Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Peronosclerospora philippinensis
(Philippine downy mildew of maize)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Peronosclerospora philippinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Philippine downy mildew of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Peronosclerospora philippinensis, a causal pathogen of maize downy mildews, is one of the major maize diseases reported in some maize-growing countries, especially in the Philippines. High disease incidence has...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
Copyright©Bob Kemerait/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
Field symptomsPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.©Bob Kemerait/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
Copyright©Bob Kemerait/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
Field symptomsPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.©Bob Kemerait/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
Copyright©Bob Kemerait/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.
Field symptomsPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); field symptoms on maize (Zea mays). Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. May 2011.©Bob Kemerait/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); symptoms, showing stunted and leaf streaked maize plant (Zea mays).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); symptoms, showing stunted and leaf streaked maize plant (Zea mays).
Copyright©ISU
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); symptoms, showing stunted and leaf streaked maize plant (Zea mays).
SymptomsPeronosclerospora philippinensis (downy mildew of maize); symptoms, showing stunted and leaf streaked maize plant (Zea mays).©ISU

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Peronosclerospora philippinensis (W. Weston) C.G. Shaw, 1978

Preferred Common Name

  • Philippine downy mildew of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Sclerospora maydis Reinking
  • Sclerospora philippinensis W. Weston

International Common Names

  • English: Philippine maize downy mildew

EPPO code

  • PRSCPH

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Peronosclerospora philippinensis, a causal pathogen of maize downy mildews, is one of the major maize diseases reported in some maize-growing countries, especially in the Philippines. High disease incidence has been reported in many parts in the country specifically in northern Luzon and in many parts of Mindanao despite breakthroughs in controlling or mitigating the disease using cultural and chemical control (Pascual et al., 2005). P. philippinensis is considered the most virulent of the downy mildew pathogens affecting maize, causing substantial losses to crop production (Murray, 2009). Under normal conditions, a 40-60% yield reduction is observed; however, favourable conditions for disease development can amplify these losses to 80-100% (Exconde and Raymundo, 1974). As the pathogen is able to survive in seeds, is able to spread rapidly and occasionally forms resting spores that can survive for more than 1 year, the pathogen has the potential to become a threat to local maize production in warm temperate and tropical areas.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Peronosclerospora
  •                             Species: Peronosclerospora philippinensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Philippine maize downy mildew, caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis, is regularly confused with various other downy mildews affecting maize, e.g., P. spontanea, P. australiensis and P. maydis.

The pathogen has distinct morphological characteristics, allowing it to be differentiated from other Peronosclerospora spp. However, P. philippinensis bears great resemblance to P. sacchari. Although isoenzyme comparisons have been used to identify species of the genus Peronosclerospora, there have been difficulties to distinguish between P. philippinensis and isolates identified as P. sacchari (Bonde et al., 1984; Micales et al., 1988). These two species have been suggested to be conspecific (Yao et al., 1991) but a proof of this assumption is so far lacking.

Description

Top of page

P. philippinensis is an obligate pathogen which requires a living host for it to grow and proliferate. Infection occurs when airborne conidia from an infected crop attaches to a susceptible crop host, but seedborne infections are probably in important means of spread of the pathogen. A higher rate of infection occurs at temperatures above 16°C (Jepson, 2008). Inside the host, the pathogen produces mycelium which gives rise to conidiophores bearing conidia. Germinating conidia produce germ tubes and penetrate the merismatic tissues or stomata forming haustoria. These haustoria extend throughout the tissue forming mycelium, and the infection continues.

The mycelia are branched, slender (8 µm in diameter) and irregularly constricted. The conidiophores are dichotomously branched, measuring 15-26 x 150-400 µm. The conidia are hyaline, ovoid to round cylindrical, slightly rounded at the apex, 17-21 x 27-39 µm. The haustoria are simple, hyaline and vesiculiform to subdigitate (Purdue University, undated; Weston, 1920; Smith and Renfro, 1999). Oospores, which are rarely produced, are spherical, smooth-walled and approximately 22 µm in diameter.

