Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria brassicae
(dark spot of crucifers)

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Datasheet

Alternaria brassicae (dark spot of crucifers)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria brassicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dark spot of crucifers
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas.

Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
TitleLeaf symptoms (for Brassica rapa)
CaptionSymptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas. Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Symptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas.

Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.
Leaf symptoms (for Brassica rapa)Symptoms of A. brassicae on Brassica rapa leaf. Zonate necrotic lesions are surrounded by chlorotic areas. Symptoms caused by A. brassicae are similar to those caused by A. brassicicola; however, A. brassicae causes grey to dark-brown to almost black lesions whereas A. brassicicola causes sooty-black lesions.J.P. Tewari
Damage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.
TitleInfected fruit (Brassica rapa)
CaptionDamage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Damage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.
Infected fruit (Brassica rapa)Damage symptoms of A. brassicae on fruit of Brassica rapa. Seeds may be infected through the fruit wall.J.P. Tewari
Stem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.
TitleInfected stem (Brassica rapa)
CaptionStem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
Stem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.
Infected stem (Brassica rapa)Stem lesions caused by A. brassicae on Brassica rapa.J.P. Tewari
A. brassicae cultured on  V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µm
TitleConidia of A. brassicae
CaptionA. brassicae cultured on V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µm
CopyrightJ.P. Tewari
A. brassicae cultured on  V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µm
Conidia of A. brassicaeA. brassicae cultured on V8-juice agar supplemented with rose bengal (magnification 130x). Conidia 75-350 x 11-42 µmJ.P. Tewari

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc.

Preferred Common Name

  • dark spot of crucifers

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria alliariae-officinalis Savul. & Sandu
  • Alternaria brassicae var. exitiosa (J.G. Kühn) Ferraris
  • Alternaria brassicae var. macrospora Sacc.
  • Alternaria exitiosa (J.G. Kühn) Jorst.
  • Alternaria herculea (Ellis & G. Martin) J.A. Elliott
  • Alternaria macrospora (Sacc.) Sacc.
  • Alternaria saccardoi Sawada
  • Cercospora bloxami Berk. & Broome
  • Cercospora lepidii Peck
  • Cercospora moldavica Savul. & Bontea
  • Macrosporium brassicae Berk.
  • Macrosporium brassicae var. macrospora Eliasson
  • Macrosporium herculeum Ellis & G. Martin
  • Macrosporium macrosporum (Eliasson) Sawada
  • Polydesmus exitiosus (J.G. Kühn)
  • Puccinia brassicae Mont.
  • Rhopalidium brassicae (Mont.) Mont. & Fr.
  • Sporidesmium exitiosum J.G. Kühn
  • Sporodesmium brassicae Massee
  • Sporodesmium onnii P. Karst.

International Common Names

  • English: Altenaria blight; black spot of rape; brown rot of cauliflower; curd rot; dark leaf spot of cabbage; grey leaf spot of cabbage; grey leaf spot of crucifers; head browning of crucifers; leaf blight of crucifers
  • Spanish: mancha gris de las cruciferas; mancha negra de las crucíferas; tizon: cruciferas
  • French: alternaria des crucifères; alternariose; maladie des taches noires du colza; taches grises
  • Chinese: hei ban bing
  • Portuguese: mancha-de-alternaria; mancha-preta

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Duerrfleckenkrankheit; Schwaerze
  • India: kala dhabba

