Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Apple stem pitting virus
(apple Spy 227 epinasty & decline)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Apple stem pitting virus (apple Spy 227 epinasty & decline)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apple stem pitting virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple Spy 227 epinasty & decline
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Tymovirales
  •         Family: Betaflexiviridae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Vein yellows on a leaf of the pear cultivar Williams, healthy control below.
TitleLeaf symptoms
CaptionVein yellows on a leaf of the pear cultivar Williams, healthy control below.
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Vein yellows on a leaf of the pear cultivar Williams, healthy control below.
Leaf symptomsVein yellows on a leaf of the pear cultivar Williams, healthy control below.Biologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Necrotic local lesions and systemic vein yellowing on N. occidentalis '37B'. Primary inoculated leaf, healthy control, systemic infection from left to right.
TitleHealthy and symptomatic leaf comparison
CaptionNecrotic local lesions and systemic vein yellowing on N. occidentalis '37B'. Primary inoculated leaf, healthy control, systemic infection from left to right.
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Necrotic local lesions and systemic vein yellowing on N. occidentalis '37B'. Primary inoculated leaf, healthy control, systemic infection from left to right.
Healthy and symptomatic leaf comparisonNecrotic local lesions and systemic vein yellowing on N. occidentalis '37B'. Primary inoculated leaf, healthy control, systemic infection from left to right.Biologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Epinasty and decline of Spy 227. Healthy tree on the right.
TitleHealthy and symptomatic tree comparison
CaptionEpinasty and decline of Spy 227. Healthy tree on the right.
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Epinasty and decline of Spy 227. Healthy tree on the right.
Healthy and symptomatic tree comparisonEpinasty and decline of Spy 227. Healthy tree on the right.Biologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
TitleStem pitting on Virginia Crab
Caption
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Stem pitting on Virginia CrabBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
TitleStem pitting in Virginia Crab above the graft union
Caption
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Stem pitting in Virginia Crab above the graft unionBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Red mottling on leaves of Kirchensaller seedling.
TitleSymptoms on Kirchensaller leaves
CaptionRed mottling on leaves of Kirchensaller seedling.
CopyrightBiologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany
Red mottling on leaves of Kirchensaller seedling.
Symptoms on Kirchensaller leavesRed mottling on leaves of Kirchensaller seedling.Biologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apple stem pitting virus

Preferred Common Name

  • apple Spy 227 epinasty & decline

International Common Names

  • English: pear red mottle; pear stony pit; pear vein yellows; quince sooty ringspot

Local Common Names

  • Croatia: Rupicavost debla
  • Czechoslovakia (former): M iká vraseitost kmene jablon, Danishi Grubet ved
  • Finland: omenan kuoppaisuus
  • France: bois strié du pommier
  • Germany: stammnarbung
  • Greece: vothriosi kormou milias
  • Hungary: alma törzsgödrösödés
  • Italy: butterature del legno del melo
  • Japan: ringo taka-tsugi byo
  • Mexico: madera picada del manzano
  • Netherlands: houtpout
  • Norway: eple rillet ved
  • Poland: jamkovatosc
  • Romania: strierea tulpinii marului
  • Serbia: jamicavost stabla
  • Slovakia: plytká vráskavost' kmena jablone
  • Spain: madera estriada del manzano
  • Sweden: gropig ved
  • Turkey: elma gövde cukurlasma

English acronym

  • ASPV

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Tymovirales
  •                 Family: Betaflexiviridae
  •                     Genus: Foveavirus
  •                         Species: Apple stem pitting virus

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresentLemma et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentMahfoudhi et al. (2011); Mahfoudhi et al. (2013)

Asia

ChinaPresentHan et al. (1991); Li et al. (1993); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GansuPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentLiu et al. (1983); CABI/EPPO (2012)
-ShaanxiPresentLi et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentLeng HuaiQiong and Cai RuXi (1996); CABI/EPPO (2012)
-XinjiangPresentZhao Ying and Niu JianXin (2008); CABI/EPPO (2012)
GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
IndiaPresentDhir et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); Brakta et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentDhir et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentDhir et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012)
IranPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); Abtahi et al. (2014)Alborz, Tehran, Markazi, Hamedan, Lorestan, Ghazvin, Mazandaran
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
JapanPresentMink et al. (1973); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated);
LebanonPresentEPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentOh et al. (1973); Hong and Oh (1982); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentWu et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentMyrta et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2012)
AustriaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)
BelgiumPresentKummert et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2012)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentLolić et al. (2007); CABI/EPPO (2012)
BulgariaPresentTopchiiska (1972); CABI/EPPO (2012)
CzechiaPresentKundu (2003); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBlattny et al. (1975); Janečková and Blattný (1984)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Schwarz and Jelkmann (1997)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentChaduneli and Menabde (1977); Tatarinov (1994)
DenmarkPresentLarsen (1977); CABI/EPPO (2012)
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO (2012); Desvignes and Savio (1975); Lemoine (1977); Desvignes (1980); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentKegler et al. (1979); Jelkmann et al. (1992); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO (2012); Mathioudakis et al. (2010);
HungaryPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
ItalyPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); Refatti et al. (1983); Pilotti et al. (1995); CABI (Undated)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Pu¯pola et al. (2011)
NetherlandsPresentLeone et al. (1995); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated);
NorwayPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
PolandPresentZawadzka et al. (1979); Rebandel et al. (1990); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); Castilho (1982); CABI (Undated);
RomaniaPresentMinoiu (1977); CABI/EPPO (2012)
SerbiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
SpainPresentGella (1989); CABI/EPPO (2012)
SwedenPresentRyden (1977); Ǻhman (1995); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresentBondarenko (1979); CABI/EPPO (2012)
United KingdomPresentPosnette and Cropley (1963); Sweet (1980); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)

