Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paratrichodorus minor
(stubby root nematode)

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Datasheet

Paratrichodorus minor (stubby root nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paratrichodorus minor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • stubby root nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Trichodoridae
  •         Genus: Paratrichodorus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. Female. B. Vulva and vagina, lateral. C. Vulva and vagina, ventral. D. Anterior end of female, lateral. E, F. Posterior end of male; E. lateral , F. ventral.

Reproduced from Hooper DJ, 1977. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 7, No. 103. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleP. minor - line drawing
CaptionA. Female. B. Vulva and vagina, lateral. C. Vulva and vagina, ventral. D. Anterior end of female, lateral. E, F. Posterior end of male; E. lateral , F. ventral. Reproduced from Hooper DJ, 1977. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 7, No. 103. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
CopyrightCAB International
A. Female. B. Vulva and vagina, lateral. C. Vulva and vagina, ventral. D. Anterior end of female, lateral. E, F. Posterior end of male; E. lateral , F. ventral.

Reproduced from Hooper DJ, 1977. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 7, No. 103. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
P. minor - line drawingA. Female. B. Vulva and vagina, lateral. C. Vulva and vagina, ventral. D. Anterior end of female, lateral. E, F. Posterior end of male; E. lateral , F. ventral. Reproduced from Hooper DJ, 1977. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 7, No. 103. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran, 1956) Siddiqi, 1974

Preferred Common Name

  • stubby root nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Nanidorus christiei (Allen, 1957) Siddiqi, 1974
  • Nanidorus minor (Colbran, 1956) Siddiqi, 1974
  • Paratrichodorus christiei (Allen, 1957) Siddiqi 1974
  • Paratrichodorus obesus (Razj. & Pent., 1975) Rodr. & Bell, 1978
  • Trichodorus christiei Allen, 1957
  • Trichodorus minor Colbran, 1956
  • Trichodorus obesus Razjivin & Penton, 1975

International Common Names

  • Spanish: nematodo de christie (Mexico); nematodo de las raices
  • Portuguese: raizes curtas e grossas; raizes curtas e rombas

Local Common Names

  • Sweden: stubbrotsnematoder

EPPO code

  • TRIHCH (Paratrichodorus christiei)
  • TRIHMI (Paratrichodorus minor)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Trichodoridae
  •                 Genus: Paratrichodorus
  •                     Species: Paratrichodorus minor

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresent, Widespread
Cabo VerdePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent2011
KenyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-HainanPresent
-YunnanPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
VietnamPresent

Europe

GreecePresent
ItalyPresent, Few occurrences
-SicilyPresent
PortugalPresent, Few occurrences
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)Present, Widespread
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent, Few occurrences

North America

CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
CubaPresent
MartiniquePresent
NicaraguaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiAbsent, Eradicated
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OregonPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent, Widespread
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread
FijiPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
EcuadorPresent
French GuianaPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / stubby roots
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arthrobotrys amerospora Predator

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesWith soil Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants nematodes/adults; nematodes/eggs; nematodes/juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots nematodes/adults; nematodes/eggs; nematodes/juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants nematodes/adults; nematodes/eggs; nematodes/juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Aballay, E., Eriksson, B., 2006. Trichodorid nematodes in the central area of Chile. Nematologia Mediterranea, 34(1), 43-48.

Aballay, E., Persson, P., Mårtensson, A., 2009. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Chilean vineyards. Nematropica, 39(1), 85-97. http://fulltext10.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00995444/0039_001/85-98.pdf

Allen MW, 1957. A review of the nematode genus Trichodorus with descriptions of ten new species. Nematologica, 2:32-62.

Allen MW, 1960. The genera Xiphinema, Longidorus and Trichodorus. In: Sasser JN, Jenkins WR, eds. Nematology. Fundamentals and Recent Advances with Emphasis on Plant Parasitic and Soil Forms. Chapel Hill, USA: The University of North Carolina Press, 227-228.

