Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola
(halo blight (of beans))

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (halo blight (of beans))

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • halo blight (of beans)
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Burkholder 1926) Gardan et al. 1992

Preferred Common Name

  • halo blight (of beans)

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium medicaginis var. phaseolicola (Burkholder) Link & Hull 1927
  • Bacterium puerariae Hedges 1927
  • Phytomonas medicaginis var. phaseolicola Burkholder 1926
  • Phytomonas puerariae (Hedges) Bergey et al. 1930
  • Phytomonas vignae (Gardn. & Kendr.) Karassilnikov
  • Pseudomonas cerasi (=cerasus) Griffin
  • Pseudomonas holci Kendrick
  • Pseudomonas medicaginis
  • Pseudomonas medicaginis f.sp. phaseolicola (Burkholder) Dowson 1957
  • Pseudomonas medicaginis var. phaseolicola (Burkholder) Stapp & Kotte 1929
  • Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkholder) Dowson 1943
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Burkholder 1926) Young et al. 1978
  • Pseudomonas vignae Gardner & Kendrick
  • Xanthomonas medicaginis var. phaseolicola (Burkholder) Elliott 1951
  • Xanthomonas phaseolicola

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial: alfalfa stem blight; bacterial: bean blight; bacterial: pear canker; bacterial: Sorghum spp. leaf spot; bacterial: stone fruit canker; bacterial: trees canker; black pit: Citrus spp.; blast: Citrus spp.; brown spot: bean; chocolate spot: maize; grease spot (of beans); grease spot: bean; halo blight: bean
  • Spanish: añublo halo; chancro bacteriano (ciruelo); crestamento bacteriano aureolade; crestamento bacteriano de halo; grasa de las judias; hielo amarillo; mancha aureolada; mancha de halo; tizón de halo; tizón del halo; tizon del halo del frijol
  • French: bacteriose des agrumes; bacteriose des arbres fruitiers a noyau; bacteriose du poirier; black-pit des agrumes; blast des agrumes; brulure bacterienne de la luzerne; brulure bacterienne du haricot; chancre bacterien des fruits a noyau; coulure bacterienne du poirier; graisse du haricot; maladie de la graisse du haricot; taches areolees du haricot; taches bacteriennes du haricot; taches bacteriennes du mais; tison du haricot

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterien-: Kernobst Brand; Bakterien-: Sauerkirsche Brand; Bakterien-: Steinobst Brand; Bakterien-: Zitrus Brand; Eckige: Bohne Fleckigkeit; Fettfleckenkrankheit: Bohne; Feuchter: Flieder Brand; Fliederseuche

EPPO code

  • PSDMPH (Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentAllen (1995)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1992)
EgyptPresentAlla et al. (1999)
EswatiniPresentAllen (1995)
EthiopiaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
LesothoPresentAllen (1995)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
MalawiPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
MauritiusPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
MoroccoPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
MozambiquePresentAllen (1995)
RwandaPresentUK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
South AfricaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995); Fourie (1998)
TanzaniaPresentBradbury (1986); Mabagala and Saettler (1992); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
UgandaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
ZambiaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)
ZimbabwePresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Allen (1995)

Asia

ChinaPresentSun Suli et al. (2017)
GeorgiaPresentBradbury (1986)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-DelhiPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-MaharashtraPresentShirsat et al. (1976)
IsraelPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
JapanPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Saudi ArabiaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1992); Ertuğrul and Güven (1998)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1992)

Europe

AustriaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
BelgiumPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
BulgariaPresentGeorgieva (1975); Bradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentStupar (1978); Bradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
DenmarkPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
FrancePresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
GermanyPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
GreecePresentPanagopoulos and Biris (1988)
HungaryPresentNagy (1975); Szarka and Velich (1978); Bradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
IrelandPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadDavino and Perrotta (1975); Bradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); CABI (Undated)
-SicilyPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
LithuaniaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
NetherlandsPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
PolandPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Marcinkowska (1994)
RomaniaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
RussiaPresentBradbury (1986)
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1992)
SpainPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Asensio et al. (1998); Fernández-Sanz et al. (2016)
SwedenPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
SwitzerlandPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
United KingdomPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-Channel IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1992)