North America

CanadaPresentWarner and Heeney (1985); Hansen (1989); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
United StatesPresentMillikan and Guengerich (1959); TUKEY and MINK (1961); Waterworth (1976); Yanase et al. (1989); CABI/EPPO (2012)
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadRodoni and Constable (2008); CABI/EPPO (2012)
New ZealandPresentWood (1972); Wood (1974); CABI/EPPO (2012); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentRossini et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012)
BrazilPresentLeite and Bleicher (1993); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)
-Sao PauloPresentFreitas-Astua et al. (2004); CABI/EPPO (2012)
UruguayPresentCABI/EPPO (2012)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Leaves / necrotic areas

References

Top of page

1991. Certification scheme. Virus-free or virus-tested fruit trees and rootstocks. Part I. Basic scheme and its elaboration. Bulletin OEPP, 21(2):267-277

Abtahi FS; Shams-Bakhsh M; Safaie N, 2014. First report of Apple stem pitting virus infection of apple trees in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(3):Pe307-Pe308, En143. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_11628_1823.html

Ahman G, 1995. Viruses in apple. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 59:52-55.

Ambrosau AL; Badzyai SV, 1977. Distribution of virus infection among some regionalized and promising apple cultivars. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR, Biyalagichnykh Navuk, 4:31-33

Balogh Z; Lautner G; Bardóczy V; Komorowska B; Gyurcsányi RE; Mészáros T, 2010. Selection and versatile application of virus-specific aptamers. FASEB Journal, 24(11):4187-4195. http://www.fasebj.org/

Blattny C; Zimandl B; Janeckova M, 1975. Heat therapeutic treatment of selected apple cultivars infected with latent viruses. Sbornik UVTI, Zahradnictvi, 2 (5)(1):11-21

Bondarenko PE, 1979. Latent viruses of apple and the selection of virus-free clones. Sadivnitstvo, 27:76-80; 103

Brakta A; Thakur PD; Handa A, 2013. First report of apple top working disease caused by viruses (Apple stem grooving virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, and Apple stem pitting virus) in apple in India. Plant Disease, 97(7):1001-1002. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Brunt AA; Crabtree K; Dallwitz MJ; Gibbs AJ; Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

Brunt AA; Crabtree K; Dallwitz MJ; Gibbs AJ; Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Apple stem pitting virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1120 (Edition 1).

Çaglayan K; Serçe ÇU; Gazel M; Jelkmann W, 2006. Detection of four apple viruses by ELISA and RT-PCR assays in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 30(4):241-246. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/

Cameron HR, 1989. Pear vein yellows. In: Fridlund PR, ed. Virus and Virus like Diseases of Pome Fruits and Simulating Noninfectious Disorders. Washington, USA: Cooperative Extension College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Washington State University Pullman, 175-181.

Campbell AI, 1963. The effect of some latent virus infections on the growth and cropping of apples. Journal of Horticultural Science, 38:15-19.

Campbell AI, 1966. The growth of young pears after elimination of some viruses by heat treatment. Report of Long Ashton Research Station 1965, 111-116.

Campbell AI, 1967. The effect of some pear viruses on the growth and compatibility of a number of Pyrus species and near relatives. Journal of Horticultural Science, 42:133-138.

Campbell AI; Bould C, 1970. Virus, fertilizer and rootstock effects on the growth and precocity of young apple trees. Journal of Horticultural Science, 45:75-85.

Campbell AI; Sparks TR, 1977. Virus induced changes in the growth of pome fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 75:123-132.