Distribution

Top of page

P. philippinensis is listed as present in Thailand (Murray, 2009). However, a recent study of the morphological characteristics of conidia and conidiophores, as well as molecular identification through ITS1, suggests that P. philippinensis should be removed from the list of maize downy mildew pathogens in Thailand (Janruang and Unartngam (2018). As there are several Peronosclerospora species known to infect maize, the distribution of P. philippinensis remains mostly uncertain, unless sequencing of suitable barcoding loci is done (preferably cox2; see Telle et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2015).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Philippine downy mildew, caused by P. philippinensis, was described from the Philippines in 1918.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Philippine downy mildew, caused by P. philippinensis, is one of the most destructive diseases of maize throughout the world. The pathogen can infect cultivated sugarcane, sorghum and other weed species. The primary source of inoculum is infected hosts such as maize, sugarcane and some susceptible grass species. The introduction risk of this pathogen is intermediate because the conidia are short-lived outside of their host and seeds from affected areas are rarely exported. Dissemination of the pathogen is through water and wind. It can  also be spread through seeds, when the moisture content of the seed is more than 30% (recommended MC:14%), or through infected vegetative material (Murray, 2009USDA, 2013).

Habitat

Top of page

No variations were observed among the countries where Philippine maize downy mildew has been reported. Optimum conditions for sporulation of P. philippinensis are 18-23°C, and for germination, 10-35°C (Purdue University, undated). According to a study conducted by Dalmacio and Raymundo (1972), the conditions required for the production, germination and infection of conidia in P. philippinensis are between 21 and 26°C.  

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

P. philippinensis is restricted to host species within the grass tribes Andropogoneae and Maydeae (Bonde and Peterson, 1983). Some of these hosts may serve as inoculum reservoirs.

Secondary hosts include the hybrid, maize x Zea mexicana.

For further information on natural hosts, see Bonde and Peterson (1983) and Pupipat et al. (1975).

Hosts by artificial inoculation include Andropogon gerardii, Bothriochloa ambigua, B. barbinodis, B. decipiens, B. edwardsiana, B. ischaemum var. ischaemum, B. laguroides, B. perforata, B. springfieldii, B. woodrowii, Eulalia fulva, Schizachyrium hirtiflorum, S. microstachyum, S. scoparium, Sorghum plumosum, Tripsacum dactyloides, Zea diploperennis and Zea perennis (Bonde and Peterson, 1983).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Andropogon (beardgrass)PoaceaeOther
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeOther
Miscanthus (silvergrass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)PoaceaeWild host
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeOther
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PoaceaeWild host
Tripsacum (gamagrass)PoaceaeHabitat/association
Zea diploperennisPoaceaeHabitat/association
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain
Zea mays subsp. mexicana (teosinte)PoaceaeOther
Zea perennisPoaceaeHabitat/association

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

P. philippinensis causes a systemic infection wherein intense green and yellow stripes are observed along the entire leaf. Thick, white, woolly growth of conidia and conidiophores can be observed underneath these areas (Gupta and Paul, 2002; Magill et.al., 2006). These symptoms may appear as early as 3 days after infection. As the disease progresses, leaves become narrow and abnormally erect, in some cases, the affected leaves can appear somewhat dried out. Tassels may also exhibit malformation hence, interrupting ear formation and sterility of seed (Magill et al., 2006). Diseased stems do not show external symptoms but are usually stunted.

Moderate infection allows the plant to reach maturity but causes small, deformed ears (Weston, 1920; Dalmacio and Raymundo, 1972). In severe cases, infected plants become stunted and weakened, eventually leading to plant death within a month (Murray, 2009).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Infection starts when airborne conidia attach to a susceptible crop host. The germinating conidia produce germ tubes that penetrate the stomata thus forming a haustoria. In case of compatible interaction, a biotrophic interface is established nutrients are taken up and the cycle continues once enough nutrients have been taken up to support sporulation (Jepson, 2008). Sporulation can continue for more than 2 months subject to favourable conditions. However, conidiophores and sporangia are only short-lived and mostly vanish throughout the day in sunny conditions. Viable conidia start to germinate in less than 1 hour, thus penetration into the host takes 2 hours (Weston, 1920; Dalmacio and Exconde, 1969; Bonde, 1982). Oospores are also produced, but only rarely in maize, serving as the survival structures of P. philippinensis, and primary infection source from the soil.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate > 60mm precipitation per month

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural dispersal

Philippine maize downy mildew is commonly disseminated by air currents and rain splash. This results in localised spread among neighbouring hosts of the pathogen. The disease could also be spread through seeds, especially if they that have not been properly dried and have a moisture content of more than 30% (Murray, 2009; USDA, 2013; Purdue University, undated).

