the pathogen from infested seed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 26(2):129-133. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

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Garrett KA, Schwartz HF, 1998. Epiphytic Pseudomonas syringae on dry beans treated with copper-based bactericides. Plant Disease, 82(1):30-35; 29 ref

Gaudet DA, Kokko EG, 1986. Seedling disease of sorghum grown in southern Alberta caused by seedborne Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(2):208-217

Gavrilovic V, Milija?evic S, Arsenijevic M, 2004. Pseudomonas syringae raspberry parasite in Serbia. (Pseudomonas syringae parazit maline u Srbiji.) Jugoslovensko Vocarstvo, 38(3/4):183-190

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Harrison, D. E., Freeman, H., 1965. Bacterial brown spot (Pseudomonas syringae) of French bean. Journal of Agriculture. Victorian Department of Agriculture, 63, 523-26; 533.

Hassan WA, Nerweyi FF, Al-Doski JMM, 2014. First Record of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in Iraq using Conventional and Specific PCR Protocol. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), 7(6), 1-8.

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Ignjatov M, Gvozdanovic-Varga J, Milosevic D, Nikolic Z, Ivanovic Z, Popovic T, 2015. First report of bacterial leaf spot of chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in Serbia. Plant Disease, 99(5):723. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Kim HM, Song WY, 1996. Characterization of ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region of several seedborne bacterial pathogens of rice. Seed Science and Technology, 24(3):571-580; 30 ref

Klement, Z., Rozsnyay, D. S., Arsenijevic, M., 1974. Apoplexy of apricots. III. Relationship of winter frost and the bacterial canker and die-back of apricots. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 9(1/2), 35-45.

Krieg NR, Holt JG, ed. , 1984. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. I. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins, 964 pp

Lahman LK, Schaad NW, 1985. Evaluation of the "dome test" as a reliable assay for seedborne bacterial blight pathogens of beans. Plant Disease, 69(8):680-683

Latorre BA, Gonzalez JA, Cox JE, Vial F, 1985. Isolation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae from cankers and effect of free moisture on its epiphytic populations on sweet cherry trees. Plant Disease, 69(5):409-412

Lee S, Cheon W, Jeon Y, 2015. First report of bacterial shoot blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae of apple (Malus pumila) in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(11):1641. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Legard DE, Hunter JE, 1990. Pathogenicity on bean of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae recovered from the phylloplane of weeds and from bean crop residue. Phytopathology, 80(10):938-942

Legard DE, Schwartz HF, 1987. Sources and management of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae epiphytes on dry beans in Colorado. Phytopathology, 77(11):1503-1509

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Torta L, Piccolo Slo, Burruano S, Cantore Plo, Iacobellis NS, 2003. Apical necrosis of Mangifera indica L. by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall in Sicily. (Necrosi apicale del mango (Mangifera indica L.) causata da Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall in Sicilia.) Informatore Fitopatologico, 53(11):44-46

Trkulja V, Brkljac G, Zavi?ic N, Misimovic M, Vukojevic D, Mihic J, Ko?cica M, 2009. Etiological studies of appearance of necrosis of flowers and pear shoots in northwest Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Etiolo?ka proucavanja pojave nekroze cvjetova i mladica kru?ke u sjeveroza-padnom dijelu Bosne i Hercegovine.) Glasnik Za?tite Bilja, 32(3):86-93. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

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Martín-Sanz A, Palomo J L, Caminero C, 2009. First report of bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on common vetch in Spain. Plant Disease. 93 (12), 1348. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-12-1348B

Mitrev S, Gardan L, Samson R, 2000. Characterization of bacterial strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae isolated from pepper leaf spot in Macedonia. Journal of Plant Pathology. 82 (3), 227-231.

Nguyen Hai Trieu, Nguyen Ngoc Huyen, Nguyen Huong Tra, Nguyen Thi Hong Ha, Gill H S, Nguyen Minh Huong, Dong Van Quyen, 2017. Enhancing the production of syringomycin E in Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae by random mutagenesis and molecular characterization of the SyrB1 gene. African Journal of Biotechnology. 16 (15), 791-800. http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJB/article-abstract/9D3405963687 DOI:10.5897/AJB2016.15744

Okie W R, Reighard G L, Nyczepir A P, 2009. Importance of scion cultivar in Peach Tree Short Life. Journal of the American Pomological Society. 63 (2), 58-63. http://americanpomological.org

Paralak E Z, 2010. Occurance of pear and apple blast disease in Razavy and North Khorasan Provinces. Plant Protection Journal. 2 (4), 269-276.

Perminow J I S, Børve J, Brurberg M B, Stensvand A, 2018. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causing bacterial blister bark on apple in Norway. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1653-1654. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1712-PDN

Popović T, Ivanović Ž, Trkulja N, Milosavljević A, Ignjatov M, 2015. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on pea (Pisum sativum) in Serbia. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 724. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-14-1212-PDN

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Sedighian N, Shams-Bakhsh M, Osdaghi E, Khodaygan P, 2014. Etiology and host range of bacterial leaf blight and necrosis of squash and muskmelon in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 96 (3), 507-514. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3201/1873

Sun FuZai, Zhao TingChang, Yang JianMin, Cao XiaoYu, Tang ChaoRong, Meng QingRui, 2000. Species of ice nucleation active bacteria on the apricot and the relationship between their activity and flower frost. Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 33 (6), 50-58.

Torta L, Piccolo S lo, Burruano S, Cantore P lo, Iacobellis N S, 2003. Apical necrosis of Mangifera indica L. by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall in Sicily. (Necrosi apicale del mango (Mangifera indica L.) causata da Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall in Sicilia.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 53 (11), 44-46.

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Trkulja V, Brkljač G, Zavišić N, Misimović M, Vukojević D, Mihić J, Koščica M, 2009. Etiological studies of appearance of necrosis of flowers and pear shoots in northwest Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Etiološka proučavanja pojave nekroze cvjetova i mladica kruške u sjeveroza-padnom dijelu Bosne i Hercegovine.). Glasnik Zaštite Bilja. 32 (3), 86-93. http://www.zastitabilja.com.hr

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UK, CAB International, 1988. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 336. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20046500336

Umesha S, Kong P, Richardson P A, Hong C X, 2008. Bacterial blight of Iris caused by Pseudomonas syringae in Virginia. Plant Pathology. 57 (6), 1176. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01916.x

Vicente J G, Alves J P, Russell K, Roberts S J, 2004. Identification and discrimination of Pseudomonas syringae isolates from wild cherry in England. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 110 (4), 337-351. DOI:10.1023/B:EJPP.0000021060.15901.33

Vučinić Z, 1987. (La necrose bactérienne des agrumes sur le littoral montenegrin). In: 50 Years of Agricultural Institute Titograd, [ed. by Kalezić Ž]. Titograd, Yugoslavia: Agricultural Institute, Titograd. 59-67.

Webster D M, Atkin J D, Cross J E, 1983. Bacterial blights of snap beans and their control. Plant Disease. 67 (9), 935-940. DOI:10.1094/PD-67-935

Xu L H, Xie G L, Li B, Zhu B, Xu F S, Qian J, 2008. First report of pear blossom blast caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in China. Plant Disease. 92 (5), 832-833. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-5-0832C

Zhou L H, Han Y, Ji G H, Wang Z S, Liu F, 2013. First report of bacterial leaf spot disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on Panax notoginseng. Plant Disease. 97 (5), 685. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1047-PDN

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