Anwar SA, 1994. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Paratrichodorus minor on the growth of tomato. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 4(2):155-160.

Apt WJ; Koike H, 1962. Influence of the stubby-root nematode on growth of sugarcane in Hawaii. Phytopathology, 52:963-964.

AYALA A; ALLEN MW; NOFFSINGER EM, 1970. Host range, biology, and factors affecting survival and reproduction of the stubby root nematode. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 54:341-369.

Ayala A; Gonzalez-Tejera E; Irizarry N, 1969. Pineapple nematodes and their control. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of tropical crops. St. Albans, UK: Technical Communication. Commonwealth Bureau of Helminthology, 40:210-224.

Barbecker ME; Broembsen SL von, 1986. Effects of soil solarization on plant-parasitic nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi in South Africa. Plant Disease, 70:945-950.

Barker KR; Lucas GB, 1984. Nematode parasites of tobacco. In: Nickle WR, ed. Plant and Insect nematodes. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 218-242.

Baujard P, 1983. Observations sur les Trichodoridae Thorne, 1935 (Nematoda) de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Revue de Nématologie, 8:35-39.

Baujard P; Martigny B, 1995a. Ecology and pathogenicity of four trichodorid species from the semi-arid region of West Africa. Nematologica, 41:98-105.

Birchfield W, 1984. Nematode Parasite of Sugarcane. In: Nickle WK, ed. Plant and Insect Nematodes. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker Inc., 571-588.

Bird GW; Goodman RM; Mai WF, 1968. Observations on the embryogenesis of trichodorus christiei (Nematoidea: Diphtherophoroidea). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 46:292-293.

Bird GW; Jenkins WR, 1964. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with cranberry. Phytopathology, 54:677-680.

Bird GW; Mai WF, 1968. Morphometric and allometric variations of Trichodorus christiei. Nematologica, 13(1967):617-632.

Braasch H; Sturhan D, 1991. On the occurrence of Paratrichodorus renifer Siddiqi, 1974 and P. minor (Colbran, 1956) in Europe. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 43(6):113-115; 33 ref.

Bridge J; Page SLJ, 1984. Plant nematode pests of crops in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, 1:99-109.

Brodie BB, 1976. Vertical distribution of three nematode species in relation to certain soil properties. Journal of Nematology, 8(3):243-247

Brodie BB, 1984. Nematode parasites of potato. In: Nickle WR, ed. Plant and Insect Nematodes. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 167-212.

Brodie BB; Murphy WS, 1975. Population dynamics of plant nematodes as affected by combinations of fallow and cropping sequence. Journal of Nematology, 7(1):91-92

Brown DJF; Ploeg AT; Robinson DJ, 1989. A review of reported associations between Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus species (Nematoda : Trichodoridae) and tobraviruses with a description of laboratory methods for examining virus transmission by trichodorids. Revue de Nematologie, 12(3):235-241

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Paratrichodorus minor. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 870. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cadet P; Van den berg E, 1992. Les nématodes phytoparasites de la montagne pelée à la Martinique. Compte rendu de la Société de Biogéographie, 68:89-104.

Campos VP; Sturhan D, 1987. Occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on vegetables in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Nematologica Brasileira, 11:153-158.

Cassida, K. A., Kirkpatrick, T. L., Robbins, R. T., Muir, J. P., Venuto, B. C., Hussey, M. A., 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown for biofuel in the South Central United States. Nematropica, 35(1), 1-10. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/

Chaves E, 1984. Observations on plant parasitic nematodes from Argentina. Ph D. Dissertation, Rijksuniversiteit Gent.

Chellemi DO; Olson SM; Scott JW; Mitchell DJ; McSorley R, 1994. Reduction of phytoparasitic nematodes on tomato by soil solarization and genotype. Journal of Nematology, 25(4 Supp):800-805; 19 ref.

Christie JR, 1953. Ectoparasitic nematodes of plants. Phytopathology, 43:295-297.

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes: Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida.

