Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria brassicicola
(dark leaf spot of cabbage)

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Datasheet

Alternaria brassicicola (dark leaf spot of cabbage)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria brassicicola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dark leaf spot of cabbage
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation).
TitleLeaf symptoms
CaptionLeaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation).
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Leaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation).
Leaf symptomsLeaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation).J.P. Tewari
Leaf spots on cabbage.
TitleA. brassicicola on cabbage
CaptionLeaf spots on cabbage.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Leaf spots on cabbage.
A. brassicicola on cabbageLeaf spots on cabbage.©Anna L. Snowdon
Leaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation). Necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas.

Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
TitleChlorotic leaf symptoms
CaptionLeaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation). Necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas. Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Leaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation). Necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas.

Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
Chlorotic leaf symptomsLeaf damage caused by A. brassicicola (experimental inoculation). Necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas. Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.J.P. Tewari
A. brassicicola cultured on agar  (magnification 130x). Conidia measure 10-130 x 6-20 µm.
TitleConidia of A. brassicicola
CaptionA. brassicicola cultured on agar (magnification 130x). Conidia measure 10-130 x 6-20 µm.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
A. brassicicola cultured on agar  (magnification 130x). Conidia measure 10-130 x 6-20 µm.
Conidia of A. brassicicolaA. brassicicola cultured on agar (magnification 130x). Conidia measure 10-130 x 6-20 µm.J.P. Tewari

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire

Preferred Common Name

  • dark leaf spot of cabbage

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria brassicae f. microspora Brunaud
  • Alternaria brassicae var. minor Sacc.
  • Alternaria circinans (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Bolle
  • Alternaria oleracea Milbrath
  • Helminthosporium brassicae Henn.
  • Helminthosporium brassicicola Schwein.
  • Macrosporium cheiranthi var. circinans Berk. & M.A. Curtis
  • Macrosporium circinans Berk. & M.A. Curtis
  • Macrosporium commune var. circinans (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc.
  • Polydesmus exitiosus f. alternarioides (J.G. Kühn) J.G. Kühn
  • Polydesmus exitiosus f. luxuriosum (J.G. Kühn) J.G. Kühn
  • Sporidesmium exitiosum f. alternarioides J.G. Kühn
  • Sporidesmium exitiosum f. luxuriosum J.G. Kühn
  • Sporidesmium septorioides Westend.

International Common Names

  • English: Alternaria blight; black spot of cabbage; black spot of crucifers; brown rot of cabbage; curd rot or blight; head browning of crucifers; wirestem
  • Spanish: mancha negra de las crucíferas; manchas negras del nabo
  • French: alternaria des crucifères; taches foliaires du chou; taches noires du chou; taches noires du navet
  • Chinese: hei ban bing

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwaerze: Kohl
  • India: kala dhabba

EPPO code

  • ALTEBI (Alternaria brassicicola)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria brassicicola