Castilho MB, 1982. Virus diseases of apple in Northern Portugal. Garcia de Orta, Estudos Agronomicos, 9(1/2):271-273

Chaduneli MD; Menabde DA, 1977. Study of latent apple viruses in Georgia. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 88(2):445-447

Corvo LM; Sequeira OA de, 1977. Latent viruses of apple in Portugal. Agronomia Lusitana, 38(2):99-110

Cropley R; Posnette AF, 1973. The effect of viruses on growth and cropping of pear trees. Annals of Applied Biology, 73(1):39-43

Desvignes JC, 1980. Use of heat treatment and cross protection to identify some specific fruit tree virus diseases. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:371-374

Desvignes JC; Savio A, 1975. Cydonia C7-1 et Pyronia veitchii, deux indicateurs complémentaires. Acta Horticulturae, 44:139-146.

Dhir S; Tomar M; Thakur PD; Ram R; Hallan V; Zaidi AA, 2010. Molecular evidence for Apple stem pitting virus infection in India. Plant Pathology, 59(2):393. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1992. Certification Scheme No. 1 (III). Virus-free or virus-tested fruit trees and rootstocks. Part III. Testing methods for viruses of fruit trees present in the EPPO region. Bulletin OEPP, 22(2):265-275

Freitas-Astua J; Novaes QSde; Betti JA; Rezende JAM; Kuniyuki H; Yuki VA, 2004. Identity of Apple stem pitting virus in São Paulo, Brazil, confirmed by RT-PCR. (Identidade do Apple stem pitting virus em São Paulo, Brasil, confirmada por meio de RT-PCR.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(6):691. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n6/a20v29n6.pdf

Gella R, 1989. Effect of some virus diseases on the performance of two clones of 'Agua de Aranjuez' pear. Acta Horticulturae, No. 256:137-142

Giunchedi L; Pollini CP, 1992. Cytopathological, negative staining and serological electron microscopy of a clostero-like virus associated with pear vein yellows disease. Journal of Phytopathology, 134(4):329-335

Han LX; Wang JS; He ST; Liu PZ, 1991. Studies on the methods for eliminating apple virus diseases. Journal of Fruit Science, 8(1):7-12

Hansen AJ, 1989. Chemotherapy of apple stem pitting and pear stony pit with ribavirin. Acta Horticulturae, 235:333

Hilber-Bodmer M; Hasler T; Buchmann B; Bosshard E; Frey JE, 2003. Apple viruses: molecular biological diagnosis in comparison with conventional indicator testing. (Apfelviren: molekularbiologischer Nachweis im Vergleich mit der konventionellen Indikatortestung.) Obst- und Weinbau, 139(15):16-19.

Hong SB; Oh SD, 1982. Effects of micro-nutrients on the severity of symptoms induced by apple latent viruses. Research Reports, Office of Rural Development, S. Korea, Horticulture, 24.

International Society of Horticultural Sciences, 1992. Detection of virus and virus like diseases of fruit trees - indexing techniques. Acta Horticulturae, 309:407-420.

Janeckova M; Blattny C, 1984. Heat therapy of M.9 apple rootstock. Sbornik UVTIZ, Zahradnictvi, 11(3):167-174

Jelkmann W, 1994. Nucleotide sequences of apple stem pitting virus and of the coat protein gene of a similar virus from pear associated with vein yellows disease and their relationship with potex- and carlaviruses. Journal of General Virology, 75(7):1535-1542

Jelkmann W, 1997. Apple stem pitting virus. In: Vesely D, Monette P, eds. Recent Research Development in Plant Pathology - Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. Chapter 12. Trivandrum, India: Research Signpost, 133-142.

Jelkmann W; Keim-Konrad R, 1997. Immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction and plate-trapped ELISA for the detection of apple stem pitting virus. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(11/12):499-503; 28 ref.

Jelkmann W; Kunze L; Vetten HJ; Lesemann D-E, 1992. cDNA cloning of dsRNA associated with apple stem pitting disease and evidence for the relationship of the virus-like agents associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows. Acta Horticulturae, 309:55-62

Kegler H; Verderevskaja T; Fuchs E, 1979. Untersuchungen über Wechselbeziehungen verschiedener Kern- und Steinobstvirosen. Archiv Gartenbau, 27:325-336.

Koganezawa H; Yanase H, 1990. A new type of elongated virus isolated from apple trees containing the stem pitting agent. Plant Disease, 74(8):610-614

Kummert J; Marinho VLA; Rufflard G; Colinet D; Lepoivre P, 1998. Sensitive detection of apple stem grooving and apple stem pitting viruses from infected apple trees by RT-PCR. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:97-104; 9 ref.

Kundu JK, 2003. The occurrence of Apple stem pitting virus and Apple stem grooving virus within field-grown apple cultivars evaluated by RT-PCR. Plant Protection Science, 39(3):88-92.

Kundu JK; Yoshikawa N, 2008. Apple stem pitting virus. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of plant viruses. Volume 2: horticultural crops [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Myrta, A.\Ling, K. S.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 1-15.

