Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternaria alternata
(alternaria leaf spot)

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Datasheet

Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 April 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternaria alternata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • alternaria leaf spot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria rot on sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on dark fruit in the field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAlternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria rot on sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on dark fruit in the field.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria rot on sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on dark fruit in the field.
SymptomsAlternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Alternaria rot on sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on dark fruit in the field.©Alan L. Jones
Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); on Gold sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on fruit.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAlternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); on Gold sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on fruit.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); on Gold sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on fruit.
SymptomsAlternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); on Gold sweet cherry. Note flattened, wrinkled lesions on fruit.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternaria alternata

Preferred Common Name

  • alternaria leaf spot

Other Scientific Names

  • Alternaria alternata f.sp. fragariae Dingley
  • Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici Grogan et al.
  • Alternaria fasciculata
  • Alternaria tenuis Nees

International Common Names

  • English: brown blight; brown spot; brown spot: tobacco; core rot: apple; fruit rot: tomato; leaf blight: bean; leaf blight: beet; moldy core: apple; stem canker: tomato; storage rot: apple; storage rot: pear; strawberry leaf spot
  • Spanish: alternariosis; alternariosis del tomate; chancro de tallo del tomate; mancha parda
  • French: alternariose; alternariose de la betterave; alternariose des agrumes; chancre de la tige de la tomate; gale du poirier; maladie du plant de tabac

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Duerrfleckenkrankheit: Ruebe; Duerrfleckenkrankheit: Tabak; Fleckenkrankheit: Bohne; Fleckenkrankheit: Ruebe; Lagerfaeule: Apfel; Lagerfaeule: Birne; Tabakschwamm

EPPO code

  • ALTEAL (Alternaria alternata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Alternaria
  •                                     Species: Alternaria alternata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresentInvasive
-AnhuiPresentHuaining Co.
-BeijingPresentOriginal citation: Zhao et al. (2016)
-ChongqingPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresentOriginal citation: Zhao et al. (2016)
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-JharkhandPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresentPauri Garhwal
-West BengalPresent
IranPresentKhuzestan
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent1989
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-KyushuPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent1995

Europe

AustriaPresent
CroatiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent2012
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SpainPresent1998
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized1976
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent1976
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IowaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent1966
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent
SamoaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-CearaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresent2016
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
VenezuelaPresent

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Enterobacter aerogenes Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Olpitrichum tenellum Pathogen
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist
Streptomyces olivaceus Pathogen

References

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Abdul Rehman, Kishwar Sultana, Nisar Minhas, Muhammad Gulfraz, Raja GK, Zahid Anwar, 2011. Study of most prevalent wheat seed-borne mycoflora and its effect on seed nutritional value. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(25):4328-4337. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/pdf2011/9Nov/Rehman%20et%20al.pdf

Akhtar N, Nayab M, Sattar N, Qurashi F, 2016. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot of Polyalthia longifolia in Pakistan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(1):173. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3478

Al-Askar AAA, Ghoneem KM, Rashad YM, 2012. Seed-borne mycoflora of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Microbiology, 62(1):273-281. http://www.springerlink.com/content/qt13w57 g76212224/

Al-Sadi AM, Al-Alawi ZA, Patzelt A, 2015. Association of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium cladosporioides with leaf spot in Cissus quadrangularis and Ficus sycomorus. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad), 14(1):44-47. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=ppj.2015.44.47&linkid=pdf

Amani M, 2011. Identification of fungal pathogens on banana (Musa acuminata L.) in Sistan & Bluchestan province. Plant Protection Journal, 3(2):Pe147-Pe159, En160. http://www.ppjiau.com/fa/index.php

Ammar MI, El-Naggar MA, 2011. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fungal diseases in Najran, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(3):126-135. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ijpp.2011.126.135&org=12

Bai JY, Guo QY, Song FJ, Liu ZX, Liu Y, Lei CJ, 2015. First report of Alternaria alternata causing brown spot of Zizyphus jujuba in China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(2):391. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3353/2023