Christie JR; Perry VG, 1951. A root disease caused by a nematode of the genus Trichodorus. Science, 113:491-493.

CIH, 1977. Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, Set 7, No. 103. Wallingford UK: CAB International.

Clark JR; Riggs RD; Moore JN, 1987. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with highbush blueberry in Arkansas. HortScience, 22:408-409.

Clark JR; Robbins RT, 1994. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in Arkansas. Journal of Nematology, 26(4 Supp.):761-766; 12 ref.

Colbran RC, 1956. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 1. Two new species from Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 13:123-126.

Collins RJ, 1972. Relationship of fertilizer treatments and cropping sequence to populations of plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32B(12):6770-6771

Conroy JJ; Green RJ; Jr, 1974. Interactions of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the stubby root nematode Trichodorus christiei with Vertillium albo-atrum on tomato at controlled inoculum densities. Phytopathology, 64:118-1121.

Costa Manso E; Tenete RCV; Ferraz LCB; Oliveira RS; Mesquita R, 1994. Catalogo de nematoides fitoparasitos encontrados associados a diferentes tipos de plantas no Brasil. Brasilia: EMBRAPA-SPI.

Craveiro MT; Santos MSN De A, 1984. Studies on Trichodoridae found in Portugal. In: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Nematology, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Gainesville, Florida: A.S.A.

Crow, W. T., 2005. Diagnosis of Trichodorus obtusus and Paratrichodorus minor on turfgrasses in the Southeastern United States. Plant Health Progress, (January), 1-7. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/

Decraemer W, 1995. The family Trichodoridae: stubby root and virus vector nematodes. The family Trichodoridae: stubby root and virus vector nematodes., xvi + 360 pp.; [Developments In Plant Pathology 6]; 15 pp. of ref.

Decraemer W; Chaves E, 1988. Morphology of the reproductive system and structure of sperm cells in some species of the genus Paratrichodorus with uncommon males (Nematoda: Diphtherophorina). Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 11(4):405-409; 12 ref.

Duncan RA; Stapleton JJ; McKenry MV, 1992. Establishment of orchards with black polyethylene film mulching: effect on nematode and fungal pathogens, water conservation, and tree growth. Journal of Nematology, 24(4, Supplement):681-687

Evans K; Trudgill DL; Webster JM, 1993. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ferraz LCCB; Pitelli RA; Soubhia F, 1982. Nematodes associated with weeds in the region of Jaboticabal. Second report. Planta Daninha, 5(1):1-5

Fortuner R; Couturier G, 1983. Plant parasitic nematodes of the forest of Tai (Ivory Coast). Revue de Nematologie, 6(1):3-10

Good JM; Murphy WS; Brodie BB, 1973. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: length of rotation in newly cleared and old agricultural land. Journal of Nematology, 5(2):117-122

Griffin GD, 1984. Nematode parasites in alfalfa, cereals and grasses. In: Nickle WR, ed. Plant and Insect Nematodes. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 8:243-321.

Hafez SL; Raski DJ; Lownsbery BF, 1981. Effects of Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran) Siddiqi on Thompson seedless grapevine. Revue de Nematologie, 4(1):115-120

Haroon SA; Abadir SH, 1989. The effect of four summer legume cover crops on the population level of Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus penetrans and Trichodorus christiei. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(2):25-35; 3 ref.

Harrison RE; SmartGC Jr, 1975. Vertical distribution of Trichodorus christiei and Trichodorus proximus relative to soil moisture. Journal of Nematology, 7(4):324

Hassilrot de Gomez T, 1988. Los nematodes fitofag mas comunes: sus relaciones fitoparasiticas, sintomatologia y dano a las plantas. Miscelanea, 80:5-20.

Heyns J, 1975. Paratrichodorus christiei. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5(No. 69):4 pp.

Hoff JK; Mai MF, 1962. Pathogenicity of the stubby root nematode to onion. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:24.

Hooper DJ, 1962. Three new species of Trichodorus (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea) and observations on T. minor Colbran, 1956. Nematologica, 7:273-280.

