Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ralstonia solanacearum race 2
(moko disease)

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Datasheet

Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 2
  • Preferred Common Name
  • moko disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Burkholderiales
  •         Family: Ralstoniaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996

Preferred Common Name

  • moko disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Burkholderia solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1992
  • Pseudomonas solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Smith 1914

International Common Names

  • Spanish: enfermedad del moko
  • French: maladie du moko

EPPO code

  • PSDMS2 (Ralstonia solanacearum race 2)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Burkholderiales
  •                 Family: Ralstoniaceae
  •                     Genus: Ralstonia
  •                         Species: Ralstonia solanacearum race 2

Distribution

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R. solanacearum comprises sub-populations variously reported as groups, races, biovars, biotypes, sub-races and strains. The commonly applied terms biovar and biotype refer to differences in biochemical and phage reactions (Hayward, 1962). Races, distinguished on the basis of differences in plant host range (Buddenhagen et al., 1962), are usually referred to in this datasheet. The list gives the distribution of the pathogen that causes Moko and Bugtok diseases of triploid bananas and also infects Heliconia spp. Records are of confirmed race 2 or presumed race 2 based on host range.

A record of R. solanacearum race 2 in Cuba (CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2013) published in previous versions of the Compendium is considered unreliable as it is based on an old record which cannot be traced. R. solanacearum race 2 has never been found in banana plantations in Cuba (Luis Pérez Vicente, Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, Cuba, personal communication, 2014).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 275).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
MalawiAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeoneAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
SomaliaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)Based on long-term annual surveys.

North America

BelizePresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
CubaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)Luis Pérez Vicente, Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, personal communication, 2014
Dominican RepublicAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
HaitiAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
MartiniqueAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
NicaraguaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, EradicatedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandAbsent, EradicatedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-AmapaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-AmazonasPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-BahiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); Delgado et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
SurinamePresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Lists of host records have been recorded (Kelman, 1953; Bradbury, 1986; Persley, 1986; Hayward, 1994) but the original reports, gathered over many years, vary greatly in reliability. Few reference strains of race 2 from reported host plants have been deposited in publicly accessible culture collections to support the authenticity of records. There are many solanaceous and non-solanaceous plant species that are hosts to R. solanacearum. They can only be ascribed to known and possibly novel races when strains from them are isolated and examined.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeOther
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Eleusine indica (goose grass)PoaceaeWild host
Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia)FabaceaeWild host
HeliconiaceaeHeliconiaceaeMain
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
MusaceaeMusaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther

References

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Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Buddenhagen IW; Sequeira L; Kelman A, 1962. Designation of races of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology, 52:726.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Ralstonia solanacearum race 2. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 784.

Delgado R; Morillo E; Buitrón J; Bustamante A; Sotomayor I, 2014. First report of Moko disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 in plantain (Musa AAB) in Ecuador. New Disease Reports, 30:23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030023

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hayward AC, 1964. Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 27:265-277.

Hayward AC, 1994. The hosts of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Bacterial wilt: the disease and its causative agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum., 9-24; [many refs].

Kelman A, 1953. The bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A literary review and bibliography. Technical Bulletin of North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 99.

Lemessa F; Zeller W, 2006. Biological control of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Ethiopia: determination of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases, Seeheim, Darmstadt, Germany, 23-26 October, 2005.], No.408:119-120.

Persley GJ, 1986. Ecology of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. In: Persley GJ, ed. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at PCARRD, Los Banos, Philippines 8-10 October 1985. ACIAR Proceedings, 13, 71-76.

Distribution Maps

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