Larsen EC, 1977. Growth of maiden apple trees with or without virus infection. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 81(4):479-486

Leite GB; Bleicher J, 1993. Viruses and mycoplasmas of apples in the state of Santa Catarina. Agropecuaria Catarinense, 6(3):21-24

Lemma B; Xing F; Li SF; Zhang ZX, 2016. First report of Apple stem grooving virus, Apple stem pitting virus, and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in apple trees from Chencha, Ethiopia. Plant Disease, 100(12):2540-2541. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lemoine J, 1977. Identification of the latent viruses responsible for graft incompatibility in the apple cultivar Charden. Annales de l'Amelioration des Plantes, 27(5):577-585

Lemoine J; Michelesi JC, 1990. Effects of three virus diseases on three pear cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 44(1-2):69-81

Leng HQ; Cai RX; Leng HQ; Cai RX, 1996. The identification of virus diseases for the leading pear cultivars grown in Sichuan. South China Fruits, 25:44.

Leone G; Lindner JL; Meer FAvan der; Jongedijk G, 1995. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:72-77; 9 ref.

Li ML; Wei FC; Wang BX, 1993. Studies on the effect of apple latent virus on the growth of one-year apple nursery stocks. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 20(1):54

Li ZN; Zhang L; Luo C; Han MY; Wu YF, 2011. First report of Apple stem pitting virus in Shaanxi, China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.83. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Liu F; Wang H; Rui G, 1983. On the latent viruses of apple in China. 1. Identification of the virus pathogens of apple decline in Liaoning Province. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 13(1):45-49

Lolic B; Myrta A; Ðuric G; Krstic B, 2007. Pome fruit viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Virusi jabucastih vocaka u Bosni i Hercegovini.) Pesticidi i Fitomedicina, 22(2):165-172.

MacKenzie DJ; McLean MA; Mukerji S; Green M, 1997. Improved RNA extraction from woody plants for the detection of viral pathogens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Plant Disease, 81(2):222-226; 22 ref.

Mahfoudhi N; El-Air M; Salleh W; Moujahed R; Djelouah K, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of pome fruit viruses in Tunisia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 52(1):136-140. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Mahfoudhi N; Moujahed R; Salleh W; El-Air M; Djelouah K, 2011. First report of Apple stem pitting virus and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in Tunisian pear orchards. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.64. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Mathioudakis MM; Candresse T; Barone M; Ragozzino A; Katis NI, 2012. Cydonia japonica, Pyrus calleryana and P. amygdaliformis: three new ornamental or wild hosts of Apple stem pitting virus. Virus Genes, 44(2):319-322. http://www.springerlink.com/content/3027835282t3212t/

Mathioudakis MM; Maliogka VI; Katsiani AT; Katis NI, 2010. Incidence and molecular variability of Apple stem pitting and Apple chlorotic leaf spot viruses in apple and pear orchards in Greece. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(1):139-147. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Millikan DF; Guengerich HW, 1959. Some pomaceous indicator hosts for the stem-pitting of apple. Plant Disease Reporter, 254:32-34.

Mink GI; Yanase H; Yamaguchi A; Sawamura K, 1973. Research on apple topworking disease (taka tsugi byo) in Japan: a review. HortScience, 8(4):296-298

Minoiu N, 1977. Research on the apple stem pitting virus. Lucrarile Stiintifice ale Institutului de Cercetari pentru Pomicultura, Pitesti, 6:205-210.

Myrta A; Terlizzi Bdi; Stamo B; Al-Rwahnih M; Savino V; Carraro L, 2004. A preliminary account of the presence of pome fruit viruses in Albania. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops: Fruit Tree Diseases, Valencia, Spain, 21-25 July, 2003.], No.657:55-58. http://www.actahort.org

Németh M, 1986. In: Virus, Mycoplasma and Rickettsia Diseases of Fruit Trees Dordrecht, : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 463-479.

Oh SD; Hong SB; Kim YH; Kim KR; Kim YK; Park MJ, 1973. Studies on a virus disorder of top-worked apple trees. I. A survey on the occurrence of virus disorder of top-worked apple trees in Korea. Research Reports of the Office of Rural Development, Horticulture, 15:59-65

Penrose LJ; Davis KC; Valentine BJ, 1988. Comparative performance of three apple clones derived from a virus-tested scheme, with clones infected with latent viruses and a mycoplasma. Scientia Horticulturae, 36:55-65.

Pilotti M; Faggioli F; Barba M, 1995. Characterization of Italian isolates of pear vein yellows virus. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:148-154; 10 ref.

Posnette AF; Cropley R, 1963. Apple stem pitting. Spy 227 and decline. In: Virus Diseases of Apples and Pears No. 30. E. Malling: Technical Communication of the Bureau of Horticulture, 75-78.

Posnette AF; Cropley R; Ellenberger CE, 1963. The effect of virus infection on the growth and crop of apple, pear, and plum trees. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 2:158-161.