Bai JY, Guo QY, Wang XM, Duan CX, 2015. First report of jujube leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata in China. Plant Disease, 99(11):1643. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Baradaran GR, Aminaee MM, Assari MJ, 2012. Identification of fungal diseases of Rosa damascena in Kerman province of Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 45(9):1087-1095. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

Barreto Sda S, Rezende DVde, Blum LEB, 2011. Fungi on seeds of ornamentals. (Fungos em sementes de plantas ornamentais.) Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 33(3):561-573. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-31222011000300019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Berbegal M, López-Cortés I, Salazar D, Gramaje D, Pérez-Sierra A, García-Jiménez J, Armengol J, 2014. First report of alternaria black spot of pomegranate caused by Alternaria alternata in Spain. Plant Disease, 98(5):689. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bihon W, Cloete M, Gerrano A, Adebola P, Oelofse D, 2015. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight of onion in South Africa. Plant Disease, 99(11):1652. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Blagojević, J., Vukojević, J., Ivanović, B., Ivanović, Ž., 2020. Characterization of Alternaria species associated with leaf spot disease of Armoracia rusticana in Serbia. Plant Disease, 104(5), 1378-1389. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0289-RE

Cai ZY, Liu YX, Li GH, Wang YF, Zhou M, 2015. First report of Alternaria alternata causing black leaf spot of rubber tree in China. Plant Disease, 99(2):290-291. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Czajka A, Czubatka A, Sobolewski J, Robak J, 2015. First report of alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on spinach in Poland. Plant Disease, 99(5):729. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Deepa Khulbe, Srinivas P, Agarwal VK, 2011. Diversity of black point symptoms and associated fungi in wheat and seed quality. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 19(2):383-387. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Dunbar, M., Adhikari, A., Kontz, B., Varenhorst, A., Nleya, T., Byamukama, E., Mathew, F., 2017. First report of alternaria black spot caused by Alternaria alternata on Brassica carinata in South Dakota. Plant Disease, 101(11), 1951. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-17-0222-PDN

Durga Prashad, Sharma IM, Chandel RS, Pankaj Gupta, 2016. First report of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) blight and anthracnose caused by Alternaria species and Piggotia coryli in India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 46(1):89-92. http://www.ismpp.org.in/journal.php

Espinoza-Verduzco Mde los A, Santos-Cervantes ME, Fernández-Herrera E, Espinoza-Mancillas MG, Chávez-Medina JA, Bermúdez-Âlvarez EM, Martínez-Ayala AL, Méndez-Lozano J, Leyva-López NE, 2012. First report of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler causing inflorescence blight in Jatropha curcas in Sinaloa, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 34(3):455-458. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tcjp20

Faedda R, Granata G, Cocuzza GEM, Giudice VLo, Audoly G, Pane A, Cacciola SO, 2015. First report of heart rot of pomegranate (Punica granatum) caused by Alternaria alternata in Italy. Plant Disease, 99(10):1446-1447. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Farhood S, Hadian S, 2012. First report of Alternaria leaf spot on gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) in north of Iran. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(2):621-624. http://www.aensionline.com/aeb/2012/621-624.pdf

Fu BZ, Zhang ZH, Wang LH, Li GY, Zhang JZ, Zhang Y, 2014. First report of leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on Chinese dwarf banana in China. Plant Disease, 98(5):691. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Bertoldo C, Gullino ML, 2011. First report of a leaf spot of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) caused by Alternaria alternata in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.71. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Matic, S., Luongo, I., Gullino, M. L., 2019. First report of Alternaria alternata on Campanula rapunculoides in Italy. Plant Disease, 103(2), 368-369. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-18-1163-PDN

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp

Guevara, F. E., Oviedo, M. A., Corral, M., Viera, W. F., Garrido, P. A., Leon-Reyes, A., Flores, F. J., 2019. First report of alternaria brown spot in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) caused by Alternaria alternata in Ecuador. Plant Disease, 103(11), 2949-2949. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0416-PDN