Accidental introduction

The movement of infected plant tissue could introduce the disease to a new location (USDA, 2013).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page

Incidence

A study conducted by Advincula and Exconde (1975) showed that P. philippinensis is seed transmissible. Infection occurs when the seeds are sown immediately after harvest (moisture content of more than 30-43%) (Murray, 2009). The pathogen becomes established in the seed as hyphae and mycelium in the pericarp but not within the endosperm (Murray, 2009). However, Bains and Jhooty (1982) suggested its presence in the embryo of infected seeds.

Effect on Seed Quality

P. philippinensis infects the pericarp, embryo and the endosperm of susceptible seeds (Bains and Jhooty 1982; Murray, 2009). Infected seeds are hard to determine because they do not exhibit external symptoms and the seed quality is not affected (Jepson, 2008).

Seed Transmission

The conidia of P. philippinensis are short-lived, thus the introduction or transmission of the pathogen is probably achieved through infective vegetative material and seeds. Seeds produced on systemically infected crops mostly cause infection when sown as fresh seeds shortly after harvest. Infected plants exhibit intense green and yellow stripes along the entire leaf area, thereby causing stunting (Jepson, 2008; Magill et al., 20016). Moreover, infected plants mature slower, thus the formation and development of ears are suppressed (Purdue University, undated). A moisture content of 30-43% in seeds is necessary for seed transmission.

Seed Treatments

Several methods are used to avoid or reduce the transmission of P. philippinensis. Proper drying of seeds to a moisture content of less than 14% is necessary (USDA, 2013). The application of systemic and protectant fungicides to the seeds such as fentin hydroxide, maneb and metalaxyl is also used (Exconde, 1982; Dalmacio et.al., 1987; Murray, 2009).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionMovement of infected seeds or some abiotic agents like wind and air Yes Yes Murray, 2009
People sharing resourcesMovement of infected seeds Yes Yes Murray, 2009
Seed tradeMovement of infected seeds Yes Yes Murray, 2009

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsIntroduction of the disease is through the entry of infected vegetative material or through infected seeds Yes Murray, 2009
Soil, sand and gravelOospores which are rarely produced serve as survival structures of the pathogen in the soil. Yes USDA, 2013
WaterOne of the common agents responsible for the spread of P. philippinensis is rain Yes Yes USDA, 2013
WindWind dispersal of P. philippinensis to adjacent fields is mostly localized Yes USDA, 2006

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

P. philippinensis is considered the most virulent of the maize downy mildew pathogens. According to Murray (2009), the pathogen may be able to stop maize production in Asia. It causes substantial losses in maize production. Under normal conditions, yield losses incurred are 40-60%, however, favourable conditions for the pathogen may result to losses ranging from  80 to 100% (Exconde and Raymundo, 1974). During the years 1974-1975, national yield reduction in maize in the Philippines was estimated at 205,470 metric tons with a value of Php 178,759,000 (Exconde, 1982). In sugarcane, losses incurred from the disease (tons of cane per hectare) can reach from 9 to 38%. Losses in picul of sugar per ton may range from 2 to 35% while losses in picul of sugar per hectare may be between 10 and 58% (Husmillo, 1982).

Environmental Impact

Top of page

The impact of the disease on the environment is almost negligible. The disease is not likely to affect species composition while it might be able to reduce longevity or competitiveness of wild hosts.

