Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudomonas corrugata
(pith necrosis of tomato)

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Datasheet

Pseudomonas corrugata (pith necrosis of tomato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudomonas corrugata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pith necrosis of tomato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Pseudomonadales
  •         Family: Pseudomonadaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration and cavities in the pith; natural infection.
TitleSymptoms on tomato
CaptionTomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration and cavities in the pith; natural infection.
CopyrightEsther Moltmann
Tomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration and cavities in the pith; natural infection.
Symptoms on tomatoTomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration and cavities in the pith; natural infection.Esther Moltmann
Tomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration of the pith; natural infection.
TitleSymptoms on tomato
CaptionTomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration of the pith; natural infection.
CopyrightEsther Moltmann
Tomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration of the pith; natural infection.
Symptoms on tomatoTomato stem split longitudinally to show starting discolouration of the pith; natural infection.Esther Moltmann
Adventitious roots on the stem of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAdventitious roots on the stem of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant.
CopyrightVittoria Catara
Adventitious roots on the stem of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant.
SymptomsAdventitious roots on the stem of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant.Vittoria Catara
Section of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant showing adventitious roots externally.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSection of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant showing adventitious roots externally.
CopyrightVittoria Catara
Section of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant showing adventitious roots externally.
SymptomsSection of tomato pith necrosis-affected plant showing adventitious roots externally.Vittoria Catara
Wilted tomato plants affected by tomato pith necrosis.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWilted tomato plants affected by tomato pith necrosis.
CopyrightVittoria Catara
Wilted tomato plants affected by tomato pith necrosis.
SymptomsWilted tomato plants affected by tomato pith necrosis.Vittoria Catara

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts & Scarlett (1981), emend. Sutra et al. 1997

Preferred Common Name

  • pith necrosis of tomato

International Common Names

  • Spanish: medula negra del tomate; necrosis de la medula
  • French: flétrissement bactérien de la tomate
  • Portuguese: medula negra do tomateiro

Local Common Names

  • France: moelle noir; necrose de la moelle
  • Germany: Stengelmarkbraeune; Stengelmarknekrose
  • Italy: necrosi del midollo del pomodoro

EPPO code

  • PSDMCR (Pseudomonas corrugata)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Pseudomonadales
  •                 Family: Pseudomonadaceae
  •                     Genus: Pseudomonas
  •                         Species: Pseudomonas corrugata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentParvateesam and Verma, 1992
IsraelPresentZutra, 1989
JapanPresentSato & Hasama, 1994; Kaji et al., 1989; Kuwata and Oikawa, 1989
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresentMolan and Ibrahim, 2007
SyriaPresentBayaa and Warrak, 1990
TurkeyPresentDemir, 1990

Africa

EgyptPresentAbdalla, 2000
South AfricaPresentBradbury, 1986
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentLopez et al., 1994
TanzaniaPresentBlack et al., 1999

North America

CanadaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresentAnon, 1995
-QuebecPresent
MexicoPresentYáñez-Morales et al., 2003
USAPresent
-CaliforniaPresentLai et al., 1983; Bradbury, 1986
-FloridaPresentJones et al., 1983; Bradbury, 1986
-LouisianaPresentBond, 1986
-MassachusettsPresentWick and Rane, 1990
-North CarolinaPresentCarroll et al., 1992
-OhioPresentXu et al., 2013
-WashingtonPresentPowell et al., 2013

South America

ArgentinaPresentRista et al., 1995
BrazilPresent
-GoiasPresentQuezado-Duval et al., 2007
-Minas GeraisPresentMoura et al., 1996
-Rio Grande do SulPresentMartins and Couto, 2005
-Sao PauloPresentRodrigues-Neto et al., 1990