Hu CH; Tsai TK; Chu HT, 1968. The nematode investigation in sugarcane fields of Taiwan and effects of soil fumigation. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 13:1262-1269.

IFAS Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 1989. Florida Nematode Control Guide Entomology and Nematology. Gainesville, USA: Department and Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida.

Jairajpuri MS; Ahmad W, 1992. Dorylaimida - Free-living, predaceous and plant-parasitic nematodes. Dorylaimida - Free-living, predaceous and plant-parasitic nematodes., xii + 458 pp.; [Distributed outside India by E. J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands., Distributed outside India by E. J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands].

Johnson AW, 1975. Resistance of sweet corn cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(4):373-376

Johnson AW; Chalfant RB, 1973. Influence of organic pesticides on nematodes and corn earworm damage on yield of sweet corn. Journal of Nematology, 5:177-180.

Johnson AW; Dowler CC; Glaze NC; Sumner DR, 1983. Effects of intensive cropping systems and pesticides on nematode populations and crop yields. Effects of intensive cropping systems and pesticides on nematode populations and crop yields. Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture New Orleans, Louisiana USA, iv + 36pp.

Johnson AW; Dowler CC; Glaze NC; Sumner DR; Chalfant RB; Golden AM; Epperson JE, 1990. Effects of nematicides on nematode population densities and crop yield in a turnip-corn-pea cropping system. Phytoprotection, 71(2):55-63; 15 ref.

Johnson AW; Dowler CC; Hauser EW, 1974. Seasonal population dynamics of selected plant-parasitic nematodes on four monocultured crops. Journal of Nematology, 6:187-190.

Johnson AW; Dowler CC; Hauser EW, 1975. Crop rotation and herbicide effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 7(2):158-168

Jones JP; Overman AJ, 1976. Tomato wilts, nematodes, and yields as affected by soil reaction and persistent contact nematicide. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(11):913-917

Jordaan EM; van den Berg E; De Waele D, 1992. Plant-parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa. 5. Wheat. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15:531-537.

Karanastasi E; Neilson R; Decraemer W, 2006. First record of two trichodorid nematode species Paratrichodorus minor and Trichodorus sparsus (Nematoda: Trichodoridae Thorne 1935) from Greece. Annals of the Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 20(2):129-133.

Khan FA; Erinle ID; Chindo PS, 1993. Survey of plant parasitic nematodes associated with grapevine in 4 northern states of Nigeria and observations on grapevine fanleaf virus. Journal of African Zoology, 107(5):505-510

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Lucas LT; Barker KR; Blake CT, 1978. Seasonal changes in nematode densities on bentgrass golf greens in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(4):373-376

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Malek RB; Gartner JB, 1975. Hardwood bark as a soil amendment for suppression of plant parasitic nematodes on container-grown plants. HortScience, 10(1):33-35

Mamiya Y, 1967. Descriptive notes on three species of Trichodorus (Dorylaimida: Trichodoridae) from forest nurseries in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 2:61-68.

Mamiya Y, 1969. Plant parasitic neamtodes associated with coniferous seedlings in forest nurseries in Eastern Japan. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station, 219:94-118.

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Maqbool MA, 1992. Nematode pests of economic importance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific Region. Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, Technical Document No. 140/1991. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok, Thailand.

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McSorley R; Dickson DW, 1990. Vertical distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in sandy soil under maize. Plant and Soil, 123(1):95-100; 19 ref.

McSorley R; Gallaher RN, 1992. Comparison of nematode population densities on six summer crops at seven sites in north Florida. Journal of Nematology, 24(4, Supplement):699-706; 23 ref.

McSorley R; Gallaher RN, 1994. Effect of crop rotation and tillage on nematode densities in tropical corn. Journal of Nematology, 25(4 Supp):814-819; 27 ref.

McSorley R; Gallaher RN, 1994. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn. Journal of Nematology, 26(4 Supp.):669-674; 16 ref.

