Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis
(trilobite scale)

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Datasheet

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (trilobite scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • trilobite scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green)

Preferred Common Name

  • trilobite scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus trilobitiformis

International Common Names

  • English: armored scale
  • Spanish: escama de la hoja del níspero

EPPO code

  • PSDATR (Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Pseudaonidia
  •                                         Species: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

RéunionPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent

Asia

LaosPresent

Europe

CroatiaPresent2008

North America

BarbadosPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint MartinPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Sint MaartenPresent
United StatesPresentIntroduced1979
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced2004

Oceania

Christmas IslandPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent, Few occurrences
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresentBelém and Tomé-Açu, metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions
-PernambucoPresent
-Sao PauloPresent2015
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Habrolepis neocaledonensis Parasite
Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

References

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Almeida, L. F. V., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Martinelli, N. M., Wolff, V. R. S., 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(3), 353-363. doi: 10.1653/024.101.0324

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

Culik MP; Ventura JA; Martins Ddos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Sixth International Pineapple Symposium, Joao Pessoa, Brazil, 18-23 November 2007.], No.822:215-218. http://www.actahort.org

Culik, M. P., Martins, D. S., Ventura, J. A., Wolff, V. S., 2008. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson), 8, 17. doi: 10.1673/031.008.1701

Fornazier, M. J., Martins, D. S., Willink, M. C. G. de, Pirovani, V. D., Ferreira, P. S. F., Zanuncio, J. C., 2017. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with arabica coffee and geographical distribution in the neotropical region. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 89(4), 3083-3092. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201720160689

Kondo, T., Muñoz, J. A., 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi, (No.0465), 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.

Medina Gaud, S., Garcia Tuduri, J., 1977. New arthropod records for Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 61(3), 409-412.

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Korić, B., 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009], [ed. by Maček, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Suh SooJung, Bombay, K., 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi, (No.0448), 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Walton, V. M., Krüger, K., Saccaggi, D. L., Millar, I. M., 2009. A survey of scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in South Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Madison), 9, 47. doi: 10.1673/031.009.4701

Williams, D. J., Butcher, C. F., 1987. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Vanuatu. New Zealand Entomologist, 9, 88-99.

Wolff VRS; Kondo T; Peronti ALBG; Noronha ACS, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 45(3):274-279. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13744-016-0365-2

Distribution References

Almeida L F V, Peronti A L B G, Martinelli N M, Wolff V R S, 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 101 (3), 353-363. DOI:10.1653/024.101.0324

Barbosa F R, Gonçalves M E de C, Moreira W A, Alencar J A de, Souza E A de, Silva C S B da, Souza A de M, Miranda I da G, 2005. Arthropods-pest and predators associated with mango trees at the vale do São Francisco, Northeastern Brazil. (Artrópodes-praga e predadores (Arthropoda) associados à cultura da mangueira no vale do São Francisco, Nordeste do Brasil.). Neotropical Entomology. 34 (3), 471-474. DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2005000300016

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. In: Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey. 142pp.

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Culik M P, Martins D S, Ventura J A, Wolff V S, 2008. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson). 17. DOI:10.1673/031.008.1701

Culik M P, Ventura J A, Martins D dos S, 2009. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of pineapple in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Acta Horticulturae. 215-218. http://www.actahort.org

Fabres G, 1974. A new species of the genus Habrolepis (Hym. Chalcidoidea Encyrtidae) a parasite of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Homoptera Diaspididae) in New Caledonia. Entomophaga. 19 (1), 55-60. http://scalenet.info/references/Fabres1974a/

Fornazier M J, Martins D S, Willink M C G de, Pirovani V D, Ferreira P S F, Zanuncio J C, 2017. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with arabica coffee and geographical distribution in the neotropical region. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. 89 (4), 3083-3092. DOI:10.1590/0001-3765201720160689

Garcia G G, Cancino E R, Myartseva S N, Trjapitzin V A, Blanco J M C, Olivo A M, 2006. Parasitoid hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea) of Coccoidea (Homoptera) in Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico. (Himenópteros parasitoides (Chalcidoidea) de Coccoidea (Homoptera) en Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, México). Acta Zoológica Mexicana. 22 (1), 9-16. DOI:10.21829/AZM.2006.2211958

Kondo T, Muñoz J A, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Malumphy C, 2014. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles. Zootaxa. 3846 (1), 69-86. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2014/f/zt03846p086.pdf DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3846.1.3

Matile-Ferrero D, Étienne J, 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 28 (4), 161-190.

Medina Gaud S, Garcia Tuduri J, 1977. New arthropod records for Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 61 (3), 409-412.

Milek T M, Šimala M, Korić B, 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Neumann G, O'Dowd D J, Gullan P J, Green P T, 2016. Diversity, endemism and origins of scale insects on a tropical oceanic island: implications for management of an invasive ant. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 19 (1), 159-166. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2015.12.015

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Silva Q M A e, Cavalcante R D, Cavalcante M L S, Castro Z B de, 1977. The cashew scale - Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis Green (Hom. Diaspididae) in the State of Ceara, Brazil. (A cochonilha do cajueiro - Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis Green (Hom. Diaspididae) no Estado do Ceara, Brasil.). Fitossanidade. 2 (1), 19.

Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Vasquez J, Delgado C, Couturier G, Ferrero D M, 2002. Harmful insects for the guava tree (Psidium guajava L.: Myrtaceae) in Peruvian Amazonia. (Les insectes nuisibles au goyavier (Psidium guajava L.: Myrtaceae) en Amazonie péruvienne.). Fruits (Paris). 57 (5/6), 323-334. DOI:10.1051/fruits:2002029

Walton V M, Krüger K, Saccaggi D L, Millar I M, 2009. A survey of scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in South Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Madison). 47. http://www.insectscience.org/9.47/ DOI:10.1673/031.009.4701

Williams D J, Butcher C F, 1987. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Vanuatu. New Zealand Entomologist. 88-99.

Wolff V R S, Kondo T, Peronti A L B G, Noronha A C S, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 45 (3), 274-279. DOI:10.1007/s13744-016-0365-2

Distribution Maps

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