Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ralstonia solanacearum race 2
(moko disease)

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Datasheet

Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 2
  • Preferred Common Name
  • moko disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Burkholderiales
  •         Family: Ralstoniaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996

Preferred Common Name

  • moko disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Burkholderia solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1992
  • Pseudomonas solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Smith 1914

International Common Names

  • Spanish: enfermedad del moko
  • French: maladie du moko

EPPO code

  • PSDMS2 (Ralstonia solanacearum race 2)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Burkholderiales
  •                 Family: Ralstoniaceae
  •                     Genus: Ralstonia
  •                         Species: Ralstonia solanacearum race 2

Distribution

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R. solanacearum comprises sub-populations variously reported as groups, races, biovars, biotypes, sub-races and strains. The commonly applied terms biovar and biotype refer to differences in biochemical and phage reactions (Hayward, 1962). Races, distinguished on the basis of differences in plant host range (Buddenhagen et al., 1962), are usually referred to in this datasheet. The list gives the distribution of the pathogen that causes Moko and Bugtok diseases of triploid bananas and also infects Heliconia spp. Records are of confirmed race 2 or presumed race 2 based on host range.

A record of R. solanacearum race 2 in Cuba (CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2013) published in previous versions of the Compendium is considered unreliable as it is based on an old record which cannot be traced. R. solanacearum race 2 has never been found in banana plantations in Cuba (Luis Pérez Vicente, Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, Cuba, personal communication, 2014).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 275).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresent
LibyaPresent
MalawiAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
Sierra LeoneAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
SomaliaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Asia

IndiaPresent, Localized
-MaharashtraAbsent, Intercepted only
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-SabahPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyBased on long-term annual surveys.

North America

BelizePresent, Localized
Costa RicaPresent
CubaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Luis Pérez Vicente, Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, personal communication, 2014
Dominican RepublicAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent, Widespread
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent, Localized
MartiniqueAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, Localized
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-FloridaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, Eradicated
-QueenslandAbsent, Eradicated

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
BrazilPresent
-AmapaPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Hosts/Species Affected

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Lists of host records have been recorded (Kelman, 1953; Bradbury, 1986; Persley, 1986; Hayward, 1994) but the original reports, gathered over many years, vary greatly in reliability. Few reference strains of race 2 from reported host plants have been deposited in publicly accessible culture collections to support the authenticity of records. There are many solanaceous and non-solanaceous plant species that are hosts to R. solanacearum. They can only be ascribed to known and possibly novel races when strains from them are isolated and examined.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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References

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Alfenas, A. C., Mafia, R. G., Sartório, R. C., Binoti, D. H. B., Silva, R. R., Lau, D., Vanetti, C. A., 2006. Ralstonia solanacearum on eucalyptus clonal nurseries in Brazil. (Ralstonia solanacearum em viveiros clonais de eucalipto no Brasil). Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(4), 357-366. doi: 10.1590/S0100-41582006000400005

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Buddenhagen IW; Sequeira L; Kelman A, 1962. Designation of races of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology, 52:726.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Ralstonia solanacearum race 2. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 784.

Delgado R; Morillo E; Buitrón J; Bustamante A; Sotomayor I, 2014. First report of Moko disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 in plantain (Musa AAB) in Ecuador. New Disease Reports, 30:23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030023

Dzarifah Zulperi, Kamaruzaman Sijam, Mior Ahmad, Z. A., Yahya Awang, Tavga Sulaiman Rashid, 2014. Occurrence of Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 biovar 1 associated with moko disease of banana (Musa paradisiaca cv. Nipah) in Malaysia. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(10), 697-702. doi: 10.1111/jph.12233

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hayward AC, 1964. Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 27:265-277.

Hayward AC, 1994. The hosts of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Bacterial wilt: the disease and its causative agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum., 9-24; [many refs].

Kelman A, 1953. The bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A literary review and bibliography. Technical Bulletin of North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 99.

Lemessa F; Zeller W, 2006. Biological control of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Ethiopia: determination of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases, Seeheim, Darmstadt, Germany, 23-26 October, 2005.], No.408:119-120.

Persley GJ, 1986. Ecology of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. In: Persley GJ, ed. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at PCARRD, Los Banos, Philippines 8-10 October 1985. ACIAR Proceedings, 13, 71-76.

Distribution References

CABI, EPPO, 1999. Ralstonia solanacearum race 2. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 784. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500784

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Delgado R, Morillo E, Buitrón J, Bustamante A, Sotomayor I, 2014. First report of Moko disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 in plantain (Musa AAB) in Ecuador. New Disease Reports. 23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030023

Dzarifah Zulperi, Kamaruzaman Sijam, Mior Ahmad Z A, Yahya Awang, Tavga Sulaiman Rashid, 2014. Occurrence of Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 biovar 1 associated with moko disease of banana (Musa paradisiaca cv. Nipah) in Malaysia. Journal of Phytopathology. 162 (10), 697-702. DOI:10.1111/jph.12233

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Romo J P, Osorio J G M, Yepes M S, 2012. Identification of new hosts for Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) race 2 from Colombia. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 27 (3), 151-161. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-27522012000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Distribution Maps

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