Meressa, B. H., Prior, T., Mekete, T., Hallmann, J., 2015. Descriptions of four new records of plant-parasitic nematode species from commercial cut-flowers in Ethiopia. Nematoda, 2, e01115. http://nematoda.org/files/v2n1/nematodaAO01115.pdf

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Morton HV; Perry VG, 1968. Life cycle and reproductive potential of Trichodorus christiei. Nematologica, 14:11.

Moura RM; Almeida AV, 1982. Estudos preliminares sobre ocorrencia de fitonematoides associados à cana de atucar em areas baixa produtividade agricola no Estado de Pernambuco. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, 5:213-220.

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Netscher C; Luc M, 1974. Nématodes associés aux cultures maraîchFres en Mauritanie. L'Agronomie tropicale, Nogent, 29: 697-701.

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O'Bannon JH; Stokes DE, 1978. An ecological study of a nematode complex in a Florida citrus grove. Nematologia Mediterranea, 6(1):57-65

Olthof THA; Marks CF; Potter JW; Townshend JL, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance in Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 103:3-5

Orton Williams KJ, 1980. Plant parasitic nematodes of the Pacific. Plant parasitic nematodes of the Pacific. Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology (on behalf of SPEC/UNDP/FAO/CAB). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 192 pp.

Overman AJ, 1964. The effect of temperature and flooding on nematode survival in fallow sandy soil. Proceedings Soil Crop Science Society of Florida, 24:141-149.

Paxton JD, 1975. Phytoalexins, phenolics, and other antibiotics in roots resistant to soil-borne fungi. In: Bruehl GW, ed. Biology and control of soil-borne plant pathogens. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, Minnesota USA, 185-192

Perry VG; Rhoades HL, 1982. The trichodorid nematodes. In: Riggs RD, ed. Nematology in the Southern Region of the United States. Southern cooperative Series Bulletin 276. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas, Fayetville, 383-386.

Ponte JD; da, 1987. Os nematoides co caupi e sua importancia. Nematologia brasileira, 11:36-41.

Pourjam E; Asghari R; Ramaji FA; Heydari R, 2012. Some species of plant parasitic nematode from Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 47(4):Pe419-Pe434, En141-En143. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=500&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Rashid F; de Waele D; Coomans A, 1986. Trichodoridae (Nematoda) from Brazil. Nematologica, 31(1985):289-320.

Razzhivin AA; Penton G, 1975. A new species of the genus Trichodorus (Nematoda) from the rhizosphere of sugar cane in Cuba. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 54(7):1082-1083

Rhoades HL, 1962. Effects of sting and stubby-root nematodes on St. Augustine grass. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:424-427.

Rhoades HL, 1964. Effect of Crotalaria spectabilis and Sesbania exaltata on plant nematode populations and subsequent yield of snap beans and cabbage. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 77:233-237.

Rhoades HL, 1968. Re-establishment of Trichodorus christiei in subsequent soil fumigation in central Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:573-575.

Rhoades HL, 1969. Nematicide efficacy in controlling sting and stubby-root nematodes attacking onions in central Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:728-730.

Rich JR; Dunn RA, 1982. Pathogenicity and control of nematodes affecting sunflower in North Central Florida. Plant Disease, 66(4):297-298

Robbins RT; Riggs RD; Von Steen D, 1987. Results of annual phytoparasitic nematode surveys of Arkansas soybean fields, 1978-1986. Annals of Applied Nematology, 1:50-55.

Roca F; Lamberti F, 1984. Trichodorids (Nematoda) from Italy. Nematologia Mediterranea, 12(1):95-118

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Collins RJ; Rodriguez-Kabana R, 1980. Relation of fertilizer treatments and cropping sequence to populations of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Organization of Tropical American Nematologists: Remaining abstracts of papers presented at the XI Annual Meeting of OTAN, Charleston, South Carolina, 10-14 June 1979. Nematropica, 10:1, 4.