Europe

AlbaniaPresentBalestra et al., 1997
BelarusPresentPekhtereva and Matveeva, 1989
Czech RepublicPresentKudela et al., 2010
DenmarkPresentAnon, 1981a; Bradbury, 1986
Former USSRPresent
FrancePresentPaulin, 1979
GermanyPresentNaumann, 1980; Kohn, 1982; Bradbury, 1986; Zohren and Moltmann, 1998
GreecePresentBuonaurio et al., 1993; Trantas et al., 2015
HungaryPresentVárady et al., 2002
ItalyPresentFiori et al., 1983a; Scortchini, 1986; Scortchini, 1991; Scortchini, 1997; Bradbury, 1986; Tamietti and Cugudda, 1987; Fiori, 1992; Catara and Albanese, 1993; Sesto et al., 1996
-SardiniaPresent
LatviaPresentPopkova and Nosova, 1989
LithuaniaPresentVasinauskiene, 2002
MacedoniaPresentMijatovic et al., 1988
NorwayPresentSyversen and Fuglestad, 1988
PolandPresentGolenia and Pajewska, 1992
PortugalPresentSanta, 1985
Russian FederationPresentPopkova and Nosova, 1989
SpainPresentLopez et al., 1994
SwedenPresentOlssen, 1986
SwitzerlandPresentLauber et al., 1992
UKPresentScarlett et al., 1978; Bradbury, 1986
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresentBradbury, 1986; Clark and Watson, 1986

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / ooze
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsTransfer of seeds. Yes
MailTransfer of seeds. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Wood

References

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1981. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark 1980, 97th annual report Research Centre for Plant Protection. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark 1980, 97th annual report Research Centre for Plant Protection. Statens Planteavlsforsog Lyngby Denmark, 62 pp.

Abdalla ME, 2000. Detection and identification of seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of imported tomato seeds in Egypt. Bulletin OEPP, 30(2):327-331; 23 ref.

Achouak W; Thiery M; Roubaud P; Heulin T, 2000. Impact of crop management on intraspecific diversity of Pseudomonas corrugata in bulk soil. FEMS Microbiolology Ecology, 31:11-19.

Alippi AM; Dal Bo E; Ronco LB; L=pez MV; L=pez AC; Aguilar OM, 2003. Pseudomonas populations causing pith necrosis of tomato and pepper in Argentina are highly diverse. Plant Pathology, 52(3):287-302; many ref.

Alippi AM; Ronco L; Alippi HE, 1993. Tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas corrugata in Argentina. Plant Disease, 77(4):428

Alivizatos AS, 1985. Bacterial wilt of tomato in Greece caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Pathology, 34(4):638-639

Anita Pandey; Palni LMS; Hebbar KP, 2001. Suppression of damping-off in maize seedlings by Pseudomonas corrugata. Microbiological Research, 156(2):191-194; 15 ref.

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Anon., 1981. Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 31:215-218.

Aysan Y; Yildiz N, 2000. Effect of plant extracts on tomato stem necrosis. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 23(1):59-62; 19 ref.

Balestra GM; Hasani M; Varvaro L, 1997. Presence of Pseudomonas corrugata on tomato in the greenhouse in Albania. Informatore Fitopatologico, 47(11):57-60; 18 ref.

Barnett S; Alami Y; Singleton I; Ryder M, 1999. Diversification of Pseudomonas corrugata strain 2140 produces new phenotypes which cross taxonomic boundaries according to GC-Fame, BIOLOG and in vitro inhibition assays. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 45:287-298.

Barnett SJ; Singleton I; Ryder M, 1999. Spatial variation in populations of Pseudomonas corrugata 2140 and pseudomonads on take-all [Gaeumannomyces graminis] diseased and healthy root systems of wheat. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 31(4):633-636; 24 ref.

Basim H; Basim E; Yilmaz S; Ilkucan M, 2005. First report of Pith Necrosis of tomato caused by Pseudomonas mediterranea in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 54(2):240.

Bayaa B; Warrak W, 1990. First record of tomato wilt and pith necrosis in Syria. 1- Disease symptoms, characterization of the causal organism and some conditions predisposing plant to infection. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 8(2):88-95

Bedini S; Bagnoli G; Sbrana C; Leporini C; Tola E; Dunne C; Filippi C; D'Andrea F; O'Gara F; Nuti MP, 1999. Pseudomonads isolated from within fruit bodies of Tuber borchii are capable of producing biological control or phytostimulatory compounds in pure culture. Symbiosis (Rehovot), 26(3):223-236; 3 pp. of ref.