North America

BarbadosPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
CanadaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
Costa RicaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
Dominican RepublicPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
GuadeloupePresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
MartiniquePresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
MexicoPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992); Navarrete-Maya et al. (1998)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
United StatesPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-HawaiiPresentBirch et al. (1981)
-IdahoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Butcher et al., 1967

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1992); CABI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-QueenslandPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-South AustraliaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-TasmaniaPresentBradbury (1986)
-VictoriaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
-Western AustraliaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
FijiPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
New ZealandPresentHale and Taylor (1973); Bradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1992)
ChilePresentDubin and Ciampi (1974); Bradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
ColombiaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
PeruPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
SurinamePresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)
VenezuelaPresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1992)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / ooze
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / ooze
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

References

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Adam DB, Pugsley AT, 1934. 'Smooth-rough' variation in Phytomonas medicaginis phaseolicola Burk. Austr. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 12:193-202

Alla HMA, Abdou ES, Galal AA, Shihata ZA, Gazar AA, Stavely JR, 1999. Reactions of bean plants to bacterial halo blight. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(1):273-288; 40 ref

Allen DJ, 1995. An annotated list of diseases, pathogens and associated fungi of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in eastern and southern Africa. Phytopathological Papers Wallingford, UK; CAB International., No. 34:xx + 42 pp

Allen DJ, Ampofo JKO, Wortmann CS, 1996. Pests, diseases, and nutritional disorders of the common bean in Africa: a field guide. CIAT Publication No. 260. Cali, Colombia: CIAT

Alvarez AM, 2004. Integrated approaches for detection of plant pathogenic bacteria and diagnosis of bacterial diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 42:339-366. http://www.annualreviews.org

Anon., 1980. Germplasm screening for desirable variability. Disease loss studies. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical: 1979 Bean program. Annual Report.1980, 19-22.

Ariyarathne HM, 1997. Pathogenic variation for the halo blight bacterium and mapping of loci for multiple diseases in common bean. PhD diss. University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Arsenijevic M, Obradovic A, Stevanovic D, Ivanovic M, Duffy B, Rosenberger U, Defago G, 1998. Antagonistic effect of some saprophytic bacteria to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. Bulletin OILB SROP, 21:297-300

Asensio C, Zan M, Crist=bal V, 1998. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola races in the central region of Spain. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, 41:74-75

Basim E, Basim H, Özcan M, 2006. Antibacterial activities of Turkish pollen and propolis extracts against plant bacterial pathogens. Journal of Food Engineering, 77(4):992-996. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8J-4H5DY32-6&_user=3891418&_handle=V-WA-A-W-VD-MsSAYVW-UUW-U-AACYEYDYUD-AACZCZYZUD-YWCEEUCB-VD-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=32&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%235088%232006%23999229995%23626776!&_cdi=5088&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=9b2ccbce93b8200449968d265be1b3d4

Beebe SE, Pastor-Corrales MA, 1991. Breeding for Disease Resistance. In: van Schoonhoven A, Voyest O, eds. Common Beans: Research for Crop Improvement. Wallingford UK: CAB International, 561-617

Birch RG, Alvarez AM, Patil SS, 1981. A bacterial leaf spot caused in yam bean by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Phytopathology, 71(12):1289-1293

Bovenkamp GW van den, Idema ED, Franken AAJM, 1991. Seed infection and field resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in seven bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Plant Varieties & Seeds, 4(3):107-113

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Burkholder WH, 1926. A new bacterial disease of the bean. Phytopathology, 16:915-927

Calzolari A, 1997. Halo and common spot of beans. Informatore Agrario, 53(25):66-67

CMI, 1992. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 85, edition 5. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Davino M, Perrotta G, 1975. Serious infections caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola found on bean plants in Sicily. Technica Agricola, Italy, 27(6):451-459

Downes MJ, 1978. Erwinia herbicola for the control of Pyrenophora avenae on oat seedlings and of other organisms. In: Duggan JJ, ed. Proceedings of seminar on biological control. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin Irish Republic, 97-108