Pu¯pola N; Morocko-Bicevska I; Ka¯le A; Zeltins A, 2011. Occurrence and diversity of pome fruit viruses in apple and pear orchards in Latvia. Journal of Phytopathology, 159(9):597-605. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Radaelli P; Nickel O; Schons J; Aragão FJL; Fajardo TVM, 2006. Biological and molecular diagnosis and nucleotide sequence analysis of the coat protein gene of an isolate of Apple stem pitting virus. (Diagnóstico biológico e molecular e análise da seqüência de nucleotídeos do gene da proteína capsidial de um isolado do Apple stem pitting virus.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(1):51-56. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n1/a09v31n1.pdf

Ramel ME; Gugerli P; Bourquin L; Meyer Jde, 2004. Immuno-enzymatic diagnosis of the apple stem pitting and pear yellow vein diseases by means of monoclonal antibodies. (Diagnostic immuno-enzymatique des maladies du bois strié du pommier et du jaunissement des nervures du poirier à l'aide d'anticorps monoclonaux.) Revue Suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture et Horticulture, 36(4):207-214.

Rebandel Z; Przysiecka M; Cofta H, 1990. The effect of some viruses and mycoplasmas on growth and yield of Jonathan apple trees. Prace z Zakresu Nauk Rolniczych, 69:115-128

Refatti E; Osler R; Vindimian E; Bergamini A, 1983. Results of an investigation on the health state of clonal rootstocks of pome fruit trees in Northern Italy. Rivista della Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana, 67(5):387-402

Rodoni BC; Constable FE, 2008. The incidence and strain variation of Apple stem grooving and Apple stem pitting viruses in Australian pome fruit. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops, Fruit Tree Diseases, Antalya, Turkey, 22-26 May 2006.], No.781:167-174. http://www.actahort.org

Rossini MN; Giayetto AL; Vera DL; Frayssinet S, 2010. First report in Argentina of Apple stem pitting virus causing pear vein yellows disease in pear. Plant Disease, 94(4):488. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Roussel S; Kummert J; Dutrecq O; Lepoivre P; Jijakli MH, 2004. Development of molecular tests for the detection of ILAR and latent viruses in fruit trees. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences [56th International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, Belgium, 4 May 2004. Part II.], 69(4):427-432. http://fltbwww.rug.ac.be/

Ryden K, 1977. Virus and mycoplasma diseases in Swedish apple trees. Vaxtskyddsrapporter Tradgard, Lantbrukshogskolan, 1:45 pp.

Schmidt H, 1972. The effect of "latent" virus infections on the yield of maiden trees on 20 apomictic apple seedling rootstocks. Journal of Horticultural Science, 47:159-163.

Schwarz K; Jelkmann W, 1998. Detection and characterization of European apple stem pitting virus isolates of apple and pear by PCR and partial sequence analysis. Acta Horticulturae (in press).

Siebert ZVan; Engelbrecht DJ, 1981. Field and glasshouse evaluation of Pyronia veitchii as an indicator of some apple latent viruses. Phytophylactica, 13(4):199-204

Silva FN; Nickel O; Fajardo TVM; Bogo A, 2008. Biological multiple indexing and RT-PCR detection of latent viruses in apple plants. (Indexação biológica múltipla e RT-PCR para detecção de vírus latentes em macieiras.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(2):157-161. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Sjomina N; Bivol T, 1980. Apple latent viruses and incompatibility between scions and stocks. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:379-382

Stouffer RF, 1989. Apple stem pitting. In: Fridlund PR, ed. Virus and Virus like Diseases of Pome Fruits and Simulating Noninfectious Disorders. Washington: Cooperative Extension College of Agriculture and Home Economics Washington State University Pullman, 138-144.

Sweet JB, 1980. Fruit tree virus infections of woody exotic and indigenous plants in Britain. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 15:231-238

Tanuja Rana; Anuradha Negi; Sunny Dhir; Tombisana Thockchom; Vanita Chandel; Yashika Walia; Singh RM; Raja Ram; Vipin Hallan; Zaidi AA, 2011. Molecular diagnosis of apple virus and viroid pathogens from India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44(6):505-512. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a935216376~frm=titlelink

Tatarinov AN, 1994. Harmfulness of rubbery disease and virus diseases of apple. Sadovodstvo i Vinogradarstvo, No. 5/6:10-11.

Thomsen A, 1975. Crop reduction in pear trees caused by virus infection. Acta Horticulturae, 44:119-122.

Topchiiska M, 1972. The virus diseases stem pitting and platycarpa scaly bark of apple. Rastitelna Zashchita, 20(8):18-21

Tukey RB; Mink GI, 1961. Morphology and anatomy of stem-pitting in Virginia Crab. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Sciences, 78:8-15.

van der Meer FA, 1986. Observations on the etiology of some virus diseases of apple and pear. Acta Horticulturae, 193:73-74.