EPPO code

  • ALTEBA (Alternaria brassicae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria brassicae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentEPPO, 2014
ArmeniaPresentEPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentHowlider et al., 1989; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentEPPO, 2014
Brunei DarussalamAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentEPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentEPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentEPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentEPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentEPPO, 2014
-TibetPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresentEPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentEPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentRamesh and Rao, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao, 1977; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentRai et al., 1974; Singh et al., 1990; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentKatiyar et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentTripathi et al., 1987; Sharma et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentChakrabarty, 1993; Sharma and Singh, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentChahal, 1986; Saimbhi et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentEPPO, 2014
-JharkhandPresentSingh and Singh, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentGirish et al., 2007
-Madhya PradeshPresentPandya et al., 2000
-ManipurPresentSingh and Devi, 1999; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentChattopadhyay et al., 2005
-RajasthanPresentShivpuri et al., 1988; Jain, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentGupta and Chaudhury, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentAbdul-Fazal et al., 1994; Rai et al., 1974; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentChattopadhyay et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentDasgupta et al., 1991; Bilgrami et al., 1995; Das et al., 1998; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentEPPO, 2014
IranPresentEPPO, 2014
IraqPresentEPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentEPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentEPPO, 2014
LaosPresentEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentEPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SabahAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
MongoliaPresentCMI, 1984
MyanmarPresentEPPO, 2014
NepalPresentEPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentJalaluddin et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentEPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentAVA, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentEPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentChung & Huang, 1993b; CABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentMusaev, 1979; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentEPPO, 2014

Africa

AngolaPresentEPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentEPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentEPPO, 2014
GabonPresentEPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentEPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentEPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentEPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentEPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006
SenegalPresentEPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentHoltzhausen, 1978; EPPO, 2014
SudanPresentEPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentEPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentEPPO, 2014

North America

BermudaPresentEPPO, 2014
CanadaPresentEPPO, 2014
-AlbertaWidespreadConn and Tewari, 1990; Clear and Patrick, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentClear, 1992; Clear and Patrick, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OntarioWidespreadClear and Patrick, 1995; Cerkauskas et al., 1998; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentEPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanWidespreadSeidle et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentPonce and Mendoza, 1983; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentCMI, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-AlaskaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentFarr et al., 1995; Koike, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentEastburn, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentEPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaPresentCaesar and Lartey, 2009
-New JerseyPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentBabadoost and Gabrielson, 1979; Farr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentFarr et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentEPPO, 2014
Costa RicaPresentEPPO, 2014
CubaPresentHernandez and Gomez, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicPresentEPPO, 2014
El SalvadorPresentEPPO, 2014
GuatemalaPresentEPPO, 2014
HaitiPresentEPPO, 2014
HondurasPresentEPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentEPPO, 2014
NicaraguaPresentEPPO, 2014
PanamaPresentEPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentGaetan et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
BoliviaPresentEPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentEPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-PernambucoPresentPeruch et al., 2006
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentPeruch et al., 2006
ChilePresentEPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentTamayo et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014
GuyanaPresentEPPO, 2014
PeruPresentEPPO, 2014
SurinamePresentEPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentEPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan, 1987; Bedlan, 1991; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentPopv, 1993; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentVanparys et al., 1993; Vanparys and Calus, 1994; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentKhristov, 1979; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentCvjetkovic, 2008
CyprusPresentEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentMadar, 1992; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentKudela, 1986
DenmarkPresentJoergensen, 1976; EPPO, 2014
FinlandWidespreadTahvonen, 1979; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentBrun et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentHeppner and Heitefuss, 1995; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentEPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentSzepessy and Hegedüsne, 1982; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentAnon, 1983; Ryan et al., 1984; Anon., 1985; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentTalame and Piccirillo, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentBrazauskiene, 1998; Brazauskiene et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentEPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentEPPO, 2014
PolandPresentRozej, 1975; Madej, 1986; Koscik and Kowalczyk, 1998; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentCrisan, 1976; Tasca and Trandaf, 1984; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentVakhrusheva, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentBlagojevic et al., 2015
SlovakiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentGalvez-Ramirez et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentGrontoft, 1986; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentWinter et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentHumpherson-Jones, 1991; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentEPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCMI, 1984
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentStovold et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentSivapalan and Browning, 1992; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
GuamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2006; EPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentEPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentEPPO, 2014
NiuePresentEPPO, 2014
PalauPresentEPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentEPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentEPPO, 2014
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Streptomyces arabicus Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Roots
Wood

References

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===, 1960. Index of plant diseases in the United States. Agric. Handb. U.S. Dep. Agric, 165:iv + 531 pp.