Dubin HJ, Ciampi LR, 1974. Pseudomonas phaseolicola in Chile. Fitopatologia, 9(2):91-92

Dye DW, Bradbury JF, Goto M, Hayward AC, Lelliott RA, Schroth MN, 1980. International standards for naming pathovars of phytopathogenic bacteria and a list of pathovar names and pathotype strains. Review of Plant Pathology, 59(4):153-168

El-Banoby FE, Rudolph K, 1979. A polysaccharide from liquid cultures of Pseudomonas phaseolicola which specifically induces water-soaking in bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 95(1):38-50

Ercolani GL, 1985. The relation between dosage, bacterial growth and time for disease response during infection of bean leaves by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 58(1):63-75

Ertugrul D, Gnven K, 1998. Serological properties of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola isolates collected from Eskisehir. Turkish Journal of Biology, 22(2):189-195; 26 ref

Fahy PC, Lloyd AB, 1983. Preliminary diagnosis of plant diseases caused by bacteria. In: Fahy PC, Persley GJ, eds, Plant bacterial diseases: A diagnostic guide. Australia: Academic Press, 189-228

Fernández-Sanz AM, Rodicio MR, González AJ, 2016. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from weeds in bean crop fields. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 62(4):344-348. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1472-765X

Fourie D, 1998. Characterization of halo blight races on dry beans in South Africa. Plant Disease, 82(3):307-310; 18 ref

Gardan L, Bollet C, Ghorrah MA, Grimont F, Grimont PAD, 1992. DNA relatedness among the pathovar strains of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi Janse (1982) and proposal of Pseudomonas savastanoi sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 42(4):606-612

Georgieva M, 1975. Bacterioses of kidney bean in Bulgaria. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(2):32-34

Gondwe B, Mabagala RB, Femi-Lana A, 1996. Effect of garlic extract on growth of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in culture media. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, 39:280-281

Goszczynska T, Serfontein JJ, 1998. Milk-Tween agar, a semiselective medium for isolation and differentiation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 32(1):65-72; 27 ref

Grogan RG, Kimble KA, 1967. The role of seed contamination in the transmission of Pseudomonas phaseolicola in Phaseolis vulgaris. Phytopathology, 57:28-31

Guthrie JW, 1970. Factors influencing halo blight transmission from externally contaminated Phaseolus vulgaris seed. Phytopathology, 60:371-372

Hagedorn DJ, 1967. Streptomycin seed treatment for control of bean halo blight. Plant Disease Reporter, 51(7):544-548

Hale CN, Taylor JD, 1973. Races of Pseudomonas phaseolicola causing halo blight of beans in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 16(1):147-149

Hayward AC, Waterston JM, 1965. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 45. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Higley PM, McGee DC, Burris JS, 1993. Development of methodology for non-destructive assay of bacteria, fungi and viruses in seeds of large-seeded field crops. Seed Science and Technology, 21(2):399-409; 13 ref

Hildebrand DC, Schroth MN, 1971. Isolation of Pseudomonas phaseolicola from bean leaves exhibiting systemic symptoms. Phytopathology, 61:580-581

Innes NL, Conway J, Taylor JD, 1984. Resistance to halo-blight in the Cambridge accessions V4604 and V4058 of Phaseolus beans. Annals of Applied Biology, 104(2):307-314

International Mycological Institute, UK CAB International, 1992. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 21 maps

ISTA, 2008. . http://www.fito2009.com/fitop/7-023

Jackson LE, Moser PE, 1994. Development of a medium for isolation and differentiation of three bacterial plant pathogens. Bean Improvement Cooperative, 37:23-24

Jansing H, Rudolph K, 1990. A sensitive and quick test for determination of bean seed infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 97(1):42-55

Jansing H, Rudolph K, 1997. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Phaseolus vulgaris. Working Sheet No. 66. ISTA Working Sheets No. 66. Zurich, Switzerland: ISTA