Warner J; Heeney HB, 1985. Virus, rootstock and strain effects on the leaf nutrient levels of McIntosh apple trees. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 65(3):625-632

Waterworth HE, 1976. Effect of some pome fruit viruses, mycoplasmalike, and other pests on Bradford ornamental pear trees. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(2):104-105

Welsh MF; May M, 1967. Virus-induced woody pitting in the root systems of apple seedlings, and its effects on tree vigor. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 47:51-59.

Westwood MN; Cameron HR, 1974. Effects of vein yellows virus on growth, flowering and yield of Anjou pear. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 99(5):425-426

Wood GA, 1972. Further virus diseases of pear (Pyrus communis L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 15:160-171.

Wood GA, 1974. Latent viruses of apple in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(1):85-91

Wu ZB; Ku HM; Su CC; Chen IZ; Jan FJ, 2010. Molecular and biological characterization of an isolate of Apple stem pitting virus causing pear vein yellows disease in Taiwan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(3):721-728. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/volumes/0310/031016b.pdf

Yanase H; Koganezawa H; Fridlund PR, 1989. Correlation of pear necrotic spot with pear vein yellows and apple stem pitting, and a flexuous filamentous virus associated with them. Acta Horticulturae, 235:157

Yanase H; Yamaguchi A, 1982. Malus sieboldii MO-65 as a new indicator plant for apple stem pitting virus. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station, C, Morioka, 9:69-77.

Zawadzka BJ; Rebandel Z; Wierszyllowski J, 1979. The rate of transmission of latent apple viruses and rubbery wood disease pathogen from the infected bud to the indicator plant. Fruit Sciences Reports, 6(4):177-183

Zhao Ying; Niu JianXin, 2008. Cloning and sequencing of movement protein gene of Apple stem pitting virus in Xinjiang Korla pear. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 38(4):433-435. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Distribution References

Abtahi F S, Shams-Bakhsh M, Safaie N, 2014. First report of Apple stem pitting virus infection of apple trees in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 50 (3), Pe307-Pe308, En143. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_11628_1823.html

Ǻhman G, 1995. Viruses in apple. (Virus i äpple.). Växtskyddsnotiser. 59 (2), 52-55.

Blattny C, Zimandl B, Janeckova M, 1975. Heat therapeutic treatment of selected apple cultivars infected with latent viruses. (Termoterapeuticke osetreni vybranych odrud jablone ochuravelych latentnimi virozami.). Sbornik UVTI, Zahradnictvi. 2 (5) (1), 11-21.

Bondarenko P E, 1979. Latent viruses of apple and the selection of virus-free clones. Sadivnitstvo. 76-80; 103.

Brakta A, Thakur P D, Handa A, 2013. First report of apple top working disease caused by viruses (Apple stem grooving virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, and Apple stem pitting virus) in apple in India. Plant Disease. 97 (7), 1001-1002. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1082-PDN

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Apple stem pitting virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 1120 (Edition 1).

Castilho M B, 1982. Virus diseases of apple in Northern Portugal. (Viroses em macieiras no Norte de Portugal.). Garcia de Orta, Estudos Agronómicos. 9 (1/2), 271-273.

Chaduneli M D, Menabde D A, 1977. Study of latent apple viruses in Georgia. (K izucheniyu latentnykh virusov yabloni v Gruzii.). Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR. 88 (2), 445-447.

Desvignes J C, 1980. Use of heat treatment and cross protection to identify some specific fruit tree virus diseases. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 371-374.

Desvignes JC, Savio A, 1975. (Cydonia C7-1 et Pyronia veitchii, deux indicateurs complémentaires). In: Acta Horticulturae, 44 139-146.

Dhir S, Tomar M, Thakur P D, Ram R, Hallan V, Zaidi A A, 2010. Molecular evidence for Apple stem pitting virus infection in India. Plant Pathology. 59 (2), 393. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02164.x

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Freitas-Astua J, Novaes Q S de, Betti J A, Rezende J A M, Kuniyuki H, Yuki V A, 2004. Identity of Apple stem pitting virus in São Paulo, Brazil, confirmed by RT-PCR. (Identidade do Apple stem pitting virus em São Paulo, Brasil, confirmada por meio de RT-PCR.). Fitopatologia Brasileira. 29 (6), 691. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n6/a20v29n6.pdf DOI:10.1590/S0100-41582004000600020

Gella R, 1989. Effect of some virus diseases on the performance of two clones of 'Agua de Aranjuez' pear. In: Acta Horticulturae, 137-142.

Han L X, Wang J S, He S T, Liu P Z, 1991. Studies on the methods for eliminating apple virus diseases. Journal of Fruit Science. 8 (1), 7-12.

Hansen A J, 1989. Chemotherapy of apple stem pitting and pear stony pit with ribavirin. In: Acta Horticulturae, 333.