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Bella P; Greco S; Polizzi G; Cirvilleri G; Catara V, 2003. Soil fitness and Thermal sensitivity of Pseudomonas corrugata strains. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 614:831-836.

Black R; Seal S; Abubakar Z; Nono-Womdim R; Swai I, 1999. Wilt pathogens of Solanaceae in Tanzania: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, and Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Disease, 83(11):1070; 4 ref.

Bond WP, 1986. Tomato pith necrosis (Pseudomonas corrugata) in field-grown tomatoes in Lousiana. Plant Disease, 70:1074.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Buonaurio R; Karofilakis A; Scortichini M, 1993. Occurrence of Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts et Scarlett on tomato plants in Crete. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 32(3):245-246

Canadian Phytopathological Society, 1995. Canadian Phytopathological Society/Canadian plant disease survey disease highlights. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 75(1):57-184

Carroll NB; Echandi E; Shoemaker PB, 1992. Pith necrosis of tomato in western North Carolina: etiology and influence of cultural practices on its incidence and severity. Technical Bulletin - North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, No. 300:24 pp.

Catara V; Albanese G, 1993. Tomato pith necrosis in Sicily. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(9):42-44

Catara V; Albanese G, 1994. Caratteristiche patogenetiche di isolati di Pseudomonas corrugata. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, 3:263-268.

Catara V; Arnold D; Cirvilleri G; Vivian A, 2000. Specific oligonucleotide primers for the rapid identification and detection of the agent of tomato pith necrosis, Pseudomonas corrugata, by PCR amplification: evidence for two distinct genomic groups. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106(8):753-762; 28 ref.

Catara V; Bella P, 1996. Pseudomonas corrugata, causal agent of tomato pith necrosis. Tecnica Agricola, 4:65-79.

Catara V; Gardan L; Lopez MM, 1997. Phenotypic heterogeneity of Pseudomonas corrugata strains from southern Italy. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 83:576-586.

Catara V; Sutra L; Morineau A; Achouak W; Christen R; Gardan L, 2002. Phenotypic and genomic evidence for the revision of Pseudomonas corrugata and proposal of Pseudomonas mediterranea sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 52(5):1749-1758; 49 ref.

Cazorla FM; PTrez-Garcfa A; Rivera ME; Codina JC; TorTs JA; Vicente Ade, 2000. Bacterial diseases of tomato in southern Spain: application of a detached tissue assay to evaluate bacterial pathogenicity. Bulletin OEPP, 30(2):351-356; 17 ref.

Choi HY; Ryder MH; Gillings MR; Stokes HW; Ophel-Keller KM; Veal DA, 2003. Survival of a lacZY-marked strain of Pseudomonas corrugata following a field release. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 43(3):367-374; 34 ref.

Chun W; Leary JV, 1989. Novel toxin produced by Pseudomonas corrugata, the causal agent of tomato pith necrosis. In: Graniti A, Durbin RD, Ballio A, eds. Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 93-116.

Chun WWC; Shetty KK, 1994. Control of silver scurf disease of potatoes caused by Helminthosporium solani Dur. & Mont. with Pseudomonas corrugata. Phytopathology, 84:1090.

Cirvilleri G; Bella P; Catara V, 2000. Luciferase genes as a marker for Pseudomonas corrugata. Journal of Plant Pathology, 82(3):237-241; 25 ref.

Cirvilleri G; Bella P; Catara V, 2001. Biocontrol activity in plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species. In: Proceedings of the 5th Congress of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology, 2000 Taormina - Giardini Naxos, Italy, 534-538.

Cirvilleri G; Bella P; Pacetto A; Catara V; La Rosa R, 2002. Epidemiological studies on Pseudomonas corrugata and its possibile transmission to tomato fruits and seeds. Journal of Plant Pathology, 84:179.

Clark RG; Watson DRW, 1986. New plant disease record in New Zealand: tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas corrugata. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(1):105-109

Coco V; Catara V; Spedini R; Cirvilleri G, 2001. SEM observations of tomato stems infected with Pseudomonas corrugata. In: Proceedings 5th Congress of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Taormina - Giardini Naxos, Italy, 378-380.

