Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ralstonia solanacearum race 1
(bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)

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Datasheet

Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 1
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Burkholderiales
  •         Family: Ralstoniaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops

Other Scientific Names

  • Burkholderia solanacearum race 1 (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1992
  • Pseudomonas solanacearum race 1 (Smith 1896) Smith 1914

International Common Names

  • English: granville wilt of tobacco; southern bacterial wilt of tomato
  • Spanish: marchitez bacteriana del tabaco; marchitez del tomate
  • French: bactériose vasculaire des solanacées; flétrissement bactérien de la tomate; flétrissement bactérien du tabac
  • Portuguese: murcha-bacteriana; murchadeira

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterienwelke

EPPO code

  • PSDMSO (Ralstonia solanacearum race 1)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Burkholderiales
  •                 Family: Ralstoniaceae
  •                     Genus: Ralstonia
  •                         Species: Ralstonia solanacearum race 1

Distribution

Top of page R. solanacearum is comprises sub-populations variously reported as groups, races, biovars, biotypes, sub-races and strains. The commonly applied terms biovar and biotype refer to differences in biochemical and phage reactions (Hayward, 1962). Races, distinguished on the basis of differences in plant host range (Buddenhagen et al., 1962), are usually referred to in this text. The distribution is given for confirmed Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 or presumed race 1 based on host range. This race has a wider host range than race 3 and a higher temperature optimum (35-37°C).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
ChinaRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-GuangdongWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
-GuangxiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-HenanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesCABI and EPPO, 1999
-HubeiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-ShandongPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-SichuanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)Restricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999
IndiaWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; Chandrashekara et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-NagalandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-OdishaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-SulawesiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
IranPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Korea, DPRPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
MalaysiaWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
MyanmarPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
SingaporePresentYik et al., 1994; Yik, 1988; CABI and EPPO, 1999
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
TaiwanWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999

Africa

AngolaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
BurundiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
CameroonWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Côte d'IvoirePresentEPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
MaliPresentThera et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
RwandaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
SomaliaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
South AfricaRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
ZimbabweRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999

North America

MexicoRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999
USAWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999

Central America and Caribbean

BelizeWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
GuatemalaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MartiniqueWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Puerto RicoPresentRomero et al., 2013

South America

BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-AmazonasPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-PernambucoPresentEPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
UruguayWidespreadCABI and EPPO, 1999

Europe

BulgariaAbsent, formerly presentCABI and EPPO, 1999
ItalyAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI and EPPO, 1999
NetherlandsTransient: actionable, under eradicationNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2016
PolandAbsent, formerly presentCABI and EPPO, 1999
RomaniaAbsent, formerly presentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Russian FederationRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Eastern SiberiaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Southern RussiaRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Lists of host records have been recorded (Kelman, 1953; Bradbury, 1986; Persley, 1986; Hayward, 1994) but the original reports, gathered over many years, vary greatly in reliability. Few reference strains of race 1 from reported host plants have been deposited in publicly accessible culture collections to support the authenticity of records. There are many solanaceous and non-solanaceous plant species that are hosts to R. solanacearum. They can only be ascribed to known and possibly novel races when strains from them are isolated and examined.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
AnthuriumAraceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
ColeusLamiaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
SolanaceaeSolanaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain

References

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Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Buddenhagen IW; Sequeira L; Kelman A, 1962. Designation of races of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology, 52:726.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Ralstonia solanacearum race 1. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 783.

Chandrashekara KN; Prasannakumar MK; Deepa M; Vani A, 2011. Coleus, a new host for Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 in India. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(1):233-235. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/298/164

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Hayward AC, 1964. Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 27:265-277.

Hayward AC, 1994. The hosts of Pseudomonas solanacearum. In: Hayward AC, Hartman GL, eds. Bacterial wilt: The Disease and its Causative Agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 9-24.

Kelman A, 1953. The bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A literary review and bibliography. Technical Bulletin of North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 99.

Lemessa F; Zeller W, 2006. Biological control of potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Ethiopia: determination of biovars of Ralstonia solanacearum. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases, Seeheim, Darmstadt, Germany, 23-26 October, 2005.], No.408:119-120.

Persley GJ, 1986. Ecology of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. In: Persley GJ, ed. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at PCARRD, Los Banos, Philippines 8-10 October 1985. ACIAR Proceedings, 13, 71-76.

Romero GC; Estévez de Jensen C; Palmateer AJ, 2013. First report of tomato wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1 in Puerto Rico. Plant Health Progress, No.April:PHP-2013-0418-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=10624&photo=5938

Thera AT; Jacobsen BJ; Neher OT, 2010. Bacterial wilt of solanaceae caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 in Mali. Plant Disease, 94(3):372. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution Maps

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