Hajihasani M, Hajihassani A, Khaghani S, 2012. Incidence and distribution of seed-borne fungi associated with wheat in Markazi Province, Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(23):6290-6295. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/abstracts/abs2012/20Mar/Hajihasani%20et%20al.htm

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Ishrat Niaz, Shahnaz Dawar, Uzma Sitara, 2011. Effect of different moisture and storage temperature on seed borne mycoflora of maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43(5):2639-2643. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/43(5)/PJB43(5)2639.pdf

Janmajay Singh, Seweta Srivastava, Shikha, Asha Sinha, Bandana Bose, 2011. Studies on seed mycoflora of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with potassium nitrate and its effect on germination during storage. Research Journal of Seed Science, 4(3):148-156. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=rjss.2011.148.156&org=10

Jurick WM II, Kou LP, Gaskins VL, Luo YG, 2014. First report of Alternaria alternata causing postharvest decay on apple fruit during cold storage in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease, 98(5):690-691. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Jyoti Chauhan, Geeta Singh, 2011. Inhibition of mycelial growth of some seed-borne mycoflora associated with bitter gourd using some chemical fungicides. Journal of Plant Development Sciences, 3(3/4):307-308. http://www.jpds.co.in

Kalyani Kumari, Jadeja GC, Patel ST, 2012. Seed borne mycoflora of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) cultivars collected from different locations of Gujarat. Journal of Plant Disease Sciences, 7(1):55-59

Karakaya A, Çelik A, 2012. First report of alternaria alternata infection of kiwifruit in Turkey. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):181-182. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0079-1/fulltext.html

Khan NA, Beig MA, Khurshid Ahmad, Vinay Sagar, 2009. Die-back of pear - a new record from Jammu & Kashmir. Applied Biological Research, 11(1):47-48. http://www.indianjournals.com

Kiran B, Lalitha V, Raveesha KA, 2011. Antifungal activity of aqueous and solvent extracts of seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. against seed borne fungi of maize. International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences (IJPLS), 2(10):1133-1136. http://www.ijplsjournal.com/issues%20PDF%20files/oct2011/5.pdf

Kumar S, Singh R, Maurya VK, 2015. Indopiptadenia oudhensis (endangered plant): a new host of foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata from Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 6(Special Issue 3):S3-004. http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/indopiptadinea-odhunensis-endangered-plant-a-new-host-of-foliar-pathogen-alternaria-alternata-from-uttar-pradesh-india-2157-7471-1000S3-004.pdf

Lee JungHan, Kim JinWoo, Kwak YounSig, 2013. First report of black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata on sweet persimmon fruits. Mycobiology, 41(3):167-169. http://mycobiology.or.kr/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0184MB/mb-41-167.pdf

Li YanZhong, Nie HongXia, 2016. The causal agents of sainfoin fungal diseases and disease dynamics in Gansu Province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 43(2):222-232

Lin QL, Su HR, He H, 2015. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Bruguiera gymnorrhiza in China. Plant Disease, 99(2):286-287. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Liu, Y. L., Tang, J. R., Wang, C. L., Zhou, Y. H., 2020. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight of taro in Zhanjiang, China. Plant Disease, 104(6), 1868-1868. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-19-2653-PDN

Mao FR, Liu YN, Zhang ZY, Wang LB, Cheng YK, 2016. Alternaria alternata causes black leaf spot of Basella alba in Jilin Province, China. Plant Disease, 100(11):2170. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Marraiki N, Siddiqui I, Rizwana H, Javaid A, 2012. First report of Alternaria alternata leaf spots on spinach in Saudi Arabia. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22(1):247-248. http://www.thejaps.org.pk

Mehmood, N., Riaz, A., Naz, F., Hassan, I., Jaabeen, N., Anwaar, S., Rosli, H., Gleason, M. L., 2018. First report of strawberry leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 102(4), 820. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-17-1464-PDN

