Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996
Preferred Common Name
- moko disease
Other Scientific Names
- Burkholderia solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1992
- Pseudomonas solanacearum race 2 (Smith 1896) Smith 1914
International Common Names
- Spanish: enfermedad del moko
- French: maladie du moko
- PSDMS2 (Ralstonia solanacearum race 2)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Bacteria
- Phylum: Proteobacteria
- Class: Betaproteobacteria
- Order: Burkholderiales
- Family: Ralstoniaceae
- Genus: Ralstonia
- Species: Ralstonia solanacearum race 2
DistributionTop of page
R. solanacearum comprises sub-populations variously reported as groups, races, biovars, biotypes, sub-races and strains. The commonly applied terms biovar and biotype refer to differences in biochemical and phage reactions (Hayward, 1962). Races, distinguished on the basis of differences in plant host range (Buddenhagen et al., 1962), are usually referred to in this datasheet. The list gives the distribution of the pathogen that causes Moko and Bugtok diseases of triploid bananas and also infects Heliconia spp. Records are of confirmed race 2 or presumed race 2 based on host range.
A record of R. solanacearum race 2 in Cuba (CABI/EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2013) published in previous versions of the Compendium is considered unreliable as it is based on an old record which cannot be traced. R. solanacearum race 2 has never been found in banana plantations in Cuba (Luis Pérez Vicente, Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, Cuba, personal communication, 2014).
See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 275).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Lists of host records have been recorded (Kelman, 1953; Bradbury, 1986; Persley, 1986; Hayward, 1994) but the original reports, gathered over many years, vary greatly in reliability. Few reference strains of race 2 from reported host plants have been deposited in publicly accessible culture collections to support the authenticity of records. There are many solanaceous and non-solanaceous plant species that are hosts to R. solanacearum. They can only be ascribed to known and possibly novel races when strains from them are isolated and examined.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Colocasia esculenta (taro)||Araceae||Other|
|Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Eleusine indica (goose grass)||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia)||Fabaceae||Wild host|
|Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)||Musaceae||Main|
|Psidium guajava (guava)||Myrtaceae||Other|
ReferencesTop of page
Buddenhagen IW; Sequeira L; Kelman A, 1962. Designation of races of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology, 52:726.
Delgado R; Morillo E; Buitrón J; Bustamante A; Sotomayor I, 2014. First report of Moko disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 in plantain (Musa AAB) in Ecuador. New Disease Reports, 30:23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030023
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Hayward AC, 1964. Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 27:265-277.
Kelman A, 1953. The bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A literary review and bibliography. Technical Bulletin of North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 99.
Lemessa F; Zeller W, 2006. Biological control of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Ethiopia: determination of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases, Seeheim, Darmstadt, Germany, 23-26 October, 2005.], No.408:119-120.
Persley GJ, 1986. Ecology of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. In: Persley GJ, ed. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at PCARRD, Los Banos, Philippines 8-10 October 1985. ACIAR Proceedings, 13, 71-76.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Delgado R, Morillo E, Buitrón J, Bustamante A, Sotomayor I, 2014. First report of Moko disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2 in plantain (Musa AAB) in Ecuador. New Disease Reports. 23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030023
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Distribution MapsTop of page
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