Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria citri
(stalk end rot)

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Datasheet

Alternaria citri (stalk end rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria citri
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stalk end rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSymptoms on orange
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Symptoms on orange©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria citri Ellis & N. Pierce

Preferred Common Name

  • stalk end rot

International Common Names

  • English: black rot of citrus fruit; black rot of Citrus spp.; brown spot of citrus; core rot of citrus; core rot of Citrus spp.; fruit rot of Citrus spp.; navel end rot; stem end rot
  • Spanish: Alternaria de los cítricos; pudricion negra del fruto de los citricos
  • French: Alternaria des agrumes; black-rot des oranges; moisissure des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Alternaria-Faeule: Zitrusfruechte; Schwarzfaeule: Zitrusfruechte

EPPO code

  • ALTECI (Alternaria citri)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria citri

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentEllis (1971)
KenyaPresentEllis (1971)
LibyaPresentEllis (1971)
MalawiPresentEllis (1971)
MoroccoPresentEllis (1971); CABI (Undated)
MozambiquePresentEllis (1971)
NamibiaPresentChimwamurombe et al. (2007)
NigeriaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentEllis (1971); Schutte et al. (1994)
SudanPresentEllis (1971)
TanzaniaPresentEllis (1971)
UgandaPresentEllis (1971)
ZambiaPresentEllis (1971)
ZimbabwePresentHerb IMI (Undated)

Asia

BangladeshPresentFatema Yeasmin and Shamim Shamsi (2013)
BhutanPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEllis (1971); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadEllis (1971); SUBRAMANIAN (1972)
-BiharPresentPandey and Roy (2008)
-JharkhandPresentPandey and Roy (2008)
-Madhya PradeshPresent, WidespreadAgarwal and Hasija (1961); AGARWAL and HASIJA (1967)
-MaharashtraPresent, WidespreadUppal and Kamat (1949); Rao (1954)
-PunjabPresentParminder Kaur and Verma (2002)
-RajasthanPresent, WidespreadJoshi and Vashist (1959)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadSingh et al. (1975); Srivastava and Kamlesh Wadhwani (1992)
-West BengalPresent, WidespreadRoy (1948)
IranPresentEllis (1971)
IraqPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
IsraelPresentEllis (1971); Sole et al. (1997)
JapanPresent, WidespreadEllis (1971)
MyanmarPresentEllis (1971); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentEllis (1971)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadEllis (1971); CABI (Undated)
PalestinePresentHerb IMI (Undated)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadHong et al. (1991); Nam et al. (1993); Young and Kim (1996)
TurkeyPresentÖzçelik and Özçelik (1997)
VietnamPresentWhittle (1992)

Europe

BulgariaPresentEllis (1971)
CyprusPresentEllis (1971)
FrancePresentEllis (1971)
GreecePresentEllis (1971)
ItalyPresentEllis (1971)
MaltaPresentEllis (1971); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentEllis (1971)
RussiaPresentEllis (1971)
SpainPresentEllis (1971)

North America

CubaPresentEllis (1971); CABI (Undated)
JamaicaPresentEllis (1971)
MexicoPresentPalm and Civerolo (1994)
Puerto RicoPresentEllis (1971)
United StatesPresentEllis (1971); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadScheffer (1983)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentHerb IMI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEllis (1971)
BrazilPresentPrade et al. (2007)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentPrade et al. (2007)
ParaguayPresentEllis (1971)
UruguayPresentEllis (1971)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen

References

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Agarwal GP, Hasija SK, 1961. Fungi causing plant diseases at Jabalpur (M.P.) - V. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, 3(B):99-108.

Agarwal GP, Hasija SK, 1967. Alternaria rot of citrus fruits. Indian Phytopathology, 20:259-260.

Ahmad MS, Malik MA, 1997. Formulation of a synthetic medium for the production of antifungal antibiotic from Bacillus subtilis AECL 69. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 29(1):15-21; 27 ref.

Arras G, 1993. Inhibition of postharvest fungal pathogens by Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from citrus fruit. Advances in Horticultural Science, 7(3):123-127; 20 ref.

ArtTs F, Escriche AJ, Marfn JG, 1993. Treating 'Primofiori' lemons in cold storage with intermittent warming and carbon dioxide. HortScience, 28(8):819-821; 19 ref.

