Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae
(bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits))

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits))

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bacterial blight of coffee.
TitleSymptoms on coffee
CaptionBacterial blight of coffee.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Bacterial blight of coffee.
Symptoms on coffeeBacterial blight of coffee.©CABI BioScience
Blossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.
TitleSymptoms on pear
CaptionBlossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Blossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.
Symptoms on pearBlossom blast of pear. Note death of spur but failure of shoot to become infected.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall 1902

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus cerasi (Griffin) Holland 1920
  • Bacillus gummis (Comes) Trevisan 1889
  • Bacillus matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Stapp 1928
  • Bacillus spongiosus Aderhold & Ruhland 1905
  • Bacterium cerasi (Griffin) Elliott 1930
  • Bacterium cerasi var. prunicola
  • Bacterium citrarefaciens Lee 1917
  • Bacterium citriputeale C.O. Smith 1913
  • Bacterium gummis Comes 1884
  • Bacterium hibisci Nakada & Takimoto 1923
  • Bacterium holci Kendrick 1926
  • Bacterium matthiolae Briosi & Pavarino 1912
  • Bacterium nectarophilum Doidge 1917
  • Bacterium prunicola (Wormald) Burgvitz 1935
  • Bacterium rimaefaciens (Koning) Dowson 1939
  • Bacterium spongiosum (Aderhold & Ruhland) Elliott 1930
  • Bacterium syringae (van Hall) Smith 1905
  • Bacterium trifoliorum Jones, Williamson, Wolf & McCulloch 1923
  • Bacterium utiformica (Clara) Burgvits 1935
  • Bacterium vignae Gardner & Kendrick 1923
  • Bacterium vignae var. leguminophilum (Burkholder) Burgvits 1935
  • Bacterium viridifaciens Tisdale & Williams 1923
  • Chlorobacter syringae (van Hall) Patel & Kulkarni 1951
  • Phytomonas cerasi (Griffin) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas cerasi var. prunicola (Wilson) Burkholder 1939
  • Phytomonas citrarefaciens (Lee) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Phytomonas citriputealis (Smith) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas hibisci (Nakada & Takomoto) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas holci (Kendrick) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas nectarophila (Doidge) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas prunicola Wormald 1930
  • Phytomonas rimaefaciens (Koning 1938) Dowson 1943
  • Phytomonas spongiosa (Aderhold & Ruhland) Magrou 1937
  • Phytomonas syringae (van Hall) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas trifoliorum (Jones et al.) Burkholder 1926
  • Phytomonas utiformica (Clara) Clara 1934
  • Phytomonas vignae (Gardner & Kendrick) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Phytomonas vignae var. leguminophila Burkholder 1930
  • Phytomonas viridifaciens (Tisdale & Williams) Bergey et al. 1925
  • Pseudomonas cerasi Griffin 1911
  • Pseudomonas cerasi f.sp. pyri
  • Pseudomonas cerasi var. prunicola Wilson 1933
  • Pseudomonas cerasi var. pyri
  • Pseudomonas citrarefaciens (Lee) Stevens 1925
  • Pseudomonas citriputealis (Smith) Stevens 1925
  • Pseudomonas hibisci (Nakada & Takimoto) Stapp 1928
  • Pseudomonas holci Kendrick 1926
  • Pseudomonas matthiolae (Briosi & Pavarino) Dowson 1943
  • Pseudomonas nectarophila (Doidge) Clara 1932
  • Pseudomonas oryzicola Klement 1955
  • Pseudomonas prunicola Wormald 1930
  • Pseudomonas spongiosa (Aderhold & Ruhland) Kolkwitz 1915
  • Pseudomonas syringae van Hall 1902
  • Pseudomonas syringae f.sp. prunicola (Wormald) Dowson 1949
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. japonica (Mukoo 1955) Dye et al. 1980
  • Pseudomonas trifoliorum Jones et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas utiformica Clara 1932
  • Pseudomonas vignae Gardner & Kendrick 1923
  • Pseudomonas vignae var. leguminophila (Burkholder) Magrou & Prévot 1948
  • Pseudomonas viridifaciens Tisdale & Williams 1923

