Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis
(lettuce marginal leaf blight)

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis (lettuce marginal leaf blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lettuce marginal leaf blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis (Brown 1918) Stevens 1925

Preferred Common Name

  • lettuce marginal leaf blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium intybi (Swingle) Elliott 1930
  • Bacterium marginale Brown 1918
  • Chlorobacter intybi (=marginale) (Swingle) Patel & Kulkarni 1951
  • Phytomonas intybi Swingle 1925
  • Phytomonas marginalis (=marginale) (Brown) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas intybi (Swingle) Stapp 1928

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial leaf rot (of lettuce); bacterial soft rot; butt-rot (of lettuce); lettuce kansas disease; pink rib of lettuce; Pseudomonas soft rot
  • Spanish: corazon negro (lechuga)
  • French: pourriture bactérienne; pourriture molle

Local Common Names

  • Germany: bakterielle Fäule (an kopfsalat)

EPPO code

  • PSDMMS (Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentBradbury (1986); Sale (1991); EPPO (2020)
EthiopiaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentPrinsloo et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)

Asia

ChinaPresentLi JinHua et al. (2007)
-GansuPresentLi JinHua et al. (2007)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentEPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentNieves Mortensen et al. (1992)
IranPresentGhobakhloo et al. (2002)
JapanPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentSumino and Shirai (2009)
NepalAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Nieves Mortensen et al. (1992); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentEPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentChoi and Han (1990); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentTzeng et al. (1994)

Europe

AustriaPresentEPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresentStapp (1956); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, Few occurrences1972Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
IrelandPresentWimalajeewa et al. (1987)
ItalyPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresentJanse et al. (1992)
PortugalPresentFernandes (1982); EPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentArsenijević (1990)
SpainPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadStapp (1956); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)

North America

BarbadosPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
BermudaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
CanadaPresent, LocalizedStapp (1956); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentHildebrand (1989)
-OntarioPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCuppels and Kelman (1980); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentFriedman (1952)
-CaliforniaPresentBURTON (1971)
-FloridaPresentFriedman (1952); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentFriedman (1952); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MontanaPresentGaudet et al. (1980); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentFriedman (1952); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentFriedman (1952); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentCanaday and Wyatt (1992); EPPO (2020)
-UtahPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentBradbury (1986); Wimalajeewa et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentBradbury (1986); Wimalajeewa et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentBradbury (1986); Wimalajeewa et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentStapp (1956); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1986); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentCardona et al. (1994)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Arsenijevic M, 1990. Bacteria causing cauliflower and lettuce head rot in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 41(1):21-29

Babu GRV; Wolfram JH; Marian JM; Chapatwala KD, 1995. Pseudomonas marginalis: its degradative capability on organic nitriles and amides. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 43:739-745.

Barriga MI; Simard RE; Willemot C, 1989. Effect of controlled atmospheres on Pseudomonas marginalis in vitro growth. Microbiologie, Aliments, Nutrition, 7(2):145-149

Bartz J, 1979. An outbreak of soft rot in commercial tomato fruit caused by a complex of pectolytic bacteria. Phytopathology, 69: 1021.

Bergey DH; Harrison FC; Breed RS; Hammer BW; Huntoon FM, 1923. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed. Baltimore, USA: The Williams and Wilkins Co.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brocklehurst TF; Lund BM, 1981. Properties of pseudomonads causing spoilage of vegetables stored at low temperature. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 50(2):259-266

Brosch R; LefFvre M; Grimont F; Grimont PAD, 1996. Taxonomic diversity of pseudomonads revealed by computer-interpretation of ribotyping data. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 19(4):541-555; 31 ref.

Brown NA, 1918. Some bacterial diseases of lettuce. Journal of Agricultural Research, 13:367-388.

Burd G; Ward OP, 1996. Physicochemical properties of PM-factor, a surface-active agent produced by Pseudomonas marginalis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 42:243-251.

Burton CL, 1971. Bacterial soft rot and black spot diseases of bok choi (Chinese chard). Plant Disease Reporter, 55:1037-1039.

Canaday CH; Wyatt JE, 1992. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on bacterial soft rot in two broccoli cultivars, one resistant and one susceptible to the disease. Plant Disease, 76(10):989-991

Cardona R; Carrasco A; Camino JM, 1994. Nueva enfermedad bacteriana presente en plantaciones de pina en el estado lara, Venezuela (New bacterial disease present in pineapple plantations in Lara state, Venezuela). Fitopatologia Venezolana, 7:54-55.

Choi JE; Han KS, 1990. Bacterial soft rot and rhizome rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Pseudomonas marginalis and P. solanacearum. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(3):363-368

Choi JE; Han KS; Yu SJ, 1989. Identification of bacteria causing soft rot disease of carrot. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(4):349-353

Clark MR; Graham DC, 1962. A disease of forced rhubarb associated with Pseudomonas marginalis. Plant Pathology, 11:31-33.