Mirhosseini HA, Babaeizad V, 2015. Alternaria alternata causing fruit rot and leaf spot on loquat in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(3):545. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Mirhosseini HA, Babaeizad V, Hashemi L, Basavand E, Heidari-Nezhad AM, 2015. First record of agave leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(1):217. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3263

Mirzwa-Mróz, E., Kukula, W., Frydrych, I., Wit, M., Wakulinski, W., 2018. First report of Alternaria black spot caused by Alternaria alternata on blue honeysuckle in Poland. Plant Disease, 102(4), 820. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-09-17-1452-PDN

Mousakhah M, Jamali A, Khodaparast SA, Olia M, 2014. Incidences of leaf spots, blights and fruit rots of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Guilan province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(4):173-181, Pe385. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_12848_1823.html

Muthukumar A, Venkatesh A, 2013. A new record of leaf blight of ribben plant caused by Alternaria alternata in India. Journal on New Biological Reports, 2(3):228-230. http://www.researchtrend.net/jnbr/VOL%202(3)%202013/2%20JNBR%202_3.pdf

Nagaraja O, Krishnappa M, 2010. Detection of seed-borne nature of Cercospora guizoticola, location and its transmission in niger [Guizotia abyssinica (L F). Cass]. Journal of Plant Disease Sciences, 5(1):16-22

Noelting MC, Sisterna MN, Lori G, Sandoval MC, Molina Mdel C, Mónaco CI, 2011. First report of Alternaria alternata causing discoloration on Amaranthus seeds in Argentina. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):1-2. http://www.springerlink.com/content/65051684nw336248/fulltext.html

Osdaghi E, Kakavandi NR, Nejati M, 2014. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Populus euphratica in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(3):Pe309-Pe310, En145-En146. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_11629_1823.html

Palou L, Montesinos-Herrero C, Taberner V, Vilella-Esplá J, 2013. First report of Alternaria alternata causing postharvest black spot of fresh date palm fruit in Spain. Plant Disease, 97(2):286. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Palou L, Taberner V, Guardado A, Montesinos-Herrero C, 2012. First report of Alternaria alternata causing postharvest black spot of persimmon in Spain. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):41-42. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0043-0/fulltext.html

Pande BJ, Gupta RC, 2011. Role of seed mycoflora on seed germination of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. in Kumaun region of Indian Central Himalaya. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 3(13):715-720. http://www.academicjournals.org/ijbc/PDF/pdf%202011/Dec/Pande%20and%20Gupta.pdf

Parkunan V, Li S, Fonsah EG, Ji P, 2013. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States. Plant Disease, 97(8):1116-1117. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Perveen K, Bokhari N, 2011. First report of Alternaria alternata on Verbesina encelioides in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.72. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Ramanuj Patel, Deepika Patel, Pandey AK, 2014. First report of Alternaria alternata on Chenopodium album L. from India. Biological Forum, 6(2):150-152. http://researchtrend.net/bf12/25%20DR%20RAMANUJ%20PATEL.pdf

Ravindra Kumar, Sweta Srivastava, Asha Sinha, Sarma BK, Deeba Kamil, 2012. First report of Alternaria alternata causing fruit rot disease of Jatropha curcas from India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 42(2):265-266

Sain SK, Gour HN, Sharma P, Chowdhry PN, 2009. A new leaf spot disease of Calotropis gigantea caused by Alternaria alternata in Rajasthan, India. Plant Health Progress, No.March:PHP-2009-0331-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=7912&photo=4439

Sankar NR, Devamma MN, Giridhar D, 2012. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Rumex vesicarius in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):17-18. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-011-0036-4/fulltext.html