Social Impact

Top of page

Philippine downy mildew causes significant yield losses on economically important crops including maize and sugarcane. This affects the income of both farm owners and growers. The disease is especially detrimental for traditional farmers that collect their own seeds for sowing in the next season, as disease might accumulate by this practice, and subsistence farmers cannot afford commercial seeds. Aside from affecting income and livelihood, the presence of this disease encourages the use of chemicals for control.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Research model

Genetic importance

  • Test organisms (for pests and diseases)

Diagnosis

Top of page

P. philippinensis is usually identified and distinguished from other downy mildew pathogens through conidial morphology (except for P. sacchari due to their high resemblance). Symptomatology among downy mildew pathogens is also different: P. philippinensis causes chlorotic streaks whereas P. sacchari induces discrete, chlorotic blotches (Murray, 2009). However, as conidial morphology may be variable and there are several other downy mildew species causing similar symptoms on maize, molecular barcoding using cox2 sequencing (Choi et al., 2015) is strongly recommended to confirm the identity of the pathogen.

The advent of molecular biology has led to the development of techniques that can differentiate between species of Peronosclerospora (Micales et al., 1988). In Australia, the use of DNA sequence information has been instrumental in the identification of several downy mildew pathogens including P. philippinensis (Telle et al., 2011; Shivas et al., 2012USDA, 2013). In addition to this, isoenzyme comparisons can also be used to identify P. philippinensis (Bonde et al., 1984; Micales et al., 1988).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Systemic symptoms may be observed in the first true leaf stage as chlorotic stripes or a pale-yellow coloration throughout the entire leaf. Local symptoms (long, chlorotic streaks with a downy growth of conidia and conidiophores) may be present from the two-leaf stage until the appearance of tassels and silks. Tassels may be malformed, producing less pollen, and ears may be aborted. Early-infected plants become stunted and many die. Weston reported the collapse of badly infected cells and the deterioration of chloroplasts, resulting in the characteristic yellow colour of diseased leaves (Weston, 1920).

 

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

Downy mildew can be confused with other diseases. Symptoms induced by P. philippinensis in maize are similar to various other downy mildews on maize and maize stripe. To differentiate between the two diseases, the underside of the leaves should be inspected for the presence of thick, white, woolly fungal growth early in the morning (Gupta and Paul, 2002; Magill et al, 2006).

P. philippinensis is closely related to P. sacchari on the basis of morphology, symptoms, host range and isoenzyme comparisons. Variations in these factors have been reported by a number of authors and the differences were mostly attributed to host genotype and the existing environmental conditions. In P. sacchari, the length of the conidia shows a positive correlation with temperature, whereas the width is unaffected. The two pathogens differ in the symptoms produced on maize, P. philippinensis produces chlorotic streaks, whereas P. sacchari induces discrete, chlorotic blotches (Murray, 2009). However, there are other downy mildews on maize that are also causing similar symptoms, including P. maydis, P. australiensis and P. spontanea.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Movement of infected planting material is the primary reason for the introduction of a disease into a disease-free environment. Quarantine measures should be strictly enforced to prevent the entry of a disease in an area (Sugar Research Australia, undated). Especially a drying of the seeds to water contents of less than 15% seems to be advisable. However, as a precaution, seeds from areas reporting maize downy mildew should not be imported

Eradication

All infected plants should be collected and destroyed by incineration. Monitoring of infected hosts or alternate hosts to ensure that the pathogen would not be able to re-establish is also a must (Murray, 2009). Disposable equipment, infected planting materials and soil should eradicated through autoclaving, high temperature incineration, or deep burial. Double bagging of equipment used in the infested site should also be done (Murray, 2009).

Containment/zoning

All infected plants should be eradicated. Any equipment/vehicles used in the infested site should be subjected to movement restrictions. Harvesting of infected crops should not push-through because the dust during harvesting can serve as dispersal agent to neighbouring areas. Clothing and footwear used in the diseased area should be thoroughly disinfected or double bagged preceding disposal. Seeds from the infested site should not be allowed to be used as planting materials, feed for animals or food for consumption (Murray, 2009).

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

Several cultural methods are used to control downy mildew. One is crop rotation wherein there should be a 15-17 day interval to reduce soil inoculum potential. Another is the removal of any symptomatic plant parts to decrease the inoculum potential of infected plants. Drying of seeds down to its recommended moisture content (14%) also reduces the likelihood of transmission of the pathogen (Murray, 2009).