International Common Names

  • English: apoplexy of apricots; bacterial black spot; bacterial brown spot (beans); bacterial eye spot; bacterial leaf spot; bacterial necrosis on kiwifruit; bacterial sheath rot; blast of citrus; blister spot of apple; peach-tree short-life; pear blossom blight
  • Spanish: chancro bacteriano (ciruelo)
  • French: bactériose des agrumes; bactériose des arbres fruitiers à noyau; bactériose du poirier; black pit des agrumes; blast des agrumes; chancre bactérien des fruits à noyau; coulure bactérienne du poirier; taches bactériennes du haricot; taches bactériennes du maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Brand, Bakterien-: Kernobst; Brand, Bakterien-: Sauerkirsche; Brand, Bakterien-: Steinobst; Brand, Bakterien-: Zitrus; Brand, Feuchter: Flieder; Fliederseuche

EPPO code

  • PSDMSY (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
AzerbaijanPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
BangladeshPresentJoyjit et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2012
ChinaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-HebeiPresentSun et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-YunnanPresentZhou et al., 2013
-ZhejiangPresentXu et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Georgia (Republic of)PresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; Dutta et al., 2016
IndiaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhat et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012
IranPresentUK CAB International, 1988; Paralak, 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012; Sedighian et al., 2014
IsraelPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
JapanPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
KazakhstanPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Korea, DPRPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988
Korea, Republic ofPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012; Lee et al., 2015Northern Gyeongbuk
KyrgyzstanPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
LebanonPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
Sri LankaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988
ThailandPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
TurkeyPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
UzbekistanPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
EgyptPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
EthiopiaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
KenyaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
LesothoPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
LibyaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2012
MalawiPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MoroccoPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
NigeriaPresentAmusa and Odunbaku, 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2012
South AfricaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
TanzaniaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
TunisiaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
UgandaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
ZimbabwePresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2012

North America

CanadaPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-AlbertaPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-British ColumbiaPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-ManitobaPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-New BrunswickPresentUK CAB International, 1988
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-OntarioPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-QuebecPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-SaskatchewanPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MexicoPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
USAPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-AlabamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-AlaskaPresentUK CAB International, 1988
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-CaliforniaPresentCerkauskas et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-ColoradoPresentLegard and Schwartz, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-GeorgiaPresentGitaitis et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-IdahoPresentWebster et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-KansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-MichiganPresentRenick et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-MontanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-NevadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-New JerseyPresentFogg et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-New YorkPresentLegard et Hunter, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-South CarolinaPresentOkie et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-South DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-WisconsinPresentLindemann et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
El SalvadorPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
GuatemalaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
HondurasPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
PanamaPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
BrazilPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-GoiasPresentBradbury, 1986
-Minas GeraisPresentBradbury, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Rio de JaneiroPresentBradbury, 1986
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
ChilePresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
UruguayPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
VenezuelaPresentGuevara et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
BelarusPresentKopitsya, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2012
BelgiumPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentTrkulja et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2012
BulgariaPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
CyprusPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
DenmarkPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
FrancePresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
GermanyPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
GreecePresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-CretePresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
HungaryPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
IrelandPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
ItalyPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Italy (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-SicilyPresentTorta et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2012
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
LithuaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
MacedoniaPresentMitrev et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MoldovaPresentUK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
NetherlandsPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
PolandPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012; Ka<l>uzna et al., 2016
PortugalPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
RomaniaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Russian FederationRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2012
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
SerbiaPresentGavrilovic et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2012; Balaz et al., 2014; Ignjatov et al., 2015; Popovic et al., 2015
SloveniaPresentDreo et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2012
SpainPresentCazorla et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
SwedenPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
SwitzerlandPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
UKPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-England and WalesPresentVicente et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2012
UkrainePresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Yugoslavia (former)PresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988
-New South WalesPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-QueenslandPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-South AustraliaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-TasmaniaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-VictoriaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Western AustraliaPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012
New ZealandPresentBradbury, 1986; UK CAB International, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / ooze
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / odour
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / unusual odour

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes

References

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Agrios GN, 1988. Plant Pathology. London, UK: Academic Press, Inc. (London) Ltd., 803 pp.

Agrios GN, 1997. Plant Pathology. San Diego, USA: Academic Press.

Amusa NA; Odunbaku OA, 2007. Biological control of bacterial diseases of plants in Nigeria: problems and prospects. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3(6):979-982. http://www.insinet.net/rjabs/2007/979-982.pdf

Arcila MJ; Trujillo G, 1989. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, causal agent of brown spot of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), infects seeds of Sieva bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 15(3-4):235-242

Balaz J; Ilicic R; Masirevic S; Josic D; Kojic S, 2014. First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causing bacterial leaf spots of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepa) in Serbia. Plant Disease, 98(5):684. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Balestra GM; Varvaro L, 1997. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causal agent of disease on floral buds of Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) Liang et Ferguson in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(8/9):375-378; 21 ref.