Bilgrami KS, Ansari AA, Sinha AK, Shrivastava AK, Sinha KK, 1994. Mycotoxin production by some Indian Alternaria species. Mycotoxin Research, 10(1):56-59

Blaney BJ, 1991. Fusarium and Alternaria toxins. Fungi and mycotoxins in stored products. Proceedings of an international conference held at Bangkok, Thailand, 23-26 April 1991., 86-98; [ACIAR Proceedings No. 36]; 61 ref.

Bottalico A, Logreico A, 1998. Toxigenic Alternaria species of economic importance. In: Sinha KK, Bhatnagar D, eds. Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker Inc., 65-108.

Chand JN, Rattan BK, Suryanarayana D, 1967. Epidemiology and control of fruit rot of citrus caused by Alternaria citri Ellis and Pierce. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Journal of Research, 4:217-222.

Chimwamurombe PM, Uzabakiriho JD, Mapaure I, 2007. A survey of plant parasitic fungi occurring on selected native Namibian trees species of economic importance. Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, 4(1):23-28. http://www.biotech-asia.org

Dal-Bello GM, Monaco CI, Chaves AR, 1997. Study of the effect of volatile metabolites of Trichoderma hamatum on the growth of phytopathogenic soil borne fungi. Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia, 14:131-134.

El-Khamass M, Oulahcen B, Lekchiri A, Sebbata A, Charhabaili Y, Ait-Oubahou A, El-Otmani M, 1995. Strategies for the control of post harvest diseases of citrus fruits. Post harvest physiology, pathology and technologies for horticultural commodities: recent advances. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at Agadir, Morocco, January 16-21, 1994. Agadir, Morocco: Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, 388-398.

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ellis MB, Holliday. P, 1970. Alternaria citri, CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic fungi and Bacteria No.242. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farooqi WA, Ait Oubahou A (ed. ), El Otmani M, 1995. Postharvest physiology and pathology of "Kinnow" mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Postharvest physiology, pathology and technologies for horticultural commodities: recent advances. Proceedings of an international symposium held at Agadir, Morocco. Agadir, Morocco: Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, 124-128.

Fatema Yeasmin, Shamim Shamsi, 2013. Phylloplane mycoflora of Gerbera spp. and their pathogenic potentiality. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, 37(2):211-217. http://banglajol.info/bd/index.php/JBAS/article/view/17562/12320

Harty A, Sutton P, Machin T, Jagiello C, Martin P, 1992. Breeding new easy peel citrus. Orchardist of New Zealand, 65:40-42.

Hattingh V, Tate B, Richards G, 1995. The effect of mealybug infestation on the incidence of post-harvest Alternaria decay in navel oranges. Citrus Journal, 5:18-19.

Hong SY, Kim WG, Lee YH, 1991. Fungi associated with storage disease of citrus fruits. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 33(3):12-17

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Javed MA, Nassir MA, Bajwa MN, 1995. In vitro effect of certain chemicals on colony growth of different post-harvest, fruit rotting fungi of citrus. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 7:215-216.

Joshi NC, Vashist KPT, 1959. Fungi of Ajmer, Rajasthan. IV. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, 29(B):147-150.

Kohmoto K, Scheffer RP, Whiteside JO, 1979. Host-selective toxins from Alternaria citri. Phytopathology, 69(6):667-671

Koizumi M, 1992. Iminoctadine for control of citrus storage diseases. Japan Pesticide Information, 60:12-14

Kumar S, Grover RK, 1964. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of black rot of sweet orange. Indian Phytopathology, 17:328-331.

Lin YY, Wang KM, Tsay TT, 1992. The occurrence of Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie on Dendrobium Lady Fay. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 34(3):202-215; 29 ref.

Mercado Sierra A, Mena Portales J, 1993. The genus Alternaria (Hyphomycetes, Deuteromycotina) in Cuba. Acta Botanica Hungarica, 37(1-4):33-62

Nam KW, Kweon HM, Song NH, 1993. Storage of satsuma mandarin. I. Storability of satsuma mandarin influenced by thiophanate-methyl treatment and mechanical injuries. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 34(4):279-284

Naqvi SAMH, Dass HC, 1994. Assessment of post-harvest losses in Nagpur mandarin - a pathological perspective. Plant Disease Research, 9(2):215-218; 5 ref.