Jensen JH, Livingston E, 1944. Variation in symptoms produced by isolates of Phytomonas medicaginis var. phaseolicola. Phytopathology, 34:471-480

JENSEN JH, LIVINGSTON JE, 1944. Variation in symptoms produced by isolates of Phytomonas medicaginis var. phaseolicola. Phytopathology, 35(5):471-480 pp

Kahveci E, Maden S, 1994. Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola by bacteriophages. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 23(2):79-85

Katherman MJ, Wilkinson RE, Beer SV, 1980. Resistance and seed infection in three dry bean cultivars exposed to a halo blight epidemic. Plant Disease, 64(9):857-859

King EO, Ward MK, Raney DE, 1954. Two simple media for the demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescin. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 44:301-307

Kurowski C, Remeeu PM, 2007. Proposal for a new method for detecting Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola on bean seeds, 4:1-12

LeBaron M, MacMaster G, Guthrie J, 1977. Spread of halo blight with sprinkler irrigation. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, 20:66-67

Legard DE, Schwartz HF, 1987. Sources and management of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae epiphytes on dry beans in Colorado. Phytopathology, 77(11):1503-1509

López MM, Bertolini E, Olmos A, Caruso P, Gorris MT, Llop P, Penyalver R, Cambra M, 2003. Innovative tools for detection of plant pathogenic viruses and bacteria. International Microbiology, 6(4):233-243. http://springerlink.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?wasp=1a48ddwqur5typep9g7t&referrer=parent&backto=issue,3,8;journal,2,10;linkingpublicationresults,1:108236,1

Mabagala RB, Saettler AW, 1992. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola populations and halo blight severity in beans grown alone or intercropped with maize in northern Tanzania. Plant Disease, 76(7):687-692

Mabagala RB, Saettler AW, 1992. Races and survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in Northern Tanzania. Plant Disease, 76(7):678-682

Mabagala RB, Saettler AW, 1992. The role of weeds in survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in Northern Tanzania. Plant Disease, 76(7):683-687

Maddox DA, 1996. Regulatory Needs for Standardized Seed Health Tests. In: McGee DC, ed. Plant Pathogens and the Worldwide Movement of Seeds. St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 81-92

Marcinkowska J, 1994. Diseases of bean recorded in Poland. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Ros^acute~lin, No. 190:169-175; 14 ref

Menkissoglu O, Lindow SE, 1991. Chemical forms of copper on leaves in relation to the bactericidal activity of cupric hydroxide deposits on plants. Phytopathology, 81(10):1263-1270

Mohan SK, Schaad NW, 1987. An improved agar plating assay for detecting Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and P. s. pv. phaseolicola in contaminated bean seed. Phytopathology, 77(10):1390-1395

Molouba F, Guimier C, Berthier C, Guenard M, Olivier V, Baril C, Horvais A, 2001. Detection of bean seed-borne pathogens by PCR. Acta Horticulturae, No. 546:603-607; 11 ref

Moser PE, Cowan L, Massoth H, 1994. A semi-selective plating assay for detection and differentiation of bacterial blight of bean and pea. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, 37:25-26

Mosqueda-Cano G, Herrera-Estrella L, 1997. A simple and efficient PCR method for the specific detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in bean seeds. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(4):463-467; 17 ref

Msuku WAB, Edje OT, 1982. Effect of mixed cropping of maize and bean on bean diseases. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 25:16-18

Muzquiz M, Vega Rde la, Gutierrez MP, Calvo R, Robredo LM, Cuadra Cde la, 1999. Bactericide effect of alkaloids present in Lupinus. Towards the 21st century. Proceedings of the 8th international lupin conference, Asilomar, California, USA, May 11-16 1996., 540-544; 11 ref

Nagy A, Nagy I, 1975. The most important bean pathogens and control methods. Kerteszeti Kutato Intezet Kozlemenyei, 4:63-70

Natti JJ, 1967. Overwinter survival of Pseudomonas phaseolicola in New York. Phytopathology, 57:343 (Abstract)