Bertus AL, 2004. Citrus blast. Agfact H2.AB.6., USA: NSW Agriculture. www.agric.nsw.gov.au

Bhat AH; Masoodi SD; Bhat NA, 2006. Occurrence and etiology of bacterial canker of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] in Kashmir. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 14(1):162-165.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Braun A; Sands DC; Jacobsen BJ, 1998. Mechanisms in the biological control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae by Pantoea agglomerans. Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens IOBC Bulletin, 21:7-12.

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 336 (Edition 5).

Cameron HR, 1962. Diseases of deciduous fruit trees incited by Pseudomonas syringae van Hall. Oregon Agric. Ext. Stn. Tech. Bull., 66:1-64.

Cao T; Sayler RJ; DeJong TM; Kirkpatrick BC; Bostock RM; Shackel KA, 1999. Influence of stem diameter, water content, and freezing-thawing on bacterial canker development in excised stems of dormant stone fruit. Phytopathology, 89(10):962-966; 18 ref.

Cerkauskas RF; Koike ST; Azad HR; Lowery DT; Stobbs LW, 2006. Diseases, pests, and abiotic disorders of greenhouse-grown water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in Ontario and California. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 28(1):63-70. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Crosse JE, 1966. Epidemiological relations of the Pseudomonad pathogens of deciduous fruit trees. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 4:291-310.

Dreo T; Seljak G; Dem?ar T; Ravnikar M, 2004. Bacterial spot of stone fruits in Slovenia. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Integrated plant protection in stone fruit', Opatjia, Croatia, 14-16 October 2002.], 27(5):123-125.

Dutta B; Gitaitis RD; Driver JE; Smith S, 2016. First report of bacterial leaf spot on watermelon caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in Georgia. Plant Disease, 100(2):518. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Endert E; Ritchie DF, 1984. Overwintering and survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and symptom development in peach trees. Plant Disease, 68(6):468-470

Endert-Kirkpatrick E; Ritchie DF, 1988. Involvement of pH in the competition between Cytospora cincta and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Phytopathology, 78(5):619-624

Fogg ML; Reedy RM; Kobayashi DY; Johnston SA; Kline WL, 2004. Occurrence of bacterial blight of fenugreek caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and isolation of the pathogen from infested seed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 26(2):129-133. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Garrett KA; Schwartz HF, 1998. Epiphytic Pseudomonas syringae on dry beans treated with copper-based bactericides. Plant Disease, 82(1):30-35; 29 ref.

Gaudet DA; Kokko EG, 1986. Seedling disease of sorghum grown in southern Alberta caused by seedborne Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(2):208-217

Gavrilovic V; Milija?evic S; Arsenijevic M, 2004. Pseudomonas syringae raspberry parasite in Serbia. (Pseudomonas syringae parazit maline u Srbiji.) Jugoslovensko Vocarstvo, 38(3/4):183-190.

Gitaitis RD; Jones JB; Jaworski CA; Phatak SC, 1985. Incidence and development of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on tomato transplants in Georgia. Plant Disease, 69(1):32-35

Gonzßlez AJ; Landeras E; Mendoza MC, 2000. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. are distinguishable by ribotyping. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(2):850-854; 16 ref.

Goszczynska T; Serfontein JJ, 1998. Milk-Tween agar, a semiselective medium for isolation and differentiation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 32(1):65-72; 27 ref.

Guevara Y; Rondón A; Maselli A, 2000. Bacterial canker of peach in Venezuela. (El cancro bacteriano del duraznero en Venezuela.) Agronomía Tropical (Maracay), 50(2):229-239.

Hall R, 1991. Compendium of Bean Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press.

Hall R, 1991. Compendium of Wheat Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press.

Hattingh MJ; Roos IMM; Mansvelt EL, 1989. Infection and systemic invasion of deciduous fruit trees by Pseudomonas syringae in South Africa. Plant Disease, 73(10):784-789

Higley PM; McGee DC; Burris JS, 1993. Development of methodology for non-destructive assay of bacteria, fungi and viruses in seeds of large-seeded field crops. Seed Science and Technology, 21(2):399-409; 13 ref.

Hirano SS; Baker LS; Upper CD, 1996. Raindrop momentum triggers growth of leaf-associated populations of Pseudomonas syringae on field-grown snap bean plants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(7):2560-2566; 38 ref.

Hirano SS; Charkowski AO; Collmer A; Willis DK; Upper CD, 1999. Role of the Hrp type III protein secretion system in growth of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a on host plants in the field. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(17):9851-9856; 40 ref.

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