Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ralstonia solanacearum race 1
(bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)



Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 1
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Burkholderiales
  •         Family: Ralstoniaceae
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    CAB International
    OX10 8DE
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops

Other Scientific Names

  • Burkholderia solanacearum race 1 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1992
  • Pseudomonas solanacearum race 1 (Smith 1896) Smith 1914

International Common Names

  • English: granville wilt of tobacco; southern bacterial wilt of tomato
  • Spanish: marchitez bacteriana del tabaco; marchitez del tomate
  • French: bactériose vasculaire des solanacées; flétrissement bactérien de la tomate; flétrissement bactérien du tabac
  • Portuguese: murcha-bacteriana; murchadeira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterienwelke

EPPO code

  • PSDMSO (Ralstonia solanacearum race 1)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Burkholderiales
  •                 Family: Ralstoniaceae
  •                     Genus: Ralstonia
  •                         Species: Ralstonia solanacearum race 1


Top of page R. solanacearum is comprises sub-populations variously reported as groups, races, biovars, biotypes, sub-races and strains. The commonly applied terms biovar and biotype refer to differences in biochemical and phage reactions (Hayward, 1962). Races, distinguished on the basis of differences in plant host range (Buddenhagen et al., 1962), are usually referred to in this text. The distribution is given for confirmed Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 or presumed race 1 based on host range. This race has a wider host range than race 3 and a higher temperature optimum (35-37°C).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AngolaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
BurundiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
CameroonPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Côte d'IvoirePresentEPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
GambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
MaliPresentThera et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
RwandaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
SomaliaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)


BangladeshPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HenanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (1999)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); Chandrashekara et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-NagalandPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-OdishaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-SulawesiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
MyanmarPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
SingaporePresentCABI and EPPO (1999); CABI (Undated);
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)


BulgariaAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (1999)
ItalyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999)
NetherlandsPresent, Transient under eradicationCABI and EPPO (1999); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)
PolandAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (1999)
RomaniaAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (1999)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Eastern SiberiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999)
-Russian Far EastPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)
-Southern RussiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
SwitzerlandAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (1999)

North America

BelizePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
GuatemalaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Puerto RicoPresentRomero et al. (2013)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)


AustraliaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2020)
-AmazonasPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
-PernambucoPresentEPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
French GuianaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
UruguayPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Lists of host records have been recorded (Kelman, 1953; Bradbury, 1986; Persley, 1986; Hayward, 1994) but the original reports, gathered over many years, vary greatly in reliability. Few reference strains of race 1 from reported host plants have been deposited in publicly accessible culture collections to support the authenticity of records. There are many solanaceous and non-solanaceous plant species that are hosts to R. solanacearum. They can only be ascribed to known and possibly novel races when strains from them are isolated and examined.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain


Top of page

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Buddenhagen IW; Sequeira L; Kelman A, 1962. Designation of races of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology, 52:726.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Ralstonia solanacearum race 1. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 783.

Chandrashekara KN; Prasannakumar MK; Deepa M; Vani A, 2011. Coleus, a new host for Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 in India. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(1):233-235.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO.

Hayward AC, 1964. Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 27:265-277.

Hayward AC, 1994. The hosts of Pseudomonas solanacearum. In: Hayward AC, Hartman GL, eds. Bacterial wilt: The Disease and its Causative Agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 9-24.

Kelman A, 1953. The bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A literary review and bibliography. Technical Bulletin of North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 99.

Lemessa F; Zeller W, 2006. Biological control of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Ethiopia: determination of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases, Seeheim, Darmstadt, Germany, 23-26 October, 2005.], No.408:119-120.

Persley GJ, 1986. Ecology of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. In: Persley GJ, ed. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at PCARRD, Los Banos, Philippines 8-10 October 1985. ACIAR Proceedings, 13, 71-76.

Romero GC; Estévez de Jensen C; Palmateer AJ, 2013. First report of tomato wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1 in Puerto Rico. Plant Health Progress, No.April:PHP-2013-0418-01-BR.

Thera AT; Jacobsen BJ; Neher OT, 2010. Bacterial wilt of solanaceae caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 in Mali. Plant Disease, 94(3):372.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map