Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans
(cucurbit angular leaf spot)

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (cucurbit angular leaf spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cucurbit angular leaf spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymtoms on leaves
Caption
CopyrightG. Demir
Symtoms on leavesG. Demir

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Young Dye & Wilkie 1978

Preferred Common Name

  • cucurbit angular leaf spot

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Holland 1920
  • Bacterium burgeri (Potebnya) Burgvits 1935
  • Bacterium lachrymans Smith & Bryan 1915
  • Chlorobacter lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Patel & Kulkarni 1951
  • Phytomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pseudomonas burgeri (Potebnya) Korobko & Nikiforuk 1972
  • Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Carsner 1918
  • Pseudomonas lachrymans f. cucumis Gorlenko 1961

International Common Names

  • English: angular leafspot of cucumber; bacterial leaf spot
  • Spanish: bacteriosis del pepino; mancha angular de la hoja del pepino
  • French: tache angulaire du concombre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gurke: Bakterielle Blattfleckenkrankheit; Gurke: Eckige Blattfleckenkrankheit
  • Italy: maculatura angolore delle foglia
  • Turkey: Hiyar köseli yaprak lekesi

EPPO code

  • PSDMLA (Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentGaribaldi and Porta-Puglia (1973); Bradbury (1986)
EgyptPresentBradbury (1986)
GabonPresentBradbury (1986)
KenyaPresentBradbury (1986)
South AfricaPresentBradbury (1986)
ZimbabwePresentBradbury (1986)

Asia

ChinaPresentBradbury (1986)
IndiaPresentPapdiwal and Deshpande (1978)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhat et al. (2007)
IranPresentAmani (1970); Bradbury (1986)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadVOLCANI (1964); Bradbury (1986)
JapanPresentBradbury (1986); Kagiwata (1991)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tanii & Babu, 1973
JordanPresent, WidespreadMamluk et al. (1980)
KazakhstanPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); CABI (Undated)
LaosPresentBradbury (1986)
North KoreaPresentBradbury (1986)
PhilippinesPresentBradbury (1986)
SingaporeAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)AVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentBradbury (1986)
TajikistanPresentBradbury (1986)
ThailandPresentBradbury (1986)
TurkeyPresentKaraca and Demir (1988); CABI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresentBradbury (1986)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Glaeser (1974)
BelarusPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Korol and Bylinskii (1994)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadElenkov (1975); Bradbury (1986)
CzechiaPresentBradbury (1986)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBradbury (1986)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentBradbury (1986)
DenmarkPresentBradbury (1986); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresentBradbury (1986)
GermanyPresentBradbury (1986); Bedlan (1987)
GreecePresentBradbury (1986)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadHódosy (1983); Bradbury (1986)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadMarras and Corda (1973); Bradbury (1986)
-SicilyPresentPolizzi et al. (2005)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadManole (1988)
NetherlandsPresentBradbury (1986)
PolandPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986)
RomaniaPresentMarinescu et al. (1978); Bradbury (1986)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Neklyudova & Korneev, 1988
-SiberiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Litvinov & Pogolerow, 1978
SlovakiaPresentBradbury (1986)
SwitzerlandPresentBradbury (1986)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Saleh & Korobko, 1981
United KingdomPresentBradbury (1986)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentBradbury (1986)
-British ColumbiaPresentBradbury (1986)
-ManitobaPresentBradbury (1986)
-New BrunswickPresentBradbury (1986)
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentBradbury (1986)
-Nova ScotiaPresentBradbury (1986)
-OntarioPresentBradbury (1986)
-QuebecPresentBradbury (1986)
-SaskatchewanPresentBradbury (1986)
GuadeloupePresentBradbury (1986)
MartiniquePresentBradbury (1986)
MexicoPresentBradbury (1986)
NicaraguaPresentBradbury (1986)
Puerto RicoPresentBradbury (1986); CABI (Undated)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Vincent-Sealy & Braithwaite, 1982
United StatesPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBradbury (1986)
-QueenslandPresentBradbury (1986)
-South AustraliaPresentBradbury (1986)
-VictoriaPresentBradbury (1986)
-Western AustraliaPresentBradbury (1986)
New ZealandPresentHill and Burgmans (1979)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1986)
ColombiaPresentBradbury (1986)
VenezuelaPresentBradbury (1986)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / discoloration of bark

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Wood

References

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Amani B, 1970. Angular leaf spot of cucumber caused by Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Carsner. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):28-33.

Anon., 1975. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark in 1974. 91st annual report. Plantesygdomme i Danmark 1974. 91. Lyngby, Denmark: Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, 77 pp.