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentMian and Akanda, 1989; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Brunei DarussalamPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentGao et al., 2014
-ShaanxiPresentWang et al., 2007
-TibetPresentWangmu et al., 2001
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentRamesh and Rao, 1989; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao, 1977; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentSingh and Singh, 1990; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentSinha and Prasad, 1989; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentSumitra and Madhuban, 2006
-HaryanaPresentSharma et al., 1993; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentBharat and Dogra, 2005
-Indian PunjabPresentRundhawa & Aulakh, 1981; Saimbhi et al., 1992; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-JharkhandPresentSingh and Singh, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentSangeetha and Siddaramaiah, 2007
-Madhya PradeshPresentPandya et al., 2000
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-ManipurPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentGupta and Chaudhury, 1992; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentSelvaraj et al., 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentKolte et al., 1987; Abul-Fazal et al., 1994; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentDasgupta et al., 1991; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Rahimloo and Ghosta, 2015
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentTohyama and Tsuda, 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; Kubota and Abiko, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentYu, 1993; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentKueh, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
OmanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014; Javaid et al., 2016
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentChung & Huang, 1993a; Huang and Chung, 1993; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; Pattanamahakul Strange, 1999; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentOnogur et al., 1986; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentMichail et al., 1979; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentHoltzhausen and Knox-Davies, 1974; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentDjébali et al., 2009
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentFontem et al., 1991; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentFarr et al., 1995; Cobb and Dillard, 1998; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentBabadoost et al., 1993; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
French West IndiesPresentGautier and Messiaen, 1984
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; Garbagnoli and Irigoyen, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; Azevedo et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentMacagnan et al., 2010
-PernambucoPresentPeruch et al., 2006
-Santa CatarinaPresentPeruch et al., 2006
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentLopez and Granada, 1998
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan, 1987; Bedlan, 1991; Bedlan, 1998; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentVanparys and Calus, 1994; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentMasheva et al., 2008
CroatiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentTahvonen, 1979; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentJouan et al., 1972; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentTodt and Schulz, 1987; Heppner and Heitefuss, 1995; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentRyan et al., 1984; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentNipoti, 1978; Mannerucci et al., 1982; CABI and EPPO, 1999; Menniti and Casalini, 2000; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentBrazauskiene, 1997
NetherlandsPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentTylkowska and Beresniewicz-Dudala, 1988; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; Dzhalilov et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentGalvez-Ramirez et al., 1988a; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentHumpherson-Jones, 1991; CABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCABI and EPPO, 1999
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI and EPPO, 1999

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002
AustraliaPresentSivapalan and Browning, 1992; Sivapalan, 1993; CABI and EPPO, 1999; Oliver et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Cook IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
NiuePresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
TongaPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
TuvaluPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO, 1999; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Penicillium corylophilum Pathogen
Penicillium oxalicum Pathogen
Streptomyces arabicus Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Wood

References

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Abul-Fazal M; Khan MI; Saxena SK, 1994. The incidence of Alternaria species in different cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower seeds. Indian Phytopathology, 47(4):419-421

Ahmad I; Day JP; MacDonald MV; Ingram DS, 1991. Haploid culture and UV mutagenesis in rapid-cycling Brassica napus for the generation of resistance to chlorsulfuron and Alternaria brassicicola. Annals of Botany, 67(6):521-525

Amein T; Wright SA; Wikström M; Koch E; Schmitt A; Stephan D; Jahn M; Tinivella F; Gullino ML; Forsberg G; Werner S; Wolf Jvan der; Groot SPC, 2011. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 118(6):214-221. http://www.jpdp-online.com

Anon., 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 165. Washington, USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Anon., 1983. Brassica diseases. Vegetable crop production and storage. Annual Report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, Edinburgh, U.K., 1982, 147-149, 155-157.

Anon., 1985. Oilseed rape and other brassicas. Annual Report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, 1985, Edinburgh, UK, 57-59.

Anon., 1988. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Pathogen: Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire. Hosts: Brassica spp., Cruciferae and Others. Map No. 457, Edition 3. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Anuja Gupta; Modi BS; Pandita VK, 2007. Effect of mechanical processing on health status of some vegetable seeds. Seed Research, 35(1):132-134.

Ayub A; Dey TK; Jahan M; Ahmed HU; Alam KB, 1996. Foliar spray of fungicides to control Alternaria blight of mustard. Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture, 6(1):47-50; 17 ref.

AzevOdo SS; Mariano Rde LR; Michereff SJ, 2000. Survey of the intensity of black rot and Alternaria leaf spot of cabbage in Agreste of Pernambuco and determination of sample size for disease quantification. Summa Phytopathologica, 26(3):299-306.

Babadoost M; Gabrielson RL, 1979. Pathogens causing Alternaria diseases of Brassica seed crops in western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(10):815-820

Babadoost M; Gabrielson RL; Olson SA; Mulanax MW, 1993. Control of Alternaria diseases of brassica seed crops caused by Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola with ground and aerial fungicide applications. Seed Science and Technology, 21(1):1-7

Bassey EO; Gabrielson RL, 1983. Factors affecting accuracy of 2,4-D assays of crucifer seed for Alternaria brassicicola and relation of assays to seedling disease potential. Seed Science and Technology, 11(2):411-420

Bedlan G, 1987. Control of leaf spot in Chinese cabbage. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):4-6

Bedlan G, 1991. Most important storage diseases of Chinese cabbage and cabbages. Pflanzenschutz (Wien), No. 5:5-6

Bedlan G, 1998. Application-management to control post-harvest Botrytis infections on Chinese cabbage. Gesunde Pflanzen, 50(6):162-164.

