Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria brassicae
(dark spot of crucifers)

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Datasheet

Alternaria brassicae (dark spot of crucifers)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria brassicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dark spot of crucifers
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas.

Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
TitleLeaf symptoms (for Brassica rapa)
CaptionSymptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas. Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Symptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas.

Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
Leaf symptoms (for Brassica rapa)Symptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas. Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.J.P. Tewari
Damage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.
TitleInfected fruit (Brassica rapa)
CaptionDamage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Damage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.
Infected fruit (Brassica rapa)Damage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.J.P. Tewari
Stem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.
TitleInfected stem (Brassica rapa)
CaptionStem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Stem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.
Infected stem (Brassica rapa)Stem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.J.P. Tewari
A. brassicae cultured on  V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µm
TitleConidia of A. brassicae
CaptionA. brassicae cultured on V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µm
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
A. brassicae cultured on  V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µm
Conidia of A. brassicaeA. brassicae cultured on V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µmJ.P. Tewari

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc.

Preferred Common Name

  • dark spot of crucifers

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria alliariae-officinalis Savul. & Sandu
  • Alternaria brassicae var. exitiosa (J.G. Kühn) Ferraris
  • Alternaria brassicae var. macrospora Sacc.
  • Alternaria exitiosa (J.G. Kühn) Jorst.
  • Alternaria herculea (Ellis & G. Martin) J.A. Elliott
  • Alternaria macrospora (Sacc.) Sacc.
  • Alternaria saccardoi Sawada
  • Cercospora bloxami Berk. & Broome
  • Cercospora lepidii Peck
  • Cercospora moldavica Savul. & Bontea
  • Macrosporium brassicae Berk.
  • Macrosporium brassicae var. macrospora Eliasson
  • Macrosporium herculeum Ellis & G. Martin
  • Macrosporium macrosporum (Eliasson) Sawada
  • Polydesmus exitiosus (J.G. Kühn)
  • Puccinia brassicae Mont.
  • Rhopalidium brassicae (Mont.) Mont. & Fr.
  • Sporidesmium exitiosum J.G. Kühn
  • Sporodesmium brassicae Massee
  • Sporodesmium onnii P. Karst.

International Common Names

  • English: Altenaria blight; black spot of rape; brown rot of cauliflower; curd rot; dark leaf spot of cabbage; grey leaf spot of cabbage; grey leaf spot of crucifers; head browning of crucifers; leaf blight of crucifers
  • Spanish: mancha gris de las cruciferas; mancha negra de las crucíferas; tizon: cruciferas
  • French: alternaria des crucifères; alternariose; maladie des taches noires du colza; taches grises
  • Chinese: hei ban bing
  • Portuguese: mancha-de-alternaria; mancha-preta

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Duerrfleckenkrankheit; Schwaerze
  • India: kala dhabba

EPPO code

  • ALTEBA (Alternaria brassicae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria brassicae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Côte d'IvoirePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GabonPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
KenyaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MalawiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MoroccoPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MozambiquePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RwandaPresentUK, CAB International (1971)
SenegalPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentHoltzhausen (1978); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SudanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ArmeniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BangladeshPresentHowlider et al. (1989); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BhutanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BruneiAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ChinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-FujianPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GansuPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GuangdongPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GuangxiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GuizhouPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-HeilongjiangPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-HunanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Inner MongoliaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JiangsuPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JiangxiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JilinPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-LiaoningPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ShaanxiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-SichuanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-TibetPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-XinjiangPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Hong KongPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentRamesh and Rao (1989); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao (1977); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentRai et al. (1974); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-DelhiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-GujaratPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentTripathi et al. (1987); Sushil Sharma and Kaushik (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Himachal PradeshPresentChakrabarty (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-Jammu and KashmirPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JharkhandPresentSingh and Singh (2005)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Girish et al. (2007)
-Madhya PradeshPresentPandya et al. (2000)
-ManipurPresentSingh and Devi (1999); EPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentChattopadhyay et al. (2005)
-PunjabPresentChahal (1986); Saimbhi et al. (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-RajasthanPresentShivpuri et al. (1988); Jain (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-SikkimPresentGupta and Chaudhury (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresentRai et al. (1974); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-UttarakhandPresentChattopadhyay et al. (2005); UK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentDasgupta et al. (1991); Bilgrami et al. (1995); Das et al. (1998); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IndonesiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Irian JayaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IranPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IraqPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IsraelPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JapanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
KazakhstanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
LaosPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
LebanonPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-SabahAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NepalPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PakistanPresentJalaluddin et al. (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Saudi ArabiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SingaporePresentAVA (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
South KoreaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
Sri LankaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
ThailandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
VietnamPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan (1987); Bedlan (1991); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BelarusPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
BelgiumPresentVanparys et al. (1993); Vanparys and Calus (1994); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BulgariaPresentKhristov (1979); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CroatiaPresentCvjetković (2008)
CyprusPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CzechiaPresentMadar (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CzechoslovakiaPresentKůdela (1986)
DenmarkPresentJoergensen (1976); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadTahvonen (1979); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresentBrun et al. (1987); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentHeppner and Heitefuss (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentSzepessy and Hegedu″sné (1982); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IrelandPresentRyan et al. (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
ItalyPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
-SardiniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
LatviaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
LithuaniaPresentBrazauskienė (1998); Brazauskienė (2000); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
North MacedoniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NorwayPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresentRozej (1975); Madej (1986); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
RomaniaPresentCrisan (1976); Tașcă and Trandaf (1984); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RussiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Russia (Europe)PresentVakhrusheva (1983); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SerbiaPresentBlagojević et al. (2015)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI (Undated)
SlovakiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SpainPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
SwedenPresentGröntoft (1986); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentWinter et al. (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
United KingdomPresentHumpherson-Jones (1991); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