Physical/mechanical control

Reduction of the seed moisture content to less than 14% may lower the risk of seed transmission. Crop rotation between sorghum or maize for more than 3 years is also recommended to reduce soil-borne infection (Murray, 2009).

Chemical control

Several fungicides are used for the control and eradication of P. philippinensis. Foliar sprays, soil treatments and seed treatments using protectants or eradicants have been studied. Weston (1923) soaked seeds in 70% alcohol for 30 to 60 seconds and then washed with running water for 1 hour. Exconde (1982) reported metalaxyl to be effective as a seed dressing. Other fungicides such as fentin hydroxide and maneb have also proved to be effective in controlling the disease (Murray, 2009).

Host resistance (incl. vaccination)

Philippine downy mildew resistance is determined through multiple gene inheritance and is dictated by additive gene effects (Leon et al., 1993, cited in Murray, 2009). A number of resistant maize varieties have been developed. The majority of the developed lines exhibit slowed systemic infection rates, thereby containing infection to local areas for longer periods of time and lowering overall destructive effects of the disease (Murray, 2009).

A study conducted by Pascual et al. (2005) showed that two inbred lines exhibited a high degree of resistance in two separate experimental areas.

References

Top of page

Advincula BA, Exconde OR, 1975. Seed transmission of Sclerospora philippinensis Weston in maize. Philippine Agriculturist, 59(7/8):244-255

Bains SS, Jhooty JS, 1982. Distribution, spread and perpetuation of Peronosclerospora philippinensis in Punjab. Indian Phytopathology, 35(4):566-570

Bonde MR, 1982. Epidemiology of downy mildew diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet. Tropical Pest Management, 28(1):49-60

Bonde MR, Peterson GL, 1983. Comparison of host ranges of Peronosclerospora philippinensis and P. sacchari. Phytopathology, 73(6):875-878

Bonde MR, Peterson GL, Dowler WM, May B, 1984. Isozyme analysis to differentiate species of Peronosclerospora causing downy mildews of maize. Phytopathology, 74(11):1278-1283

Bonde MR, Peterson GL, Kenneth RG, Vermeulen HD, Sumartini, Bustaman M, 1992. Effect of temperature on conidial germination and systemic infection of maize by Peronosclerospora species. Phytopathology, 82(1):104-109

Capuno OB, Carpena AL, 1982. Inheritance of resistance of corn to downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) Shaw. Annals of Tropical Research, 4:18-27

Choi Y-J, Beakes G, Glockling S, Kruse J, Nam B, Nigrelli L, Ploch S, Shin H-D, Shivas G, Telle S, Voglmayr H, Thines M, 2015. Towards a universal barcode of oomycetes – a comparison of the cox1 and cox2 loci. Molecular Ecology Resources, 15, 1275-1288.

CMI, 1989. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. No. 497. edition 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cordero FS, Tangonan NG, 1988. Metalaxyl (Ridomil MZ 58) as foliar spray to control downy mildew of corn. SMARC Monitor, Southern Mindanao Agricultural Research Centre, 8(3-4):13, 17

Dalmacio SC, Exconde OR, 1969. Penetration and infection of Sclerospora philippinensis Weston on corn. Philippine Agriculturist, 53:35-52

Dalmacio SC, Raymundo AD, 1972. Spore density of Sclerospora philippinensis in relation to field temperature, relative humidity and downy mildew incidence. Philippine Phytopathology, 8(1/2):72-77

Dey SK, Khehra AS, Dhillon BS, 1983. Control of Philippine downy mildew of maize through seed treatments with metalaxyl. Pesticides, 17(3):26

Ebron LA, Raymundo AD, 1987. Quantitative resistance to Philippine corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) Shaw. Philippine Agriculturist, 70(3-4):217-224

Exconde OR, 1975. Chemical control of maize downy mildew. Tropical Agriculture Research Series No. 8, 157-163

Exconde OR, 1976. Philippine corn downy mildew: assessment of present knowledge and future research needs. Kasetsart Journal, 10:94-100

Exconde OR, Molina AB, 1978. Note: Ridomil (Ciba-Geigy) a seed-dressing fungicide for control of Philippine corn downy mildew. Philippine Journal Crop Science, 3:60-64