Hong S B, Oh S D, 1982. Effects of micro-nutrients on the severity of symptoms induced by apple latent viruses. Research Reports, Office of Rural Development, S. Korea, Horticulture. 24 (12), 1-26.

Janečková M, Blattný C, 1984. Heat therapy of M.9 apple rootstock. (Termoterapie jabloňové podnože M.9.). Sbornik ÚVTIZ, Zahradnictví. 11 (3), 167-174.

Jelkmann W, Kunze L, Vetten H J, Lesemann D E, 1992. cDNA cloning of dsRNA associated with apple stem pitting disease and evidence for the relationship of the virus-like agents associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows. In: Acta Horticulturae, 55-62.

Kegler H, Verderevskaja T, Fuchs E, 1979. (Untersuchungen über Wechselbeziehungen verschiedener Kern- und Steinobstvirosen). In: Archiv Gartenbau, 27 325-336.

Kummert J, Marinho V L A, Rufflard G, Colinet D, Lepoivre P, 1998. Sensitive detection of apple stem grooving and apple stem pitting viruses from infected apple trees by RT-PCR. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 17th international symposium on virus and virus-like diseases of temperate fruit crops, fruit tree diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA, 23-27 June, 1997, volume 1.], [ed. by Hadidi A]. 97-104.

Kundu J K, 2003. The occurrence of Apple stem pitting virus and Apple stem grooving virus within field-grown apple cultivars evaluated by RT-PCR. Plant Protection Science. 39 (3), 88-92.

Larsen E C, 1977. Growth of maiden apple trees with or without virus infection. (Foerste ars tilvaekst af aebletraeer med of uden virusinfektion.). Tidsskrift for Planteavl. 81 (4), 479-486.

Leite G B, Bleicher J, 1993. Viruses and mycoplasmas of apples in the state of Santa Catarina. (Viroses e micoplasmoses da macieira no Estado de Santa Catarina.). Agropecuária Catarinense. 6 (3), 21-24.

Lemma B, Xing F, Li S F, Zhang Z X, 2016. First report of Apple stem grooving virus, Apple stem pitting virus, and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in apple trees from Chencha, Ethiopia. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2540-2541. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0678-PDN

Lemoine J, 1977. Identification of the latent viruses responsible for graft incompatibility in the apple cultivar Charden. (Determination des virus latents conditionnant l'incompatibilite au greffage de la variete de pommier "Charden".). Annales de l'Amelioration des Plantes. 27 (5), 577-585.

Leng HuaiQiong, Cai RuXi, 1996. The identification of virus diseases for the leading pear cultivars grown in Sichuan. South China Fruits. 25 (4), 44.

Leone G, Lindner J L, Meer F A van der, Jongedijk G, 1995. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators. In: Acta Horticulturae [XVIth International Symposium on fruit tree virus diseases, 27 June - 2 July, 1994, Rome, Italy.], [ed. by Barba M, Hadidi A]. 72-77.

Li M L, Wei F C, Wang B X, 1993. Studies on the effect of apple latent virus on the growth of one-year apple nursery stocks. ([apple chlorotic leafspot virus, apple stem pitting virus, apple stem grooving capillovirus].). Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. 20 (1), 54.

Li Z N, Zhang L, Luo C, Han M Y, Wu Y F, 2011. First report of Apple stem pitting virus in Shaanxi, China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (4, Supplement), S4.83. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Liu F, Wang H, Rui G, 1983. On the latent viruses of apple in China 1. Identification of the virus pathogens of apple decline in Liaoning Province. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 13 (1), 45-49.

Lolić B, Myrta A, Ðurić G, Krstić B, 2007. Pome fruit viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Virusi jabučastih voćaka u Bosni i Hercegovini.). Pesticidi i Fitomedicina. 22 (2), 165-172.

Mahfoudhi N, El-Air M, Salleh W, Moujahed R, Djelouah K, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of pome fruit viruses in Tunisia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 52 (1), 136-140. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Mahfoudhi N, Moujahed R, Salleh W, El-Air M, Djelouah K, 2011. First report of Apple stem pitting virus and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in Tunisian pear orchards. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (4, Supplement), S4.64. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Mathioudakis M M, Maliogka V I, Katsiani A T, Katis N I, 2010. Incidence and molecular variability of Apple stem pitting and Apple chlorotic leaf spot viruses in apple and pear orchards in Greece. Journal of Plant Pathology. 92 (1), 139-147. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Millikan DF, Guengerich HW, 1959. Some pomaceous indicator hosts for the stem-pitting of apple. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 254 32-34.

Mink G I, Yanase H, Yamaguchi A, Sawamura K, 1973. Research on apple topworking disease (taka tsugi byo) in Japan: a review. HortScience. 8 (4), 296-298.