Cuppels DA; Kelman A, 1980. Isolation of pectolytic fluorescent psuedomonads from soil and potatoes. Phytopathology, 70(11):1110-1115

Dealto A; Surico G, 1982. Effect of temperature and soil humidity on the survival of two fluorescent pectolytic Pseudomonas species isolated from celery plants and rhizospheres. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 21(2/3):50-58

Elliot C, 1930. Manual of bacterial plant pathogens. Baltimore, USA: Williams and Wilkins.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernandes AMM, 1982. Study of some bacterial diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris. Garcia de Orta, Estudos Agronomicos, 9(1/2):237-242

Friedman BA, 1952. Soft rot of lettuce and escarole caused by Pseudomonas marginalis. Phytopathology, 42: 112.

Gaudet DA; Sands DC; Mathre DE; Ditterline RL, 1980. The role of bacteria in the root and crown rot complex of irrigated sainfoin in Montana. Phytopathology, 70(2):161-167

Gaudet DA; Sands DS; Mathre DE, 1979. The etiology of root and crown rot of irrigated sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) in Montana. Phytopathology, 69:915-916.

Geeson JD; Browne KM, 1979. Effect of post-harvest fungicide drenches on stored winter white cabbage. Plant Pathology, 28(4):161-168

Ghobakhloo A; Shahriari D; Rahimian H, 2002. Occurrence of bacterial leaf spot and blight of cucurbits in Varamin and evaluation of the resistance of some cultivars and lines of cucumber to the disease. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 38:1-2.

Goto M; Matsumoto K, 1986. Taxonomic study on soft rot bacteria isolated from diseased rhizomes and roots of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.). Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 52(1):69-77

Hall CB; Stall RE; Burdine HW, 1971. Association of Pseudomonas marginalis with pink rib of lettuce. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 84:163-165

Hayashi K; Inoue Y; Shiga M; Sato SI; Takano R; Hirayae K; Hibi T; Hara S, 1997. Pectinolytic enzymes from Pseudomonas marginalis. Phytochemistry (Oxford), 45, 1359-1363.

Hildebrand PD, 1989. Surfactant-like characteristics and identity of bacteria associated with broccoli head rot in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(3):205-214

Hunter JE; Cigna JA, 1981. Bacterial blight incited in parsnip by Pseudomonas marginalis and Pseudomonas viridiflava. Phytopathology, 71(12):1238-1241

Ibe SN; Grogan RG, 1983. Effect of controlled oxygen and carbon dioxide atmospheres on bacterial growth rate and soft rot of tomato fruits caused by Pseudomonas marginalis. Plant Disease, 67(9):1005-1008

Igarashi D, 1994. Studies on the prevention of cold injury to cabbage for harvesting in winter (in Japanese). Bulletin of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experimental Station, 44:101-148.

Igarashi D; Ohbayashi I, 1985. Relation between freezing injury and bacterial head rot in cabbage culture for harvesting in winter (in Japanese). Bulletin of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experimental Station, 32:35-41.

Jain DK; Stroes-Gascoyne S; Providenti M; Tanner C; Cord I, 1997. Characterization of microbial communities in deep groundwater from granite rock. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 43:272-283.

Janse JD; Derks JHJ; Spit BE; Tuin WR van der, 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomonas bacteria, including P. marginalis strains, using whole cell fatty acid analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 15(4):538-553

Kawarabayashi S; Suyama K, 1990. Bacterial rot of anemone caused by Pseudomonas marginalis (Brown 1918) Stevens 1925. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku, 34(4):186-193

Kotte W, 1930. Eine bakterielle Blattfaeule der Winterendivie (Cichorium endiviae L.). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 1, 605-613.

Lacroix M; Vezina L; Desjardins S; Beaulieu C, 1995. Comparison of identification methods for Erwinia and Pseudomonas species causing soft rot diseases. Phytoprotection, 76(1):27-37

Li JinHua; Chai ZhaoXiang; Yang HeTong; Li GuoQuan; Wang Di, 2007. First report of Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis as a cause of soft rot of potato in China. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2(1):71-73. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07029

Lund BM, 1983. Bacterial spoilage. In: Dennis C, ed. Post harvest pathology and vegetables. New York, USA: Academic Press, 219-257.

Melo RAG; Mariano RLR; Michereff SJ; Menezes M; Coelho RSB, 1995. Biological control of soft rot of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Summa Phytopathologica, 21(3/4):206-212; 38 ref.