Sankar NR, Sreeramulu A, Gopal DS, Bagyanarayana G, 2011. First report of leaf blight of Basella alba caused by Alternaria alternata in India. Plant Disease, 95(11):1476. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Seweta Srivastava, Asha Sinha, Srivastava CP, 2011. Screening of seed-borne mycoflora of Jatropha curcas L. Research Journal of Seed Science, 4(2):94-105. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=rjss.2011.94.105&org=10

Sharma A, Singh V, Singh G, Pati PK, 2013. First report of leaf spot disease in Withania coagulans caused by Alternaria alternata in India. Plant Disease, 97(3):420-421. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sharma IM, Durga Prashad, Shweta Sharma, 2014. Hitherto unreported post harvest diseases of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) from Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 44(2):209-211. http://www.ismpp.org.in/journal.php

Shehzad Shakoor, Sobia Chohan, Abid Riaz, Rashida Perveen, Safina Naz, Mehmood MA, Haider MS, Shakeel Ahmad, 2011. Screening of systemic fungicides and biochemicals against seed borne mycoflora associated with Momordica charantia. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(36):6933-6940. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/full%20text/2011/18Jul/Shakoor%20et%20al.htm

Shi YX, Wang YY, Wang HJ, Chai AL, Li BJ, 2016. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in China. Plant Disease, 100(11):2173. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Shikha Thakur, Harsh NSK, 2014. A new report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Chlorophytum tuberosum. Indian Forester, 140(6):624-625. http://indianforester.co.in

Silva WLda, Singh R, 2012. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Aloe vera in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 96(9):1379. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ska DS, Tylkowska K, Deng CHJ, Gao Y, 2012. Comparison of modified blotter and agar incubation methods for detecting fungi in Zinnia elegans seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 40(1):32-42. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ista/sst/2012/00000040/00000001/art00004

Sommano S, Joyce DC, Dinh SonQuang, D'Arcy B, 2011. Alternaria alternata causes pre-harvest discolouration in Backhousia myrtifolia leaf. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):64-66. http://www.springerlink.com/content/6 g360x77461708j7/fulltext.html

Sun L, Hao Y, Wu YM, Wang L, Liang YC, 2015. First report of Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on Idesia polycarpa in China. Plant Disease, 99(8):1177. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Thippeswamy B, Sowmya HV, Ramalingappa, Krishnappa M, 2011. Location and transmission of Macrophomina phaseolina and Alternaria alternata in okra. International Journal of Plant Protection, 4(1):23-26. http://www.hindagrihorticulturalsociety.co.in

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Waals J E van der, Pitsi B E, Marais C, Wairuri C K, 2011. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight of potatoes in South Africa. Plant Disease. 95 (3), 363. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-10-0820

Waipara N W, Smith L A, Gianotti A F, Wilkie J P, Winks C J, McKenzie E H C, 2005. A survey of fungal plant pathogens associated with weed infestations of barberry (Berberis spp.) in New Zealand and their biocontrol potential. Australasian Plant Pathology. 34 (3), 369-376. DOI:10.1071/AP05049

Wang J H, Qiao B K, Zhang G Y, Liang Y S, Bai Q, Han Y Z, 2020. Occurrence of leaf spot associated with Alternaria alternata on white clover in China. Plant Disease. 104 (6), 1865-1866. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1173-PDN

Wang X F, Li Z A, Tang K Z, Zhou C Y, Yi L, 2010. First report of Alternaria brown spot of citrus caused by Alternaria alternata in Yunnan Province, China. Plant Disease. 94 (3), 375. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0375C

Wang XingYu, Ma Ji, Qiao HuiJun, Guo Min, 2020. Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Dendrobium candidum in Anhui Province, China. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 987-987. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1678-PDN

Wei M, Chen J M, Fu B Z, Li G Y, Wang X S, 2018. First report of brown leaf blight of Shenguyou (Staphylea bumalda) caused by Alternaria alternata in China. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2034. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0151-PDN

Xie Ling, Tang ChenGuang, Cen ZhenLu, Huang SiLiang, Qin BiXia, Qin LiPing, Hu ChunJin, 2009. Identification and characterization of causal agent of sweet Osmanthus leaf blight in Guangxi. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 22 (5), 1358-1362.