Coco V; Grimaldi V; Catara V; Licciardello G; Cirvilleri G; Grasso S; Catara A, 2005. Inhibition of Phoma tracheiphila by Pseudomonades in Citrus Seedlings. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Society of Citriculture Congress, Agadir, Morocco, 2004, in press.

Cottyn B; Outrive MF van; Cerez MT; Cleene M De; Swings J; Mew TW, 1996. Bacterial diseases of rice. II. Characterization of pathogenic bacteria associated with sheath rot complex and grain discoloration of rice in the Philippines. Plant Disease, 80(4):438-445.

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Demir G, 1990. The occurrence of Pseudomonas corrugata on tomatoes in Turkey. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 19(2):63-70

Dhanvantari BN; Dirks VA, 1987. Bacterial stem rot of greenhouse tomato: etiology, spatial distribution, and the effect of high humidity. Phytopathology, 77(10):1457-1463

Emanuele MC; Scaloni A; Lavermicocca P; Jacobellis NS; Camoni L; Di Giorgio D; Pucci P; Paci M; Segre A; Ballio A, 1998. Corpeptins, new bioactive lipodepsipeptides from cultures of Pseudomonas corrugata. FEBS Letters, 433(3):317-20.

Fernando WGD; Ramarathnam R; Krishnamoorthy AS; Savchuk SC, 2005. Identification and use of potential bacterial organic antifungal volatiles in biocontrol. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37(5):955-964.

Fiori M, 1992. A new bacterial disease of chrysanthemum: a stem rot by Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts et Scarlett. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 31(2):110-114

Fiori M, 2002. Severe damage caused by Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts et Scarlett on tomato soilless grown. Informatore Fitopatologico, 52(1):47-51.

Fiori M; Carta C; Franceschini A, 1983. Immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) for early and rapid diagnosis of tomato pith necrosis due to Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts & Scarlett. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 22(1/2):22-26

Fiori M; Corda P; Carta C, 1983. Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts & Scarlett, causal agent of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pith necrosis. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 19(1):21-27

Garbeva P; Overbeek LSvan; Vuurde JWLvan; Elsas JDvan, 2001. Analysis of endophytic bacterial communities of potato by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA based PCR fragments. Microbial Ecology, 41(4):369-383; 28 ref.

Georgakopoulos DG; Fiddaman P; Leifert C; Malathrakis NE, 2002. Biological control of cucumber and sugarbeet damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum with bacterial and fungal antagonists. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 92(6):1078-1086; 27 ref.

Golenia A; Pajewska M, 1992. Bacterial diseases of tomato grown under cover. Ochrona Roslin, 36(5):13-14

Gravel V; Martinez C; Antoun H; Tweddell RJ, 2005. Antagonist microorganisms with the ability to control Pythium damping-off of tomato seeds in rockwool. BioControl, 50(5):771-786.

Greco S; Ferreri A; Bella P; Catara V; Guglielmino S, 2003. Diversification of morphotypes of Pseudomonas corrugata in heterogeneous environment. Journal of Plant Pathology, 85:308.

Jones JB; Jones JP; Stall RE; Miller JW, 1983. Occurrence of stem necrosis on field-grown tomatoes incited by Pseudomonas corrugata in Florida. Plant Disease, 67(4):425-426

Kaji K; Tairako K; Takechi S; Takikawa Y, 1989. Occurrence of pith necrosis of tomato caused by Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts and Scarlett 1981 in Fukushima Prefecture. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 40:52-55

Kessler B; Palleroni NJ, 2000. Taxonomic implications of synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and other poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by aerobic pseudomonads. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 50:711-713.

Kohn S, 1982. First occurrence of Pseudomonas corrugata as causal agent of tomato pith necrosis in the German Federal Republic. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 34(6):81-82

Kovacevich PA; Ryder H, 1991. Biocontrol performance characterization of Pseudomonas corrugata isolated PS 2140 and PS 2161. Phytopathology, 81:1178.

Krieg NR; Holt JG, ed. , 1984. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. I. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins, 964 pp.