Rodriguez-Kabana R; Penick HW; King PS; Gray FA; Carden EL; McDaniel NR; Selman FB, 1979. Efficacy of planting-time applications of 1,3-dichloropropene for control of nematodes on soybean. Nematropica, 9(1):66-71

Rodriguez-M R; Bell AH, 1978. External morphology of the spicules of some Trichodoridae. Journal of Nematology, 10:132-141.

Rohde RA; Jenkins WR, 1957. Host range of a species of Trichodorus and its host-parasite relationships on tomato. Phytopathology, 47:295-298.

Saka VW; Siddiqi MA, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with plants in Malawi. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(11):945-948

Sasser JN; Barker KR; Nelson LA, 1975. Chemical soil treatment for nematode control on peanut and soybean. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(2):154-158

Schilt HG; Cohn E, 1975. Pathogenicity and population increase of Paratrichodorus minor as influenced by some environmental factors. Nematologica, 21(1):71-80

Schneider SM; Ferris H, 1987. Stage-specific population development and fecundity of Paratrichodorus minor. Journal of Nematology, 19:395-403.

Sharma SB; Siddiqi MR; Van NV; Hong NX, 1994. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with groundnut in North Vietnam. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 4(2):185-189; 11 ref.

Shishida Y, 1979. Studies on nematodes parasitic on woody plants. 1. Family Trichodoridae (Thorne, 1933) Clark, 1961. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 9:28-44

Siddiqi MR, 1962. Trichodorus pakistanensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Trichodoridae) with observations on T. porosus Allen, 1957, T. mirzai Siddiqi, 1960, and T. minor Colbran, 1956, from India. Nematologica, 8:193-200.

Siddiqi MR, 1963. Trichodorus spp. (Nematoda: Trichodoridae) from Tunisia and Nicaragua. Nematologica, 9:69-75.

Siddiqi MR, 1973. Systematics of the genus Trichodorus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida), with descriptions of three new species. Nematologica, 19(3):259-278

Silva RA; Oliveira CMG; Inomoto MM, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(3):204-211. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Society of Nematologists, 1984. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in North America. A project of the Nematode Geographical Distribution Committee of the Society of Nematologists. Society of Nematologists.

Spaull VW; Cadet P, 1990. Nematode parasites of sugarcane. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 461-491.

Standifer MS; Perry VG, 1960. Some effects of sting and stubby root nematodes on grapefruit roots. Phytopathology, 50:152-156.

Streu HT, 1975. Insect, mite, and nematode control on azaleas. In: Kofranek AM, Larson RA, ed. Growing azaleas commercially. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California. Davis, California USA, 89-96

Sturhan D, 1989. Hermaphroditism in Paratrichodorus species (Nemata: Dorylaimida). Revue de Nematologie, 12(3):273-276.

Swarup G; Sosa-Moss C, 1990. Nematode Parasites of Cereals. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 109-136.

Tarjan AC; Frederick JJ, 1984. Comparative nematicidal efficacies of several commercial products on bermudagrass. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 97:300-304.

Thomasson IJ; Sher SA, 1957. Influence of the stubby root nematode on growth of alfalfa. Phytopathology, 47:159-161.

Timper, P., Hanna, W. W., 2005. Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratrichodorus minor, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Journal of Nematology, 37(2), 214-219.

Timper, P., Krakowsky, M. D., Snook, M. E., 2007. Resistance in maize to Paratrichodorus minor. Nematropica, 37(1), 9-20. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/

Tu CC; Cheng YS; Kuo FL, 1972. An investigation on cotton nematodes of Taiwan and a preliminary study on the effects of reniform nematode, root-knot nematode and stubby-root nematode on cotton. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 14:95-109

Van Gundy SD; Kirkpatrick JD, 1975. Nematode-nematode interactions on tomato. Journal of Nematology, 7(4):330-331

Venter C; De Waele D; van Eeden CF, 1992. Plant-parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa. 4. Groundnut. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15:7-14.