Atlas de Gotuzzo E, 1976. Angular spot of cucurbits in Argentina. Fitopatologia, 11(1):41-46

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Avagimov VA; Panteleev AA, 1984. Control of angular spot of cucumber. Zashchita Rasteni, No.7:15

Bedlan G, 1987. The most important diseases of pickling cucumbers. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):6-8

Bhat NA, 2009. Survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans - incitant of angular leaf spot of cucumber under temperate conditions of Kashmir valley. Indian Phytopathology, 62(4):429-434. http://www.ipsdis.org

Bhat NA; Masoodi SD; Mushtaq Ahmad; Zargar MY, 2007. Occurrence and severity of angular leaf spot of cucumber in Kashmir. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(2):410-413. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carsner F, 1918. Angular leaf spot of cucumber: dissemination, overwintering and control. Journal of Agricultural Research, 15:201-220.

Cholakov D; Kóna J, 2004. Influence of presowing laser and gamma irradiation on the cucumber resistance towards angular spots (Pseudomonas lachrymans). Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae [2nd International Horticulture Scientific Conference, Nitra, Slovakia, 16-18 September, 2004.], 7(Supplement):116-118.

Cortes-Monllor A; Rodriguez-Marcano A, 1991. Angular leaf spot of some cucurbits in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 75(2):195-198

Çynar +, 1974. Hyyar köeli leke hastalydy (Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Carsner `nyn tanymy, sava metodlary ve etmene kary dayanykly hyyar teitleri üzerinde aratyrmalar. Çukurova Univ Zir Fak. Yayynlary, Adana.

Dessert JM; Baker LR; Fobes JF, 1982. Inheritance of reaction to Pseudomonas lachrymans in pickling cucumber. Euphytica, 31(3):847-855

Dzhaimurzina AA, 1975. Nature of development of angular leaf spot on cucumber in the field. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, VI, 30 (No.2):116-118

Dzhaimurzina AA, 1979. Spread of infection in cucumber round spot. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki Kazakhstana, No.12:29-30

Dzhaimurzina AA, 1980. Susceptibility of cucurbit crops to Pseudomonas lachrymans. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki Kazakhstana, No.1:29-30

Elenkov E, 1975. Some changes in diseases of vegetable crops in the glasshouse. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(8):5-7

Garibaldi A; Porta-Puglia A, 1973. Outbreaks and new records, Algeria. Two bacterial diseases of vegetables. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 21(6):139-140

Glpser G, 1974. The occurrence of important causes of injury to cultivated plants in Austria in 1973. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 44(8/10):113-126

Haas JH; Rotem J, 1976. Pseudomonas lachrymans inoculum on infected cucumber leaves subjected to dew- and rain-type wetting. Phytopathology, 66(10):1219-1223

Hill JF; Burgmans JL, 1979. Angular leaf spot on cucurbits. New Zealand Commercial Grower, 34(10):37-39.

Hodosy AS, 1983. Lesions caused by bacterial infection on parthenocarpic cucumber fruits during ripening. Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 16:33-35

Jenns p; Caruso FL; Kuc J, 1979. Non-specific resistance to pathogens induced systemically by local infection of cucumber with tobacco necrosis virus, Colletotrichum lagenarium or Pseudomonas lachrymans. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 18:129-134

Kagiwata T, 1991. Cucumber angular leaf spot and physiological and ecological characteristics of pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku, 36(2):101-118

Karaca I; Demir G, 1988. Investigations on seed-borne bacterial pathogens in some plants. Doga, Türk Tarim ve Ormancilik Dergisi, 12(2):120-131; 48 ref.

Klossowska E, 1976. Studies on the inheritance and selection advance regarding resistance to angular leaf spot of cucumber (Pseudomonas lachrymans). Genetica Polonica, 17(2):181-190

Komoto Y; Kimura T, 1983. Seed disinfection against angular leaf spot of cucumber by organic acids and simultaneous seed disinfection against the disease and Fusarium wilt. Bulletin of the Chugoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, E, No.21:21-36; [6 fig., 12 tab.]; 15 ref.