Miller SA, 1980. Susceptibility of lettuce cultivars to marginal leaf blight caused by Pseudomonas marginalis (Brown 1918) Stevens 1925. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 8(2):169-171

Mueller JP; Percich JA; Mitchell JE, 1982. Root deterioration associated with Verticillium wilt of horseradish. Plant Disease, 66(5):410-414

Neuvel JJ; Moel CPde; Broek RCFMvan den; Osinga KJ, 1996. Control of head rot disease in broccoli by choice of variety and foliar treatments. Publicatie - Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Lelystad, No. 81B:118-122; 6 ref.

Nieves Mortensen C; Manandhar HK; Cahyaniati; Haryanti SE, 1992. Pathogenic bacteria associated with rice seed samples from Indonesia and Nepal. In: Lemattre M, ed. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Versailles, France: INRA, 65-72.

Noval C., Seidedos MT, Cruz JL de la, 1993. Estudio de la posible relacion entre la caida de yemas en peral y la capacidad bacteriana para formar nucleos de hielos u originar podredumbre blanda (Study of a possible relationship between the bud drop in pear and the bacterial capacity for ice nucleation and causing soft rot. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 19:649-661.

Ohata K-I; Tsuchiya Y; Shirata A, 1979. Difference in kinds of pathogenic bacteria causing head rot of lettuce of different cropping types. Annals of the Phytopathogenic Society of Japan, 45(3):333-338

Osada S, 1994. Bacterial rot of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nym.) caused by Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis (Brown 1918) Stevens 1925. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 45:80-83

Osman SF; Fett WF, 1989. Structure of an acidic exopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas marginalis HT041B. Journal of Bacteriology, 171(3):1760-1762

Palleroni NJ, 1984. Genus I. Pseudomonas Migula 1894. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG, eds. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 1. Baltimore, USA: Williams and Wilkins, 141-199.

Patel MK; Kulkarni YS, 1951. Nomenclature of bacterial plant pathogens, Indian Phytopathology, 4:74-84.

Penalver R; Duran-Vila N; Lopez MM, 1994. Characterisation and pathogenicity of bacteria from shoot tips of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Annals of Applied Biology, 125(3):501-513

Prinsloo GC; Baard SW; Ferreira JF, 1991. Organisms associated with black root rot of chicory in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 23(1):59-67; 31 ref.

Sale O, 1991. Studies of bacterial soft rot of onion bulbs. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 36:241-253.

Sands DC; Hankin L; Zucker M, 1972. A selective medium for pectolytic fluorescent Pseudomonads. Phytopathology, 62:998-1000.

Scortichini M, 1994. Leaf spot and blight of Dieffenbachia amoena caused by Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis. Plant Pathology, 43(5):941-943

Shahriari D; Rahimian H, 2002. Occurrence of bacterial leaf spot and blight of cucurbits in Varamin and evaluation of the resistance of some cultivars and lines of cucumber to the disease. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 38:1-2.

Shinde PA; Lukezic FL, 1974. Isolation, pathogenicity and characterization of fluorescent pseudomonads associated with discolored alfalfa roots. Phytopathology, 64(6):865-871

Stapp C, 1928. Schizomycetes (Spaltpilze oder Bakterien). In: Sorauer P, ed. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 2. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey, 286-287.

Stapp C, 1956. Bakterielle Krankheiten. In: Appel O, Richter H, eds. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, Band II, 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Paul Parey, 259-263.

Stevens FL, 1925. Plant Disease Fungi. New York, USA: Macmillan.

Sumino A; Shirai K, 2009. Occurrence of celery bacterial rot caused by Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis in Hokkaido. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No.60:73-76. http://njp.ac.affrc.go.jp/index.html

Thavamani S; Sreeramulu A, 1994. Growth inhibitory effect of certain plant extracts against Pseudomonas marginalis inciting soft-rots. Journal of Ecotoxicology & Environmental Monitoring, 4(3/4):249-252; 7 ref.

Tsuchiya Y; Ohata K; Iemura H; Sanematsu T; Shirata A; Fujii H, 1979. Identification of causal bacteria of head rot of lettuce. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, C, No. 33:77-99

Tzeng KC; Lin YC; Hsu ST, 1994. Foliar fluorescent pseudomonads from crops in Taiwan and their antagonism to phytopathogenic bacteria. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 3(1):24-33

Valkonen JPT; Heiroth W von; Savela ML, 1993. Fungi and Gram-negative bacteria as soilborne minor pathogens of goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.). Annals of Applied Biology, 123(2):257-269

Vancanneyt M; Torck U; Dewettinck D; Vaerewijck M; Kersters K, 1996. Grouping of pseudomonads by SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 19(4):556-568; 57 ref.