Minoiu N, 1977. Research on the apple stem pitting virus. (Cercetari asupra virusului strierii lemnului la mar (apple stem pitting).). Lucrarile Stiintifice ale Institutului de Cercetari pentru Pomicultura, Pitesti. 205-210.

Myrta A, Terlizzi B di, Stamo B, Al-Rwahnih M, Savino V, Carraro L, 2004. A preliminary account of the presence of pome fruit viruses in Albania. Acta Horticulturae. 55-58. http://www.actahort.org

Oh S D, Hong S B, Kim Y H, Kim K R, Kim Y K, Park M J, 1973. Studies on a virus disorder of top-worked apple trees. I. A survey on the occurrence of virus disorder of top-worked apple trees in Korea. Research Reports of the Office of Rural Development, Horticulture. 59-65.

Pilotti M, Faggioli F, Barba M, 1995. Characterization of Italian isolates of pear vein yellows virus. In: Acta Horticulturae [XVIth International Symposium on fruit tree virus diseases, 27 June - 2 July, 1994, Rome, Italy.], [ed. by Barba M, Hadidi A]. 148-154.

Posnette AF, Cropley R, 1963. Apple stem pitting. Spy 227 and decline. In: Virus Diseases of Apples and Pears No. 30. E. Malling: Technical Communication of the Bureau of, 75-78.

Rebandel Z, Przysiecka M, Cofta H, 1990. The effect of some viruses and mycoplasmas on growth and yield of Jonathan apple trees. (Wpływ niektórych wirusów i mikoplazm na wzrost oraz plonowanie jabłoni odmiany Jonathan.). Prace z Zakresu Nauk Rolniczych. 115-128.

Refatti E, Osler R, Vindimian E, Bergamini A, 1983. Results of an investigation on the health state of clonal rootstocks of pome fruit trees in Northern Italy. (Risultati di un indagine sullo stato sanitario di portinnesti clonali delle pomacee condotta nell'Italia settentrionale.). Rivista della Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana. 67 (5), 387-402.

Rodoni B C, Constable F E, 2008. The incidence and strain variation of Apple stem grooving and Apple stem pitting viruses in Australian pome fruit. Acta Horticulturae. 167-174. http://www.actahort.org

Rossini M N, Giayetto A L, Vera D L, Frayssinet S, 2010. First report in Argentina of Apple stem pitting virus causing pear vein yellows disease in pear. Plant Disease. 94 (4), 488. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0488A

Ryden K, 1977. Virus and mycoplasma diseases in Swedish apple trees. (Virus- och mykoplasmasjukdomar hos svenska appletrad.). In: Vaxtskyddsrapporter Tradgard, Lantbrukshogskolan, 45 pp.

Sweet J B, 1980. Fruit tree virus infections of woody exotic and indigenous plants in Britain. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 231-238.

Tatarinov A N, 1994. Harmfulness of rubbery disease and virus diseases of apple. Sadovodstvo i Vinogradarstvo. 10-11.

Topchiiska M, 1972. The virus diseases stem pitting and platycarpa scaly bark of apple. (Virusnite bolesti zhlebove po St"bloto i lyuspesta kora po yab"lkata.). Rastitelna Zashchita. 20 (8), 18-21.

TUKEY R B, MINK G I, 1961. Morphology and anatomy of stem-pitting in Virginia Crab. Proceedings. American Society for Horticultural Science. 8-15.

Warner J, Heeney H B, 1985. Virus, rootstock and strain effects on the leaf nutrient levels of McIntosh apple trees. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 65 (3), 625-632.

Waterworth H E, 1976. Effect of some pome fruit viruses, mycoplasmalike, and other pests on Bradford ornamental pear trees. Plant Disease Reporter. 60 (2), 104-105.

Wood G A, 1974. Latent viruses of apple in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 17 (1), 85-91.

Wood GA, 1972. Further virus diseases of pear (Pyrus communis L.) in New Zealand. In: New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 15 160-171.

Wu Z B, Ku H M, Su C C, Chen I Z, Jan F J, 2010. Molecular and biological characterization of an isolate of Apple stem pitting virus causing pear vein yellows disease in Taiwan. Journal of Plant Pathology. 92 (3), 721-728. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/volumes/0310/031016b.pdf

Yanase H, Koganezawa H, Fridlund P R, 1989. Correlation of pear necrotic spot with pear vein yellows and apple stem pitting, and a flexuous filamentous virus associated with them. In: Acta Horticulturae, 157.

Zawadzka B J, Rebandel Z, Wierszyllowski J, 1979. The rate of transmission of latent apple viruses and rubbery wood disease pathogen from the infected bud to the indicator plant. Fruit Sciences Reports. 6 (4), 177-183.

Zhao Ying, Niu JianXin, 2008. Cloning and sequencing of movement protein gene of Apple stem pitting virus in Xinjiang Korla pear. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 38 (4), 433-435. http://zwblxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map