Exconde OR, Raymundo AD, 1974. Yield loss caused by Philippine corn downy mildew. Philippine Agriculturist, 58(3/4):115-120

Exconde, O. R., 1982. The quest for the control of Philippine corn downy mildew. In: Paper presented at the 4th Annual Scientific Meeting of the National Academy of Science and Technology, 14 July 1982, Philippine International Convention Center, Metro Manila

Fuji H, 1975. International symposium on downy mildew of maize. JARQ, 9(1):66-69

Gupta, V. K., Paul, Y. S., 2002. Diseases of field crops, [ed. by Gupta, V. K., Paul, Y. S.]. New Delhi, India: Indus Publishing Company.464 pp.

Holliday, P., 1975. Sclerospora philippinensis. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria , (No. 46) . Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Sheet 454.

Husmillo FR, 1982. Assessment of yield loss due to downy mildew of sugarcane caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) C.G.Shaw. Sugarcane Pathologists' Newsletter, No.28:17-24

Janruang, P., Unartngam, J., 2018. Morphological and molecular based identification of corn downy mildew distributed in Thailand. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 14(6), 845-860. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v14_n6_2018_%20November/3_IJAT_14(6)_2018_Janruang,%20P..pdf

Jepson, S. B., 2008. Philippine downy mildew of corn. USA: Oregon State University (OSU)-Extension Office.http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/bpp/Plant_Clinic/Disease_sheets/Philippine%20downy%20mildew%20of%20corn.pdf

Kimigafukuro T, 1979. Effect of temperature on conidial size of Sclerospora maydis, S. philippinensis and S. sorghi. JARQ, 13(1):76-77

Kimigafukuro T, 1988. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the infection of maize with downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis). Extension Bulletin - ASPAC, Food & Fertilizer Technology Center, No. 283:8 pp

Leon Cde, Ahuja VP, Capio ER, Mukherjee BK, 1993. Genetics of resistance to Philippine downy mildew in three maize populations. Indian Journal of Genetics & Plant Breeding, 53(4):406-410; 11 ref

Magill, C., Frederiksen, R., Malvick, D., White, D., Gruden, E., Huber, D., et al., 2006. Philippine Downy Mildew and Brown Stripe Downy Mildew of Corn, USA: The American Phytopathological Society.

McGee DC, 1988. Maize diseases. A reference source for seed technologists. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; APS Press, 149 pp

Micales, J. A., Bonde, M. R., Peterson, G. L., 1988. Isozyme analysis and aminopeptidase activities within the genus Peronosclerospora. Phytopathology, 78(11), 1396-1402. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-78-1396

Molina JR., Exconde OR, 1981. Efficacy of Apron 35D (metalaxyl) seed-dressing fungicide against Philippine downy mildew. II Amount of water slurry, storage duration, and temperature. Philippine Agriculturist, 64:155-162.

Murray, G. M., 2009. Threat specific contingency plan: Philippine downy mildew of maize (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) and downy mildew of sorghum (P. sorghi). Australia: Plant Health Australia.https://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Downy-mildew-of-maize-and-sorghum-CP-2009.pdf

Pascual, C. B., Calilung, B., Bituin, N., Raymundo, A. D., Hautea, D. M., 2005. Host resistance and pathogen conidial characteristics across locations of Philippine corn downy mildew. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 8(4), 489-494.

Payak MM, 1975. Epidemiology of maize downy mildews with special reference to those occurring in Asia. Trop. Agric. Res. Ser. No. 8, 81-91

Perumal, R., Nimmakayala, P., Erattaimuthu, S. R., No, E. G., Reddy, U. K., Prom, L. K., Odvody, G. N., Luster, D. G., Magill, C. W., 2008. Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species. BMC Genetics, 9(77), (29 November 2008). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/9/77

Pupipat U, Payak MM, Safeeulla KM, Dogma IJ, Jr. , 1975. Session III. Pathology - storage, viability, host range, race, infection and epidemiology. Tropical Agriculture Research Center, Tokyo, Japan: Symposium on downy mildew of maize, Tokyo, Japan, September 1974. Tropical Agriculture Research Series, 63-117