Kritzman G, 1989. Tomato seed assay for seedborne pathogenic bacteria. Hassadeh, 69(4):614-617; 3 ref.

Kritzman G, 1991. A method for detection of seedborne bacterial diseases in tomato seeds. Phytoparasitica, 19(2):133-141

Kritzman G, 1993. A chemi-thermal treatment for control of seedborne bacterial pathogens of tomato. Phytoparasitica, 21(2):101-109

Kritzman G; Ovadia S, 1989. Control of seed-borne bacterial diseases of tomato by chemo-thermal treatment. Hassadeh, 69(8):1426-1429; 3 ref.

Kudela V; Krejzar V; Pánková I, 2010. Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas marginalis associated with the collapse of tomato plants in rockwool slab hydroponic culture. Plant Protection Science, 46(1):1-11. http://www.cazv.cz

Kuwata H; Oikawa K, 1989. Tomato pith necrosis occurred in Aomori Prefecture (1) Isolation of Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts and Scarlett 1981 and P. viridiflava (Burkholder 1930) Dowson 1939 from diseased plants. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 40:56-58

Lai M; Opgenorth DC; White JB, 1983. Occurrence of Pseudomonas corrugata on tomato in California. Plant Disease, 67(1):110-112

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Lo Cantore P; Iacobellis NS, 2002. Necrosi corticale e del midollo del pomodoro causata da Pseudomonas fluorescens in Puglia. Informatore Fitopatologico, 52(4):54-57.

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Lopez MM; Siverio F; Albiach MR; Garcia F; Rodriguez R, 1994. Characterization of Spanish isolates of Pseudomonas corrugata from tomato and pepper. Plant Pathology, 43(1):80-90

Lukezic FL, 1979. Pseudomonas corrugata, a pathogen of tomato, isolated from symptomless alfalfa roots. Phytopathology, 69(1):27-31

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Naumann K, 1980. Tomato bacterial stem pith necrosis - a new disease of greenhouse crops. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 34(11):226-231

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Paulin JP, 1979. Nécrose de la moelle ou moelle noire. In: Les maladies des plantes. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole, 505.

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Pekhtereva eSh; Matveeva EV, 1989. Bacterioses of tomatoes in greenhouses. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:42-43.

Picard C; Bosco M, 2003. Soil antimony pollution and plant growth stage affect the biodiversity of auxin-producing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Achillea ageratum L. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 46(1):73-80.

Popkova KV; Nosova ON, 1989. Necrosis of tomato stem core. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 7:22

Powell M; Gundersen B; Miles CA; Humann JL; Schroeder BK; Inglis DA, 2013. First report of tomato pith necrosis (Pseudomonas corrugata) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Washington. Plant Disease, 97(10):1381. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Quezado-Duval AM; Guimarães CMN; Martins OM, 2007. Occurrence of Pseudomonas corrugata causing pith necrosis on tomato plants in Goiás, Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32(6):520. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v32n6/a14v32n6.pdf

Rista LM; Sillon M; Herzog LJ, 1995. Pith necrosis of the stem in Capsicum pepper. Determination of its causal agent in Argentina. Horticultura Argentina, 14(36):29-32; 24 ref.

Roberts WP; Brewster CM, 1991. Identification of wheat rhizosphere bacteria inhibitory to root growth. Australasian Plant Pathology, 20(2):47-51

Rodrigues Neto J; Malavolta VA Jr; Ramos RS; Sinigaglia C, 1990. Occurrence of Pseudomonas corrugata on tomato in the State of Sao Paulo. Summa Phytopathologica, 16(3-4):279-284

Rodriguez FR, 1985. Identificacion de Pseudomonas corrugata en tomate cultivado en Canarias. Horticultura, 23: 45-54.

Rodríguez-Alvarado G; Holguín-Peña J; Ochoa-Álvarez N; Fernández-Pavía SP; Geraldo-Verdugo JA, 2002. Pseudomonas corrugata causing pith necrosis on tomato plants in Baja California Sur, México. Plant Disease, 86:563.

Rudakov OL; Rudakov VO, 2000. Protection of vegetable crops in greenhouses from root rots and wilts. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii^breve~, No.10:27-29.

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