Komoto Y; Kimura T, 1983. The process of seed transmission in angular leaf spot of cucumber. Bulletin of the Chugoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, E, No.21:1-20

Korol' AL; Bylinskii AF, 1994. Pentaphage against angular leaf spot. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 4:16-17

Kritzman G; Zutra D, 1983. Survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in soil, plant debris, and the rhizosphere of non-host plants. Phytoparasitica, 11(2):99-108

Kritzman G; Zutra D, 1983. Systemic movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in the stem, leaves, fruits, and seeds of cucumber. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(4):273-278

Krivchenko VI; Medvedeva NI, 1985. Intraspecific differentiation of the bacterial pathogen of cucumber Pseudomonas lachrymans. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 92:92-97

Kutova I; Filipova N, 1977. Effect of seed treatment with some trace elements and antibiotics on infection by Ps. lachrymans on cucumber. B"lg. Plod., Zelench. i Konservi, No.3:30-32

Leben C, 1972. The development of a selective medium for Pseudomonas glycinea. Phytopathology, 62(6):674-676

Leben C, 1981. Survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans with cucumber seed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3(4):247-249

Leben C, 1983. Chemicals plus heat as seed treatments for control of angular leaf spot of cucumber seedlings. Plant Disease, 67(9):991-993

Leben C, 1988. Relative humidity and the survival of epiphytic bacteria with buds and leaves of cucumber plants. Phytopathology, 78(2):179-185

Lelliott RA; Stead DE, 1987. Methods for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases of plants. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 216 pp.

Litvinov SS; Pogorelov AI, 1978. Crop rotation and bacteriosis of cucumber. Zashchita Rastenii, No.4:35

Mabbett TH; Phelps RH, 1984. Effect of leaf growth in cucumber on deposit dilution and the control of angular leaf spot. Tropical Pest Management, 30(4):444-449

Mamluk FO; Qasem S; Sakaria M, 1980. The distribution and prevalence of fungal and bacterial diseases on vegetables in Jordan. Dirasat, Agricultural Science, 7(2):59-92.

Manole N, 1988. Control of cucumber pathogens in Moldova. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 21(4):69-74

Marinescu G; Zurini I; Severin V, 1978. Leaf spot and soft rot of fruits, a new disease of cucumber in the glasshouse. Productia Vegetala, Horticultura, 27(2):39-41

Marinescu GH, 1982. Methods and chemicals used in destroying plant pathogenic bacteria vegetable sowing material. Bulletin de I'Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, 11:107-112.

Marras F; Corda P, 1973. Pseudomonas lachrymans the causal agent of angular leaf spot of the leaves and fruit rot of squash, Cucurbita pepo. Studi Sassaresi, III, 21(2):817-827

Medvedev AV; Medvedeva NI, 1989. Promising cucumber varieties for breeding for resistance to angular leaf spot. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 123:63-66

Moura AB; Romeiro Rda S, 1993. Development of a selective medium for Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 15(2):209-214; 28 ref.

Moura AB; Romeiro RS, 1993. Detection and quantification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in cucumber seeds lots. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 15(2):183-186; 13 ref.

Neklyudova ET; Korneev VD, 1980. Resistance of a cucumber collection to diseases. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 66(2):80-83

Ohuchi A; Hayashi N; Sakai Y; Ezuka A, 1980. Bacteriological properties and pathogenicity of Pseudomonas lachrymans, the causal agent of angular leaf spot of cucumber, from Japan. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, C, No.34:1-13

Papdiwal PB; Deshpande KB, 1978. New records of bacterial diseases from India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, B, 48(1):1-4

Pohronezny K; Larsen PO; Emmatty DA; Farley JD, 1977. Field studies of yield losses in pickling cucumber due to angular leafspot. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(5):386-390

Pohronezny K; Larsen PO; Leben C, 1978. Observations on cucumber fruit invasion by Pseudomonas lachrymans. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(4):306-309

Polizzi G; Castello I; Parlavecchio G; Cirvilleri G, 2005. First report of bacterial blight of Strelitzia augusta caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans. Plant Disease, 89(9):1010. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Saleh YE; Korobko AP, 1981. Some biological aspects of bacterial diseases of melons and watermelons in Ukrainian SSR. I. Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith and Bryan) Carsner. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 24(3):219-229

Scortichini M, 1992. Occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in imported commercial black zucchini squash seeds. Informatore Fitopatologico, 42(11):55-58

Severin V; Popescu A; Kupferberg S, 1971. Studies on the disinfection of cucumber seeds contaminated with Pseudomonas lachrymans. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 9:95-108

Skerman VBD; McGowan V; Sneath PHA, 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 30(1):255-420

Smith EF; Bryan MK, 1915. Angular leaf spot of cucumbers. Journal of Agricultural Research, 5:465-476.

Tanase I; Mihailescu S; Tilici V, 1986. Compatibility and effectiveness of some insecticide and fungicide mixtures used for the control of bacterial disease, greenhouse whitefly and common red spider-mite on glasshouse cucumbers. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 14(3):199-203

Tanyy A; Baba T, 1973. Bacterial plant diseases in Hokkaido. III. Angular leaf spot cucumber caused by Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Carsner. Bulletin of the Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, 28:70-79.