===, 1960. Index of plant diseases in the United States. Agric. Handb. U.S. Dep. Agric, 165:iv + 531 pp.

Abul-Fazal M; Khan MI; Saxena SK, 1994. The incidence of Alternaria species in different cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower seeds. Indian Phytopathology, 47(4):419-421

Alam KH; Haque MM; Aminuzzaman FM; Ahmmed ANF; Islam MR, 2010. Effect of different fungicides and plant extracts on the incidence and severity of gray blight of mustard. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 6(8):6-9. http://gscience.gurpukur.com/product_info.php?cPath=6_157_165&products_id=819&osCsid=a67f963b6bef7c008e4e2e456f81a687

Amar Singh; Bhowmik TP, 1985. Persistence and efficacy of some common fungicides against Alternaria brassicae, the causal agent of leaf blight of rapeseed and mustard. Indian Phytopathology, 38(1):35-38

Anon., 1983. Brassica diseases. Vegetable crop production and storage. Annual Report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, Edinburgh, U.K., 1982, 147-149, 155-157.

Anon., 1983. Diseases of vegetables. Horticultural Division, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Research Report, Horticulture, 44-45.

Anon., 1985. Foliar diseases of brassicas. Horticultural Division, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Research Report, Horticulture, 45-46.

Ansari NA; Khan MW; Muheet A, 1988. Effect of Alternaria blight on oil content of rape seed and mustard. Current Science, 57(18):1023-1024

Ansari NA; Khan MW; Muheet A, 1988. Identity and cultural characters of the pathogen causing Alternaria blight of rapeseed and mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 5(2):80-88

Ansari NA; Khan MW; Muheet A, 1989. Survival and perpetuation of Alternaria brassicae causing Alternaria blight of oilseed crucifers. Mycopathologia, 105(2):67-70

Ansari NA; Khan MW; Muheet A, 1990. Host range of Alternaria brassicae. Acta Botanica Indica, 18(1):104-105

Ashrafuzzaman M; Sarker MEH; Rahaman GMM; Islam T, 1996. Development of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) in mustard and its relation to yield and yield contributing characters. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(1/2):1-4; 9 ref.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Babadoost M; Gabrielson RL, 1979. Pathogens causing Alternaria diseases of Brassica seed crops in western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(10):815-820

Babadoost M; Gabrielson RL; Olson SA; Mulanax MW, 1993. Control of Alternaria diseases of brassica seed crops caused by Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola with ground and aerial fungicide applications. Seed Science and Technology, 21(1):1-7

Bains PS; Tewari JP, 1987. Purification, chemical characterization and host-specificity of the toxin produced by Alternaria brassicae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 30(2):259-271

Bansal VK; Stringam GR; Thiagarajah MR; Tewari JP, 2000. Brassica napus germplasm with multiple disease resistance traits from B. carinata. International Symposium, Durable Disease Resistance, Key to Sustainable Agriculture, Ede-Wageningen, De Reehorst, The Netherlands, p. 49.

Bassey EO; Gabrielson RL, 1983. Factors affecting accuracy of 2,4-D assays of crucifer seed for Alternaria brassicicola and relation of assays to seedling disease potential. Seed Science and Technology, 11(2):411-420

Bedlan G, 1987. Control of leaf spot in Chinese cabbage. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):4-6

Bedlan G, 1991. Most important storage diseases of Chinese cabbage and cabbages. Pflanzenschutz (Wien), No. 5:5-6

Bhowmik TP; Munde PN, 1987. Identification of resistance in rapeseed and mustard against Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. and some resistant sources. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin, 25(1):49-53

Bilgrami KS; Sinha KK; Ansari AA; Rahman MF, 1995. Widespread occurrence of toxigenic Alternaria in cereals and oilseeds. Indian Phytopathology, 48(2):150-153

Bisht GS; Harish S; Singh H; Sati SC; Saxena J; Dubey RC, 1997. Fungal diseases of useful plants in the Garhwal Himalaya and their management. Himalayan Microbial Diversity, Part 1, 255-271.