North America

BarbadosPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BermudaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CanadaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AlbertaPresent, WidespreadConn and Tewari (1990); Clear and Patrick (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ManitobaPresentClear (1992); Clear and Patrick (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New BrunswickPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadClear and Patrick (1995); Cerkauskas et al. (1998); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-QuebecPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-SaskatchewanPresent, WidespreadSeidle et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Costa RicaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CubaPresentHernández and Gómez (1988); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
El SalvadorPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuatemalaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
HaitiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
HondurasPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JamaicaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
MexicoPresentPonce G. and Mendoza Z. (1983); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NicaraguaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PanamaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Puerto RicoAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
United StatesPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AlabamaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AlaskaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ArizonaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ArkansasPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-CaliforniaPresentFarr et al. (1995); Koike (1996); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-DelawarePresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-HawaiiPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-IllinoisPresentEastburn (1989); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-IndianaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-IowaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-LouisianaPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MassachusettsPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MichiganPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MinnesotaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MississippiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MissouriPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MontanaPresentCaesar and Lartey (2009)
-New JerseyPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New YorkPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-North CarolinaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OregonPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-South CarolinaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-TexasPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-UtahPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-WashingtonPresentBabadoost and Gabrielson (1979); Farr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-West VirginiaPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-WisconsinPresentFarr et al. (1995); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentStovold et al. (1987); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-VictoriaPresentSivapalan and Browning (1992); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
French PolynesiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuamPresentUK, CAB International (1971); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
New ZealandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NiuePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PalauPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Papua New GuineaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
VanuatuPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Wallis and FutunaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
BoliviaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ParanaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PernambucoPresentPeruch et al. (2006)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Santa CatarinaPresentPeruch et al. (2006)
ChilePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ColombiaPresentTamayo et al. (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuyanaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PeruPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SurinamePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
UruguayPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
VenezuelaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Streptomyces arabicus Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
Wood

References

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===, 1960. Index of plant diseases in the United States. Agric. Handb. U.S. Dep. Agric, 165:iv + 531 pp

===, 1960. Index of plant diseases in the United States. Agric. Handb. U.S. Dep. Agric, 165:iv + 531 pp

Abul-Fazal M, Khan MI, Saxena SK, 1994. The incidence of Alternaria species in different cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower seeds. Indian Phytopathology, 47(4):419-421

Alam KH, Haque MM, Aminuzzaman FM, Ahmmed ANF, Islam MR, 2010. Effect of different fungicides and plant extracts on the incidence and severity of gray blight of mustard. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 6(8):6-9. http://gscience.gurpukur.com/product_info.php?cPath=6_157_165&products_id=819&osCsid=a67f963b6bef7c008e4e2e456f81a687

Amar Singh, Bhowmik TP, 1985. Persistence and efficacy of some common fungicides against Alternaria brassicae, the causal agent of leaf blight of rapeseed and mustard. Indian Phytopathology, 38(1):35-38

Anon., 1983. Brassica diseases. Vegetable crop production and storage. Annual Report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, Edinburgh, U.K., 1982, 147-149, 155-157.

Anon., 1983. Diseases of vegetables. Horticultural Division, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Research Report, Horticulture, 44-45.

Anon., 1985. Foliar diseases of brassicas. Horticultural Division, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Research Report, Horticulture, 45-46.

Ansari NA, Khan MW, Muheet A, 1988. Effect of Alternaria blight on oil content of rape seed and mustard. Current Science, 57(18):1023-1024

Ansari NA, Khan MW, Muheet A, 1988. Identity and cultural characters of the pathogen causing Alternaria blight of rapeseed and mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 5(2):80-88

Ansari NA, Khan MW, Muheet A, 1989. Survival and perpetuation of Alternaria brassicae causing Alternaria blight of oilseed crucifers. Mycopathologia, 105(2):67-70

Ansari NA, Khan MW, Muheet A, 1990. Host range of Alternaria brassicae. Acta Botanica Indica, 18(1):104-105

Ashrafuzzaman M, Sarker MEH, Rahaman GMM, Islam T, 1996. Development of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) in mustard and its relation to yield and yield contributing characters. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(1/2):1-4; 9 ref

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Babadoost M, Gabrielson RL, 1979. Pathogens causing Alternaria diseases of Brassica seed crops in western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(10):815-820

Babadoost M, Gabrielson RL, Olson SA, Mulanax MW, 1993. Control of Alternaria diseases of brassica seed crops caused by Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola with ground and aerial fungicide applications. Seed Science and Technology, 21(1):1-7

Bains PS, Tewari JP, 1987. Purification, chemical characterization and host-specificity of the toxin produced by Alternaria brassicae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 30(2):259-271

Bansal VK, Stringam GR, Thiagarajah MR, Tewari JP, 2000. Brassica napus germplasm with multiple disease resistance traits from B. carinata. International Symposium, Durable Disease Resistance, Key to Sustainable Agriculture, Ede-Wageningen, De Reehorst, The Netherlands, p. 49

Bassey EO, Gabrielson RL, 1983. Factors affecting accuracy of 2,4-D assays of crucifer seed for Alternaria brassicicola and relation of assays to seedling disease potential. Seed Science and Technology, 11(2):411-420

Bedlan G, 1987. Control of leaf spot in Chinese cabbage. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):4-6

Bedlan G, 1991. Most important storage diseases of Chinese cabbage and cabbages. Pflanzenschutz (Wien), No. 5:5-6

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