Umekawa M; Watanabe Y, 1978. Dry heat and hot water treatments of cucumber seeds for control of angular leaf spot. Bulletin of the Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Research Station, B (Morioka, Iwate), No. 2:55-61

Umekawa M; Watanabe Y, 1982. Relation of temperature and humidity to the occurrence of angular leaf spot of cucumber grown under plastic house. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 48(3):301-307

Umekawa M; Watanabe Y; Inomata Y, 1981. Facilitative effect of rainfall on the transmission of the pathogen and the development of angular leaf spot of cucumber. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 47(3):346-351

Vincent-Sealy L; Brathwaite CWD, 1982. Bacterial leaf spot of cucumber in Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture, 59(4):287-288

Volcani Z, 1964. Development of angular leaf spot of cucumbers grown under plastic in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:256-257.

Young JM; Bradbury JF; Davis RE; Dickey RS; Ercolani GL; Hayward AC; Vidaver AK, 1991. Nomenclatural revisions of plant pathogenic bacteria and list of names 1980-1988. Review of Plant Pathology, 70(4):211-221

Distribution References

Amani B, 1970. Angular leaf spot of cucumber caused by Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith & Bryan) Carsner. In: Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6 (1) 28-33.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Bedlan G, 1987. The most important diseases of pickling cucumbers. (Wichtigste Krankheiten der Einlegegurken.). Pflanzenschutz. 3 (3-4), 6-8.

Bhat N A, Masoodi S D, Mushtaq Ahmad, Zargar M Y, 2007. Occurrence and severity of angular leaf spot of cucumber in Kashmir. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 15 (2), 410-413. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Bradbury J F, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Elenkov E, 1975. Some changes in diseases of vegetable crops in the glasshouse. (Nyakoi izmeneniya pri bolestite po zelenchukovite kulturi v oranzheriite.). Rastitelna Zashchita. 23 (8), 5-7.

Garibaldi A, Porta-Puglia A, 1973. Outbreaks and new records, Algeria. Two bacterial diseases of vegetables. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 21 (6), 139-140.

Hill C F, Burgmans J L, 1979. Angular leafspot on cucurbits. New Zealand Commercial Grower. 34 (10), 37-39.

Hódosy A S, 1983. Lesions caused by bacterial infection on parthenocarpic cucumber fruits during ripening. (Partenokarp uborkafajták terméskéjának éréskori baktériumos fertőzés jellegű elváltozása.). Zöldségtermesztési Kutató Intézet Bulletinje. 33-35.

Kagiwata T, 1991. Cucumber angular leaf spot and physiological and ecological characteristics of pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku. 36 (2), 101-118.

Karaca I, Demir G, 1988. Investigations on seed-borne bacterial pathogens in some plants. (Bazı kültür bitkilerinde tohumla tașınan bakteriyel etmenler üzerinde araștırmalar.). Doğa, Türk Tarım ve Ormancılık Dergisi. 12 (2), 120-131.

Mamluk FO, Qasem S, Sakaria M, 1980. The distribution and prevalence of fungal and bacterial diseases on vegetables in Jordan. In: Dirasat, Agricultural Science, 7 (2) 59-92.

Manole N, 1988. Control of cucumber pathogens in Moldova. (Combaterea agenților patogeni din culturile de castraveți în Moldova.). Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. 21 (4), 69-74.

Marinescu G, Zurini I, Severin V, 1978. Leaf spot and soft rot of fruits, a new disease of cucumber in the glasshouse. (Patarea frunzelor si putregaiul moale al fructelor, a boala noua la castraveti in sere.). Productia Vegetala, Horticultura. 27 (2), 39-41.

Marras F, Corda P, 1973. Pseudomonas lachrymans the causal agent of angular leaf spot of the leaves and fruit rot of squash, Cucurbita pepo. (Pseudomonas lachrymans (Smith et Bryan) Carsner, agente della "maculatura angolare" delle foglie e del "marciume" dei frutti dello zucchino (Cucurbita pepo L.).). Studi Sassaresi, III. 21 (2), 817-827.

Papdiwal P B, Deshpande K B, 1978. New records of bacterial diseases from India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, B. 48 (1), 1-4.

Polizzi G, Castello I, Parlavecchio G, Cirvilleri G, 2005. First report of bacterial blight of Strelitzia augusta caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans. Plant Disease. 89 (9), 1010. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1010A

VOLCANI Z, 1964. Development of angular leaf spot of cucumbers grown under plastic in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter. 256-7.

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