Vantomme R; Sarrazyn R; Goor M; Verdonck L; Kersters K; Ley Jde, 1989. Bacterial rot of witloof chicory caused by strains of Erwinia and Pseudomonas: symptoms, isolation and characterization. Journal of Phytopathology, 124(1-4):337-365

Vincelli PC; Cappellini RA, 1984. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Pseudomonas marginalis in soft rotted bell peppers. Plant Disease, 68(2):167

Wimalajeewa DLS; Hallam ND; Hayward AC; Price TV, 1987. The etiology of head rot disease of broccoli. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 38(4):735-742

Wright PJ, 1993. Effects of nitrogen fertiliser, plant maturity at lifting, and water during field-curing on the incidence of bacterial soft rot of onions in store. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 21(4):377-381

Wright PJ; Hale CN, 1992. A field and storage rot of onion caused by Pseudomonas marginalis. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 20(4):435-438

Young JM; Dye DW; Bradbury JF; Panagopoulos CG; Robbs CF, 1978. A proposed nomenclature and classification for plant pathogenic bacteria. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 21(1):153-177

Distribution References

Arsenijević M, 1990. Bacteria causing cauliflower and lettuce head rot in Yugoslavia. (Bakterije prouzrokovači truleži glavica karfiola i salate u Jugoslaviji.). Zaštita Bilja. 41 (1), 21-29.

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

BURTON C L, 1971. Bacterial soft rot and black spot diseases of Bok Choy (Chinese Chard). Plant Disease Reporter. 55 (11), 1037-1039.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Canaday C H, Wyatt J E, 1992. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on bacterial soft rot in two broccoli cultivars, one resistant and one susceptible to the disease. Plant Disease. 76 (10), 989-991. DOI:10.1094/PD-76-0989

Cardona R, Carrasco A, Camino J M, 1994. New bacterial disease present in pineapple plantations in Lara State, Venezuela. (Nueva enfermedad bacteriana presente en plantaciones de piña en el Estado Lara, Venezuela.). Fitopatología Venezolana. 7 (2), 54-55.

Choi J E, Han K S, 1990. Bacterial soft rot and rhizome rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Pseudomonas marginalis and P. solanacearum. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 6 (3), 363-368.

Cuppels D A, Kelman A, 1980. Isolation of pectolytic fluorescent psuedomonads from soil and potatoes. Phytopathology. 70 (11), 1110-1115. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-70-1110

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fernandes A M M, 1982. Study of some bacterial diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris. (Estudo de algumas bacterioses do feijoeiro.). Garcia de Orta, Estudos Agronómicos. 9 (1/2), 237-242.

Friedman B A, 1952. Soft rot of lettuce and escarole caused by Pseudomonas marginalis. Phytopathology. 112.

Gaudet D A, Sands D C, Mathre D E, Ditterline R L, 1980. The role of bacteria in the root and crown rot complex of irrigated sainfoin in Montana. Phytopathology. 70 (2), 161-167. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-70-161

Ghobakhloo A, Shahriari D, Rahimian H, 2002. Occurrence of bacterial leaf spot and blight of cucurbits in Varamin and evaluation of the resistance of some cultivars and lines of cucumber to the disease. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 38 (1/2), En59-En60, Pe145-Pe1.

Hildebrand P D, 1989. Surfactant-like characteristics and identity of bacteria associated with broccoli head rot in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 11 (3), 205-214.

Janse J D, Derks J H J, Spit B E, Tuin W R van der, 1992. Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomonas bacteria, including P. marginalis strains, using whole cell fatty acid analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 15 (4), 538-553. DOI:10.1016/S0723-2020(11)80114-1

Li JinHua, Chai ZhaoXiang, Yang HeTong, Li GuoQuan, Wang Di, 2007. First report of Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis as a cause of soft rot of potato in China. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 2 (1), 71-73. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07029

Nieves Mortensen C, Manandhar HK, Cahyaniati, Haryanti SE, 1992. Pathogenic bacteria associated with rice seed samples from Indonesia and Nepal. [Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria], [ed. by Lemattre M]. Versailles, France: INRA. 65-72.

Prinsloo G C, Baard S W, Ferreira J F, 1991. Organisms associated with black root rot of chicory in South Africa. Phytophylactica. 23 (1), 59-67.

Sale O, 1991. Studies of bacterial soft rot of onion bulbs. In: Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 36 241-253.

Stapp C, 1956. (Bakterielle Krankheiten). In: Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, II (6th) [ed. by Appel O, Richter H]. Berlin, Germany: Paul Parey. 259-263.

Sumino A, Shirai K, 2009. Occurrence of celery bacterial rot caused by Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis in Hokkaido. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan. 73-76. http://njp.ac.affrc.go.jp/index.html

Tzeng K C, Lin Y C, Hsu S T, 1994. Foliar fluorescent pseudomonads from crops in Taiwan and their antagonism to phytopathogenic bacteria. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 3 (1), 24-33.

Wimalajeewa D L S, Hallam N D, Hayward A C, Price T V, 1987. The etiology of head rot disease of broccoli. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 38 (4), 735-742. DOI:10.1071/AR9870735

Distribution Maps

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