Olson MH, Blank RH, Read AJ, 1992. Control of Alternaria and melanose on citrus using chlorothalonil and cupric hydroxide. Proceedings of the forty fifth New Zealand plant protection conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 11-13 August 1992 [edited by Popay, A.J.] Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 95-98

Otani H, Kohmoto K, 1992. Host-specific toxins of Alternaria species. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A, eds. Alternaria - Biology, Plant Diseases and Metabolites (Topics in Secondary Metabolism, vol. 3). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 123-156.

Ozcelik N, Ozcelik S, 1997. Investigations on some factors and strains affecting the production of Alternaria-toxins by a thin layer chromatographic method. Turkish Journal of Agriculture & Forestry, 21(1):1-5; 31 ref.

Palm ME, Civerolo EL, 1994. Isolation, pathogenicity, and partial host range of Alternaria limicola, causal agent of mancha foliar de los citricos in Mexico. Plant Disease, 78(9):879-883

Pandey SK, Roy AK, 2008. Some new host records of Hyphomycetes. Indian Phytopathology, 61(3):369. http://www.ipsdis.org

Parminder Kaur, Verma KS, 2002. Prevalence of post-harvest rots of Kinnow in Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 17(2):329-331.

Pathak VN, 1980. Diseases of fruit crops. Diseases of fruit crops., 309 pp.; [42 pl., 1 tab.].

Pegg KG, 1966. Brown spot of Emperor mandarin. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 23:15-28.

Prade CA, Matsumura AT, Ott AP, Porto ML, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Biociências, 15(1):73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Pratella GC, Mari M, 1993. Effectiveness of Trichoderma, Gliocladium and Paecilomyces in postharvest fruit protection. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 3(1):49-56; 22 ref.

Rao VG, 1954. The genus Alternaria Nees in Bombay, Maharashtra-I. Sydowia, 18:46-64.

Roy TC, 1948. Fungi of Bengal. Bulletin of Botanical Society, 2:134-177.

Scheffer RP, 1983. Toxins as chemical determinants of plant diseases. In: Daly JM, Deverall BJ, eds. Toxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Sydney, Australia: Academic Press.

Scheffer RP, 1992. Ecological and evolutionary roles of toxins from Alternaria species pathogenic to plants. In: Chelkowski J, Visconti A, eds. Alternaria - Biology, Plant Diseases and Metabolites (Topics in Secondary Metabolism, vol. 3). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 101-122.

Schutte GC, Beeton KV, Pelser P du T, Lesar K, 1994. Post-harvest control of Alternaria navel-end rot with pre-harvest chemical sprays. Citrus Journal, 4(1):26-28

Sharma N, 1993. Post-harvest biological control of citrus fruit rot. Journal of Biological Control, 7(2):84-86.

Singh CS, Kanaujia RS, Choudhary RL, 1975. Parasitic fungi of Faizabad - Alternaria. Botanique, 6:191-194.

Singh RS, 1982. Plant pathogens. The fungi. New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., 443 pp.

Sivanesan A, 1991. The taxonomy and biology of dematiaceous hyphomycetes and their mycotoxins. Fungi and mycotoxins in stored products. In: Champ BR, Highley E, Hocking AD, Pitt JI, eds. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Bangkok, Thailand, 23-26 April, 1991. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 47-64

Sole Z, Oren Y, Kimchi M, 1997. Control of Alternaria brown spot of Minneola tangelo with fungicides. Crop Protection, 16(7):659-664; 13 ref.

Srivastava AK, Kamlesh Wadhwani, 1992. Dispersion and allergenic manifestations of Alternaria airspora. Grana, 31(1):61-66; 38 ref.

Stevens C, Wilson CL, Lou JY, Khan V, Chalutz E, Droby S, Kabwe MK, Haung Z, Adeyeye O, Pusey LP, Wisniewski ME, West M, 1996. Plant hormesis induced by ultraviolet light-C for controlling post-harvest diseases of tree fruits. Crop Protection, 15(2):129-134.

Subramanian CV, 1972. Hyphomycetes. New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Uppal BN, Kamat MN, 1949. Fungi of Bombay. Supplement I. Indian Phytopathology, 2:142-155.

Wang KM, Tsay TT, Lin YY, 1993. The occurrence of Aphelenchoides besseyi on strawberry and its ecology in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 35(1):14-29

Whittle AM, 1992. Diseases and pests of citrus in Vietnam. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(3):75-81

Young HK, Kim SJ, 1996. Collection and identification of molds from citrus oranges during post-harvest storage. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 28(6):1142-1145.