Bera SC, 1983. A new leaf spot disease of beans caused by Alternaria brassicicola. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):729-730

Bharat NK; Dogra BS, 2005. Occurrence and management of siliqua blight of cabbage seed crop in dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh. In: Integrated plant disease management. Challenging problems in horticultural and forest pathology, Solan, India, 14 to 15 November 2003 [ed. by Sharma, R. C.\Sharma, J. N.]. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers (India), 199-201.

Brazauskiene I, 1997. The spread and impact of fungal diseases of winter oilseed rape in Lithuania. Integrated plant protection: achievements and problems. Proceedings of the scientific conference devoted to the 70th anniversary of plant protection science in Lithuania, Dotnuva-Akademija, Lithuania, 7-9 September 1997., 54-58; 10 ref.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Browne LM; Conn KL; Ayer WA; Tewari JP, 1991. The camalexins: new phytoalexins produced in the leaves of Camelina sativa (Cruciferae). Tetrahedron, 47(24):3909-3914

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Alternaria brassicicola. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 457. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI; EPPO, 1999. Alternaria brassicicola. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 457.

Changsri W; Weber GF, 1963. Three Alternaria species pathogenic on certain cutivated crucifers. Phytopathology, 53:643-648.

Choi BJ; Han KS; Han SH; Moon CS; Chang KW; Choi KJ; Shin CW; Seo SD; Chung CT, 1998. Effect of EC level of nutrient solution on growth and yield of Angelica utilis and kale. RDA Journal of Horticulture Science-I, 40(2):125-130.

Chung WC; Huang JW, 1993. Effect of mineral elements on disease severity of black spot of Chinese kale. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 2(2):78-87

Chung WC; Huang JW, 1993. Studies on survival of cruciferous black spot pathogens, Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 35(1):39-50

Claassen U; Gunzelmann A; Paul VH; Masuch G, 1991. Methods for testing the susceptibility of oilseed rape to Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola. Bulletin SROP, 14(6):162-165

Cobb AC; Dillard HR, 1998. Thlaspi arvense, a new host for Alternaria brassicicola. Plant Disease, 82(8):960; 2 ref.

Conn KL; Tewari JP; Awasthi RP, 1990. A disease assessment key for Alternaria blackspot in rapeseed and mustard. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 70(1):19-20

Conners IL, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Publ. 1251.

Corlett M; MacLatchy IA, 1996. Fungi Canadenses. No. 335. Alternaria brassicicola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(4):484-485.

Daebelar F; Amelung D, 1988. Occurrence and importance of Alternaria dark leaf spot in winter rape. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflazenschutz in der DDR, 42:196-199.

Daebelar F; Amelung D; Riedle V, 1986. Leaf spot damage caused by Alternaria spp. in winter rape. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Wilhelm Pieck Universitat Rostock, Naturrwissenschagtliche Reiche, 35:52-54.

Das AK; Bandhopadhay A; Bandopadhay R; Haldar D; Sharma J, 1998. Phytopathogenic fungi of cash crops of the Darjeeling hills. Journal of Hill Research, 11(2):248-251; 21 ref.

Dasgupta B; Ghosh RK; Chatterjee BN, 1991. Effect of different dates and levels of nitrogen fertilizers on Alternaria blight disease and productivity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Czern and Coss. Environment and Ecology, 9(1):118-123

Degenhardt KJ; Petrie GA; Morrall RAA, 1982. Effects of temperature on spore germination and infection of rapeseed by Alternaria brassicae, A. brassicicola, and A. raphani. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(2):115-118

Dhyani AP; Sati MC; Khulbe RD, 1990. Seed-plant transmission and control of Alternaria spp. in Lahi (Brassica napus L.) in Kumaun Hills, India. Madras Agricultural Journal, 77(3-4):137-142

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