Purdue University, undated. Peronosclerospora philippinensis. In: Purdue University Factsheet , USA: Purdue University.http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3117

Raymundo AD, Exconde OR, 1976. Economic effectiveness of resistant varieties and duter/dithane M-45 foliar spray for the control of Philippine corn downy mildew. Philippine Agriculturist, 60(1/2):52-65

Schmitt CG, Freytag RE, 1977. Response of selected resistant maize genotypes to three species of Sclerospora. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(6):478-481

Senanarong A, 1975. Present corn production status. Symposium on downy mildew of maize, Tokyo, Japan, September, 1974. Tropical Agriculture Research Series, No. 8, 31-34

Sharma RC, Payak MM, 1985. Resistance to Philippine downy mildew in maize. Indian Phytopathology, 38(1):184-185

Sharma SC, Khehra AS, Bains SS, Malhi NS, 1981. Efficacy of fungitoxicant sprays and seed treatment against Philippine downy mildew of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 34(4):498-499

Shaw CG, Sun MH, Chang SC, Tseng CM, Exconde OR, Triharso, Martoredjo T, Kusdiarti L, Pupipat U, Titatarn S, Tontyaporn S, Pitakspraiwan P, Giatgong P, Dange SRS, Safeeulla KM, Sharma RC, Payak MM, Mukherjee BK, Lilaramani J, Shah SM, Kimigafukuro T, Leu LS, Kenneth RG, Malaguti G, Frederiksen RA, Leon C de, Renfro BL, 1976. Conference on the downy mildew diseases of maize, 4-7 October, 1976, Thailand. Kasetsart Journal, 10:79-207

Shivas, R. G., Ryley, M. J., Telle, S., Liberato, J. R., Thines, M., 2012. Peronosclerospora australiensis sp. nov. and Peronosclerospora sargae sp. nov., two newly recognised downy mildews in northern Australia, and their biosecurity implications. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41(2), 125-130. doi: 10.1007/s13313-011-0097-z

SINGH RS, CHAUBE HS, KHANNA RN, JOSHI HM, 1967. Internally seedborne nature of two downy mildews on Corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 51(12):1010-1012

Smith, D. R., Renfro, B. L., 1999. Compendium of Corn Diseases, 3rd ed, St. Paul, USA: APS Press.78 pp.

Splitter MV, 1975. Downy mildew disease in Nepal. Symposium on downy mildew of maize jointly held by Tropical Agriculture Research Center and Inter-Asian Corn Program. Session I. Tropical Agricultural Research Series, No. 8:19-20

Sugar Research Australia, 2013. Downy mildew. In: Information sheet IS13089 , Australia: Sugar Research Australia.http://sugarresearch.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Downy_mildew_IS13089.pdf

Suryanarayana D, 1961. Perpetuation of downy mildew of maize (Sclerospora philippinensis Weston) on Kans (Saccharum spontaneum L.) in India. Current Science, 30:114

Tai FL, 1979. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Peking, China: Science Press, Academia Sinica, 1527 pp

Telle, S., Shivas, R. G., Ryley, M. J., Thines, M., 2011. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Peronosclerospora (Oomycetes) reveals cryptic species and genetically distinct species parasitic to maize. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 130(4), 521-528. doi: 10.1007/s10658-011-9772-8

Thurston HD, 1973. Threatening plant diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 11:27-52

USDA, 2006. Recovery plan for Philippine downy mildew and brown stripe downy mildew of corn. USA: United States Department of Agriculture.https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/00000000/opmp/Corn%20Downy%20Mildew%2009-18-06.pdf

USDA, 2013. Recovery plan for Philippine downy mildew and brown stripe downy mildew of corn. USA: United States Department of Agriculture.https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/opmp/Corn%20Downy%20Mildews%20Recovery%20Plan%20Revised%202013.pdf

Weston WH, 1920. Philippine downy mildew of maize. J. Agric. Res., 19:97-122

Yamada M, Aday BA, 1977. Fertilizer conditions affecting susceptibility to downy mildew disease Sclerospora philippinensis Weston, in resistant and susceptible materials of maize. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan (Nihon Shokubutsubyori Gakkai Ho), 43(3):291-293

Yao, C. L., Magill, C. W., Frederiksen, R. A., Bonde, M. R., Wang, Y., Wu, P. S., 1991. Detection and identification of Peronosclerospora sacchari in maize by DNA hybridization. Phytopathology, 81(8), 901-905. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-81-901

Distribution References

Bains S S, Jhooty J S, 1982. Distribution, spread and perpetuation of Peronosclerospora philippinensis in Punjab. Indian Phytopathology. 35 (4), 566-570.