Naumann K, Karl H, 1989. Analysis of bean seed samples from the field for contamination with the halo blight pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Burkholder) Young et al. Archiv fur Gartenbau, 37(6):383-392

Navarrete-Maya R, Esquival-Esquival G, Acosta-Gallegos JA, 1998. Identification of halo blight resistant bean genotypes in central Mexico. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, 41:155-156

Noble R, Roberts SJ, 2004. Eradication of plant pathogens and nematodes during composting: a review. Plant Pathology, 53(5):548-568. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ppa

Panagopoulos CG, Biris DA, 1988. Susceptibility of various bean cultivars to bacterial blights. Progress on pest management in field vegetables. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC Experts' group meeting, Rennes, 20-22 November 1985 [edited by Cavalloro, R.; Pelerents, C.] Rotterdam, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema, 275-276

Parker MC, Dean LL, 1968. Ultraviolet as a sampling aid for detection of bean seed infected with Pseudomonas phaseolicola. Plant Disease Reporter, 52(7):534-538

Patel PN, Walker JC, 1964. Reactions of Phaseolus species to two races of Pseudomonas phaseolicola and a brown-spot organism. Phytopathology, 54:903. (Abstract)

Patel PN, Walker JC, 1965. Resistance in Phaseolus to halo blight. Phytopathology, 55:889-894

Popovic T, Milovanovic P, Aleksic G, Gavrilovic V, Starovic M, Vasic M, Balaz J, 2012. Application of semi-selective mediums in routine diagnostic testing of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola on common bean seeds. Scientia Agricola, 69(4):265-270. http://www.scielo.br/sa

Prosen D, Hatziloukas E, Schaad NW, Panopoulos NJ, 1993. Specific detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola DNA in bean seed by polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of a phaseolotoxin gene region. Phytopathology, 83(9):965-970

Ralph W, 1976. Pelleting seed with bactericides: the effect of streptomycin on seed-borne halo-blight of french bean. Seed Science and Technology, 4(2):325-332

Ralph W, 1977. A note on antibiotic permeation of seed with dichloromethane. Seed Science and Technology, 5(3):575-578

Ralph W, 1977. Steam-air treatment of bean seed infected with Pseudomonas phaseolicola. Seed Science and Technology, 5(3):559-565

Rheenen HA van, Hasselbach OE, Muigai SGS, 1981. The effect of growing beans together with maize on the incidence of bean diseases and pests. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 87(5):193-199

Ribeiro R de LD, Hagedorn DJ, Durbin RD, Uchytil TF, 1979. Characterization of the bacterium inciting bean wildfire in Brazil. Phytopathology, 69(3):208-212

Rico A, Erdozáin E, Ortiz-Barredo A, Ruiz de Galarreta JI, Murillo J, 2006. Detection by multiplex PCR and characterization of nontoxigenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola from different places in Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(3):261-267. http://www.inia.es

Rico A, López R, Asensio C, Aizpún MT, Asensio-S-Manzanera MC, Murillo J, 2003. Nontoxigenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola are a main cause of halo blight of beans in Spain and escape current detection methods. Phytopathology, 93(12):1553-1559

Rudolph K, Rasche E, 1979. A leaf bioassay for semiquantitative determination of the chlorosis inducing toxin from Pseudomonas phaseolicola. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 96(3):215-221

Saettler AW, 2005. Diseases caused by bacteria. In: Schwartz HF, Steadman JR, Hall R, Forster RL, eds. Compendium of Bean Diseases. 2nd Edition. St Paul, USA: APS Press, p. 50

Saettler AW, Stadt SJ, Pontius LT, 1981. Effects of inoculation time and cultivar on internal infection of bean seed by Pseudomonas phaseolicola. Journal of Seed Technology, 6:23-30

Schaad NW, Cheong SS, Tamaki S, Hatziloukas E, Panopoulos NJ, 1995. A combined biological and enzymatic amplification (BIO-PCR) technique to detect Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in bean seed extracts. Phytopathology, 85(2):243-248

Schaad NW, ed, 1988. A laboratory guide for identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. 2nd edn. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Press

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Distribution References

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