Blagojevic J; Ivanovic Z; Oro V; Dolovac N; Popovic T; Ignjatov M; Vukojevic J, 2015. First report of horseradish leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicae in Serbia. Plant Disease, 99(5):730. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Boyko LA; Tewari JP, 1994. Interactions of Myrothecium verrucatia and Gliocladium roseum with Alternaria brassicae. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16:76.

Brazauskiene I, 1998. Fungal diseases of winter oilseed rape and the possibilities to reduce their harmfulness. Z^hacek~emdirbyste^dot over~, Mokslo Darbai, No. 62:132-141; 12 ref.

Brazauskiene I; Metspalu L; Mitt S, 2000. Harmfulness of dark leaf and pod spot disease (Alternaria spp.) on spring oilseed rape in Lithuania. Transactions of the Estonion Agricultural University, Agronomy, No. 209, 20-22.

Brun H; Plessis J; Renard M, 1987. Resistance of some crucifers to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. Proceedings of the 7th International Rapeseed Congress, Poznan, Poland, 1222-1227.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Alternaria brassicae. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 353. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caesar AJ; Lartey RT, 2009. First report of a leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicae on the invasive weed Lepidium draba in North America. Plant Disease, 93(8):846. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cao SC; Hou XL; Hao XM; Zhang SN; Zhu YL; Liu KJ, 1998. Studies on breeding for disease resistance in non-heading Chinese cabbage. VIII. Breeding of two new varieties Dwarf Resistant No. 5 and Dwarf Resistant No. 6. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 21(4):24-30.

Cerkauskas RF; Stobbs LW; Lowery DT; Driel Lvan; Liu W; Schagen Jvan, 1998. Diseases, pests, and abiotic problems associated with Oriental cruciferous vegetables in southern Ontario in 1993-1994. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 20(1):87-94; 27 ref.

Chahal AS, 1981. Seed-borne infection of Alternaria brassicae in Indian mustard and its elimination during storage. Current Science, 50(14):621-623

Chahal AS, 1986. Losses and chemical control of Alternaria blight in rapeseed-mustard in Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 1(1-2):46-50

Chahal AS; Kang MS, 1979. Some aspects of seed borne infection of Alternaria brassicae in rape and mustard cultivars in the Punjab. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 9(1):51-55

Chakrabarty PK, 1993. Chemical management of curd-rot complex of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea convar botrytis var. botrytis). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(1):50-55; 10 ref.

Changsri W; Weber GF, 1963. Three Alternaria species pathogenic on certain cutivated crucifers. Phytopathology, 53:643-648.

Chattopadhyay AK; Bagchi BN, 1994. Relationship of disease severity and yield due to leaf blight of mustard and spray schedule of mancozeb for higher benefit. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 32(2):83-87

Chattopadhyay C; Agrawal R; Kumar A; Bhar LM; Meena PD; Meena RL; Khan SA; Chattopadhyay AK; Awasthi RP; Singh SN; Chakravarthy NVK; Kumar A; Singh RB; Bhunia CK, 2005. Epidemiology and forecasting of Alternaria blight of oilseed Brassica in India - a case study. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 112(4):351-365.

Chung WC; Huang JW, 1993. Effect of mineral elements on disease severity of black spot of Chinese kale. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 2(2):78-87

Chung WC; Huang JW, 1993. Formulation of a medium for stimulating profuse sporulation of Alternaria brassicae. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 35(1):30-38

Chung WC; Huang JW, 1993. Studies on survival of cruciferous black spot pathogens, Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 35(1):39-50

Claassen U; Gunzelmann A; Paul VH; Masuch G, 1991. Methods for testing the susceptibility of oilseed rape to Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola. Bulletin SROP, 14(6):162-165

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