Distribution References

AGARWAL G P, HASIJA S K, 1967. (1968). Alternaría rot of Citrus fruits. Indian Phytopathology. 20 (3), 259-260.

Agarwal GP, Hasija SK, 1961. Fungi causing plant diseases at Jabalpur (M.P.) - V. [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India], 3 (B) 99-108.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chimwamurombe P M, Uzabakiriho J D, Mapaure I, 2007. A survey of plant parasitic fungi occurring on selected native Namibian trees species of economic importance. Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia. 4 (1), 23-28.

Ellis M B, 1971. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. 608 pp.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fatema Yeasmin, Shamim Shamsi, 2013. Phylloplane mycoflora of Gerbera spp. and their pathogenic potentiality. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences. 37 (2), 211-217. http://banglajol.info/bd/index.php/JBAS/article/view/17562/12320

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Hong S Y, Kim W G, Lee Y H, 1991. Fungi associated with storage disease of citrus fruits. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection. 33 (3), 12-17.

Joshi NC, Vashist KPT, 1959. Fungi of Ajmer, Rajasthan. IV. [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India], 29 (B) 147-150.

Nam K W, Kweon H M, Song N H, 1993. Storage of satsuma mandarin. I. Storability of satsuma mandarin influenced by thiophanate-methyl treatment and mechanical injuries. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science. 34 (4), 279-284.

Özçelik N, Özçelik S, 1997. Investigations on some factors and strains affecting the production of Alternaria-toxins by a thin layer chromatographic method. (Ince tabaka kromatografisi yöntemi ile Alternaria toksinlerinin olușumuna bazı faktörlerin ve sușların etkisinin araștırılması.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture & Forestry. 21 (1), 1-5.

Palm M E, Civerolo E L, 1994. Isolation, pathogenicity, and partial host range of Alternaria limicola, causal agent of mancha foliar de los citricos in Mexico. Plant Disease. 78 (9), 879-883. DOI:10.1094/PD-78-0879

Pandey S K, Roy A K, 2008. Some new host records of Hyphomycetes. Indian Phytopathology. 61 (3), 369. http://www.ipsdis.org

Parminder Kaur, Verma K S, 2002. Prevalence of post-harvest rots of Kinnow in Punjab. Plant Disease Research. 17 (2), 329-331.

Prade C A, Matsumura A T, Ott A P, Porto M L, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.). Biociências. 15 (1), 73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Rao V G, 1954. The genus Alternaria Nees in Bombay, Maharashtra-I. Sydowia. 46-64.

Roy T C, 1948. Fungi of Bengal. Bulletin of Botanical Society. 134-177.

Scheffer RP, 1983. Toxins as chemical determinants of plant diseases. In: Toxins and Plant Pathogenesis, [ed. by Daly JM, Deverall BJ]. Sydney, Australia: Academic Press.

Schutte G C, Beeton K V, Pelser P du T, Lesar K, 1994. Post-harvest control of Alternaria navel-end rot with pre-harvest chemical sprays. Citrus Journal. 4 (1), 26-28.

Singh CS, Kanaujia RS, Choudhary RL, 1975. Parasitic fungi of Faizabad - Alternaria. In: Botanique, 6 191-194.

Sole Z, Oren Y, Kimchi M, 1997. Control of Alternaria brown spot of Minneola tangelo with fungicides. Crop Protection. 16 (7), 659-664. DOI:10.1016/S0261-2194(97)00042-2

Srivastava A K, Kamlesh Wadhwani, 1992. Dispersion and allergenic manifestations of Alternaria airspora. Grana. 31 (1), 61-66. DOI:10.1080/00173139209427827

SUBRAMANIAN C V, 1972. Conidial chains, their nature and significance in the taxonomy of hyphomycetes. Current Science. 41 (2), 43-49.

Uppal B N, Kamat M N, 1949. Fungi of Bombay. Indian Phytopathology. 2 (Suppl. No. 1), 142-155.

Whittle A M, 1992. Diseases and pests of citrus in Vietnam. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 40 (3), 75-81.

Young HK, Kim SJ, 1996. Collection and identification of molds from citrus oranges during post-harvest storage. In: Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 28 (6) 1142-1145.

Distribution Maps

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