Yadav L B, Negi M S, 2016. A new leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on Swertia spp. International Journal of Plant Protection. 9 (1), 362-364. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPP.htm

Yadav L B, Negi M S, 2017. First report of leaf blight disease of medicinal plant Digitalis lanata Ehrh. in India. Environment and Ecology. 35 (2B), 1041-1043. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

Yadav L B, Tiwari A K, Maurya R P, Srivastav R M, 2010. A new record of leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on orchids in Uttarakhand. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 18 (2), 551-552. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Yang W X, Liu F, Zhang N, Ren X D, Liu D Q, 2013. First report of Alternaria alternata causing blight on Zanthoxylum piperitum in China. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 840-841. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Yao J A, Yu D Y, Lu L M, Huang P, Lan C Z, 2015. First report of Alternaria alternata causing black leaf spot on Ficus microcarpa in China. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1652. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Yu C, Wu C, Li G, Wang C, 2018. First report of Diaporthe nobilis causing postharvest rot of blueberry in Shandong Province, China. Plant Disease. 102 (9), 1856-1857. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1816-pdn

Yu YongTing, Zeng LiangBin, Huang LiLi, Yan Zhun, Sun Kai, Zhu TaoTao, Zhu AiGuo, 2016. First report of black leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on ramie in China. Journal of Phytopathology. 164 (5), 358-361. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Zarandi D M, Aminaee M M, Sharzei A, Rezaee S, 2014. First report of peppermint leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 96 (3), 609. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3197/1869

Zhang C Q, Zhang J X, Liu Y H, Dai D J, 2018. First report of black spot in Dendrobium officinale caused by A. alternata in Zhejiang Province, China. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 824. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1090-PDN

Zhang L X, Shi Y R, Yu J H, Xu H, Tan G J, 2016. First report of leaf blight caused by Alternaria alternata on Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim in China. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1021. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0815-PDN

Zhang S L, Liang W X, Yang Q Q, 2018a. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Cotinus coggygria in China. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2644-2645. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0718-PDN

Zhao J, Bao S W, Ma G P, Wu X H, 2016. Characterization of Alternaria species associated with watermelon leaf blight in Beijing municipality of China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (1), 135-138. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3456

Zhao Y Q, Shi K, Zhang L J, Zhang D M, Yu X Y, Dong Y Y, Bi W B, Yu H R, 2016a. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on sorghum in China. Plant Disease. 100 (8), 1782. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-15-1522-PDN

Zhao Y Z, Liu Z H, 2012. First report of black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata on cherry fruits in China. Plant Disease. 96 (10), 1580. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0416-PDN

Zheng H H, Wu X H, 2013. First report of alternaria blight of potato caused by Alternaria tenuissima in China. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1246. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0763-PDN

Zheng L, Lv R, Li Q, Huang J, Wang Y, Hsiang T, 2011. First report of leaf spot of Houttuynia cordata caused by Alternaria alternata in China. Plant Disease. 95 (3), 359. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-10-0724

Zhou L X, Xu W X, 2014. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spots of tea (Camellia sinensis) in China. Plant Disease. 98 (5), 697. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-13-1086-PDN

Zhou Z, Li Y L, Yuan C Y, Duan P L, 2014. First report of Alternaria alternata causing a leaf spot on Philodendron 'con-go' in China. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1588. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0726-PDN

Ziedan E S H E S, 2012. First report of Alternaria pod blight of okra in Egypt. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 8 (7), 2239-2243. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v8_n7_12_December/8_IJAT_2012_8(7)_El-%20Sayed%20Hussein%20-%20Plant%20Pathology.pdf

Zimowska B, 2015. Fungi threatening the cultivation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in south-eastern Poland. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus. 14 (4), 65-78. http://www.acta.media.pl/pl/full/7/2015/000070201500014000040006500078.pdf

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