Bonde M R, Peterson G L, 1983. Comparison of host ranges of Peronosclerospora philippinensis and P. sacchari. Phytopathology. 73 (6), 875-878. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-73-875

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dewa KS, Swastika KF, Suhariyanto K, Sudana W, Hendayana R, Gerpacio RV, Pingali PL, 2004. Maize in Indonesia: production systems, constraints and research priorities., CIMMYT.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Faruq AN, Hoque S, Khaiyam MdO, 2014. Pathogen risk analysis of maize in Bangladesh. Applied Science Report. 8 (2), 75-82.

Fuji H, 1975. International symposium on downy mildew of maize. In: JARQ [International symposium on downy mildew of maize.], 9 (1) 66-69.

Kimigafukuro T, 1988. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the infection of maize with downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis). In: Extension Bulletin - ASPAC, Food & Fertilizer Technology Center, 8 pp.

Leon C de, Ahuja V P, Capio E R, Mukherjee B K, 1993. Genetics of resistance to Philippine downy mildew in three maize populations. Indian Journal of Genetics & Plant Breeding. 53 (4), 406-410.

Muis A, Nonci N, Pabendon M B, 2016. Geographical distribution of Peronosclerospora spp., the causal organism of maize downy mildew, in Indonesia. AAB Bioflux. 8 (3), 143-155.

Murray GM, 2009. Threat Specific Contingency Plan: Philippine Downy Mildew of maize (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) and Downy Mildew of Sorghum (P. sorghi)., Plant Health Australia. https://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Downy-mildew-of-maize-and-sorghum-CP-2009.pdf

Murray GM, 2009a. Threat Specific Contingency Plan: Philippine Downy Mildew of maize (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) and Downy Mildew of Sorghum (P. sorghi)., Australia: Plant Health Australia. https://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Downy-mildew-of-maize-and-sorghum-CP-2009.pdf

Pascual CB, Calilung B, Bituin N, Raymundo AD, Hautea DM, 2005. Host resistance and pathogen conidial characteristics across locations of Philippine corn downy mildew. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 8 (4), 489-494.

Payak M M, 1975. Epidemiology of maize downy mildews with special reference to those occurring in Asia. Tropical Agriculture Research Series. 81-91.

Payak M M, 1975a. Downy mildews of maize in India. Tropical Agricultural Research Series. 13-18.

Perumal R, Nimmakayala P, Erattaimuthu S R, No E G, Reddy U K, Prom L K, Odvody G N, Luster D G, Magill C W, 2008. Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species. BMC Genetics. 9 (77), (29 November 2008). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/9/77

Senanarong A, 1975. Present corn production status. Symposium on downy mildew of maize, Tokyo, Japan, September, 1974. In: Tropical Agriculture Research, 8 31-34.

Splitter MV, 1975. Downy mildew disease in Nepal. Symposium on downy mildew of maize jointly held by Tropical Agriculture Research Center and Inter-Asian Corn Program. Session I. In: Tropical Agricultural Research Series, 8 19-20.

Subedi S, 2015. A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal. Journal of Maize Research and Development. 1 (1), 28-52.

UK, CAB International, 1989. Peronosclerospora philippinensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 497.

Contributors

Top of page

31/03/20 Reviewed by:

Fe M. Dela Cueva, Plant Pathology Laboratory, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baños 4031, Philippines

Alyssa M. de Castro, Plant Pathology Laboratory, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baños 4031, Philippines

Rachele L. De Torres, Plant Pathology Laboratory, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baños 4031, Philippines

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map