Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae
(bacterial blight of coffee)



Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae (bacterial blight of coffee)


  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial blight of coffee
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae

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TitleSecondary branch of coffee killed by P. s. pv. garcae
CopyrightHolger Hindorf
Secondary branch of coffee killed by P. s. pv. garcaeHolger Hindorf


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae (Amaral et al. 1956) Young et al. 1978

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial blight of coffee

Other Scientific Names

  • Pseudomonas garcae Amaral, Teixeira & Pinheiro 1956

International Common Names

  • English: BBC; dieback: coffee; halo blight, twig blight and dieback

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: bacterial scorch of coffee; halo blight of coffee
  • Kenya: elgon die-back; solai die back

EPPO code

  • PSDMGC (Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


KenyaPresent, Few occurrencesBradbury (1986)

South America

BrazilPresentBradbury (1986)
-ParanaPresentRodrigues et al. (2017)
-Sao PauloPresentPatrício et al. (2008)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible


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Amaral FJ, Teixeira C, Pinheiro ED, 1956. A bacterium causing halo blight of coffee. Arquivos do Instituto Biol=gico, Sao Paulo, 21:151-156

Baker CJ, 1973. Solai die-back. Annual Report of the Coffee Research Foundation 1971-72, p 72

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Firman ID, 1963. Elgon die-back. Kenya Coffee, 28:9-14

Hindorf H, 1998. Current diseases of Coffea arabica and C. canephora in east Africa causing crop losses. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 63(3a):861-865; 20 ref

Kairu GM, 1986. Inoculation methods and infectivity tests with a fluorescent isolate of Pseudomonas syringae van Hall, the cause of bacterial blight of coffee. Kenya Coffee, 51(600):255-258

Kairu GM, 1991. Rainfall-timed copper sprays for control of bacterial blight and coffee berry diseases in Kenya. Kenya Coffee, 56(657):1131-1139

Kairu GM, 1997. Biochemical and pathogenic differences between Kenyan and Brazilian isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae. Plant Pathology, 46(2):239-246; 19 ref

Kairu GM, Nyangena CMS, Crosse JE, 1985. The effect of copper sprays on bacterial blight and coffee berry disease in Kenya. Plant Pathology, 34(2):207-213

Kairu GM, Nyangena CMS, Muthamia EJ, 1991. The performance of copper-based bactericides in the control of bacterial blight of coffee and coffee berry disease in Kenya. Tropical Pest Management, 37(1):1-5

Kimura O, Robbs CF, Ribeiro RLD, 1973. Studies on the causal agent of coffee halo blight (Pseudomonas garcp Amarel et al.). Arquivos da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, 3(2):15-18

Mohan SK, Cardoso RML, 1977. Chemical control of bacterial scorch of coffee caused by Pseudomonas garcae, Amaral et al.. Instituto Agronomica Parana, Brazil. 5th Brazilian Congress on Coffee Research, Guarapari E.S

Patrício FRA, Almeida IMG, Barros BC, Santos AS, Frare PM, 2008. Effectiveness of acibenzolar-S-methyl, fungicides and antibiotics for the control of brown eye spot, bacterial blight, brown leaf spot and coffee rust in coffee. Annals of Applied Biology, 152(1):29-39.

Ramos AH, 1979. Bacterial blight of coffee: the inoculum supply and avenues of infection. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(1):6-10

Ramos AH, Shavdia LD, 1976. A dieback of coffee in Kenya. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(10):831-835

Rodrigues, L. M. R., Sera, G. H., Guerreiro Filho, O., Beriam, L. O. S., Almeida, I. M. G. de, 2017. First report of mixed infection by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars garcae and tabaci on coffee plantations. Bragantia, 76(4), 543-549. doi: 10.1590/1678-4499.2016.399

Thorold CA, 1935. Progress report on Elgon die-back of coffee. East African Agricultural Journal, 1:225-228

Young JM, Dye DW, Bradbury JF, Panagopoulos CG, Robbs CF, 1978. A proposed nomenclature and classification for plant pathogenic bacteria. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 21(1):153-177

Distribution Maps

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