Vermeulen WJJ; Heyns J, 1983. Studies on Trichodoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from South Africa. Phytophylactica, 15(1):17-34

Wang SH; Wu XY, 1991. Species and distribution of nematodes from the rhizosphere of grapes in China. In: Huang KX, ed. Thesis on the first Symposium of All-China Young-Middle Age's Scientists on Plant Protection. Beijing, China: Science & Technology Press, 212-219.

Winfield AL; Cooke DA, 1975. The ecology of Trichodorus. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, ed. Nematode vectors of plant viruses. Plenum Press. London & New York, USA UK, 309-340

Yeates Y, 1987. How plants affect nematodes. In: Macfadyen, Ford EB, eds. Advances in Ecological Research. London, UK: Academic Press Inc., 17:61-113.

Zeng, Y. S., Ye, W. M., Tredway, L., Martin, S., Martin, M., 2012. Taxonomy and morphology of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with turfgrasses in north and South Carolina, USA. Zootaxa, 3452, 1-46. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03452p046.pdf

Zinno Y; Igarashi Y, 1972. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with coniferous seedlings in Shikoku, Japan. Bulletin of the Governmental Forestry Experimental Station, Meguro, Tokyo, Japan, No 246:11-20.

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Lucas LT, 1985. Evaluation of nematicides for sting and stubby root nematode control in Bermuda Grass, 1985. In: Fungicide and nematicide Tests, 41 74.

Mamiya Y, 1969. Plant parasitic neamtodes associated with coniferous seedlings in forest nurseries in Eastern Japan. In: Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station, 219 94-118.

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Robbins R T, Riggs R D, Von Steen D, 1987. Results of annual phytoparasitic nematode surveys of Arkansas soybean fields, 1978-1986. Annals of Applied Nematology. 50-55.

Roca F, Lamberti F, 1984. Trichodorids (Nematoda) from Italy. Nematologia Mediterranea. 12 (1), 95-118.

Rodriguez-Kabana R, Penick H W, King P S, Gray F A, Carden E L, McDaniel N R, Selman F B, 1979. Efficacy of planting-time applications of 1,3-dichloropropene for control of nematodes on soybean. Nematropica. 9 (1), 66-71.

Saka V W, Siddiqi M A, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with plants in Malawi. Plant Disease Reporter. 63 (11), 945-948.

Sharma S B, Siddiqi M R, Van N V, Hong N X, 1994. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with groundnut in North Vietnam. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology. 4 (2), 185-189.

Siddiqi MR, 1962. Trichodorus pakistanensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Trichodoridae) with observations on T. porosus Allen, 1957, T. mirzai Siddiqi, 1960, and T. minor Colbran, 1956, from India. In: Nematologica, 8 193-200.

Silva R A, Oliveira C M G, Inomoto M M, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.). Tropical Plant Pathology. 33 (3), 204-211. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Society of Nematologists, 1984. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in North America. In: A project of the Nematode Geographical Distribution Committee of the Society of Nematologists, Society of Nematologists.

Sturhan D, 1989. Hermaphroditism in Paratrichodorus species (Nemata: Dorylaimida). Revue de Nématologie. 12 (3), 273-276.

Timper P, Hanna W W, 2005. Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratrichodorus minor, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Journal of Nematology. 37 (2), 214-219.

Timper P, Krakowsky M D, Snook M E, 2007. Resistance in maize to Paratrichodorus minor. Nematropica. 37 (1), 9-20. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/

Wang SH, Wu XY, 1991. Species and distribution of nematodes from the rhizosphere of grapes in China. In: Thesis on the first Symposium of All-China Young-Middle Age's Scientists on Plant Protection, [ed. by Huang KX]. Beijing, China: Science & Technology Press. 212-219.

Yeates G W, 1987. How plants affect nematodes. Advances in Ecological Research. 61-113. DOI:10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60244-5

Zeng Y S, Ye W M, Tredway L, Martin S, Martin M, 2012. Taxonomy and morphology of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with turfgrasses in north and South Carolina, USA. Zootaxa. 1-46. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03452p046.pdf

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