Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Peronosclerospora sacchari
(sugarcane downy mildew)



Peronosclerospora sacchari (sugarcane downy mildew)


  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Peronosclerospora sacchari
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sugarcane downy mildew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Sclerosporales

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A, Conidiophore; B, branch of conidiophore.
TitleConidiophore - line drawing
CaptionA, Conidiophore; B, branch of conidiophore.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, Conidiophore; B, branch of conidiophore.
Conidiophore - line drawingA, Conidiophore; B, branch of conidiophore.©CABI BioScience


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Peronosclerospora sacchari (T. Miyake) Shirai & Hara

Preferred Common Name

  • sugarcane downy mildew

Other Scientific Names

  • Sclerospora sacchari

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mildiú de la cana de azucar; mildiú del maíz
  • French: mildiou de la canne à sucre; mildiou du sorgo

EPPO code

  • PRSCSA (Peronosclerospora sacchari)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Sclerosporales
  •                     Family: Sclerosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Peronosclerospora
  •                             Species: Peronosclerospora sacchari

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentIMI, 1986; Wang et al., 1994
-YunnanPresentIMI, 1986; Wang et al., 1994
East TimorPresentEPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentIMI, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentIMI, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentIMI, 1986; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentEPPO, 2014
JapanPresentIMI, 1986; Fuji, 1975; TARC, 1982; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentEPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentBonde & Peterson, 1976; IMI,1986; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentIMI, 1986; TSRI, 1994; Chang, 1994; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentIMI, 1986; Chang et al., 1974; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentEPPO, 2014


NigeriaPresentNCRI, 1978

North America

USAAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
El SalvadorAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
GuatemalaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
HondurasAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
NicaraguaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
PanamaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

South America

PeruAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014


AustraliaEradicatedIMI, 1986; Egan, 1984; EPPO, 2014
FijiPresentIMI, 1986; FDA, 1972; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentPupipat, 1975; Egan, 1986; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / mycelium present
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / shredding
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / mycelium present
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants


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1979. Annual report 1977/78. Report, National Cereals Research Institute, Nigeria, 69 pp.

Anon, 1982. Ten Year Review of the Tropical Agriculture Research Centre (TARC). Ten Year Review of the Tropical Agriculture Research Centre (TARC)., 143 pp.; [22 fig. (many col.), tab.].

Bhargawa S; Lal S, 1978. Control of downy mildew of maize. Fung. Nem. Tests, 33:97.

Bonde MR, 1982. Epidemiology of downy mildew diseases of maize, sorghum and pearl millet. Tropical Pest Management, 28(1):49-60

Bonde MR; Melching JS, 1979. Effects of dew-period temperature on sporulation, germination of conidia, and systemic infection of maize by Peronosclerospora sacchari. Phytopathology, 69(10):1084-1086

Bonde MR; Peterson GL, 1983. Comparison of host ranges of Peronosclerospora philippinensis and P. sacchari. Phytopathology, 73(6):875-878

Chang SC, 1970. A review of studies on downy mildew of maize in Taiwan. Indian Phytopathol., 23:270-274.

Chang SC; Twu MI, 1965. Studies on the seed transmission of corn downy mildew I. Report of the Corn Research Center Tainan, Taiwan, No. 3.

Chang SC; Wu YJ(Wu Y-Z); Chen CK, 1974. Comparative pathogenicity of Sclerospora sacchari and S. sorghi to maize in Taiwan. Report of the Corn Research Center Tainan DIAS (Yu-mi Yen-chui Chung-hsin Yen-chiu Hui-pao), No.10:20-26.

Chang YS, 1994. ROC20 - a very early maturing variety with high sugar content and heavy tonnage. Taiwan Sugar, 41(4):9-10.

Daniels J; Husain AA; Hutchinson PB, 1972. The control of sugarcane diseases in Fiji. In: Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 14th Congress 1971. Baton Rouge, USA: Franklin Press, 1007-1014.

Egan BT, 1984. Downy mildew disease and Australian cane varieties. BSES Bulletin, 5:17-18

Egan BT, 1986. New diseases appear in Papua New Guinea. BSES Bulletin, No.16:8-10

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

FDA (Fiji Department of Agriculture), 1972. Report for the Year 1971 - Sugar Cane. Suva, Fiji: Department of Agriculture.

Fuji H, 1975. International symposium on downy mildew of maize. JARQ, 9(1):66-69

James GL, 1982. A note on the efficacy of acylalanine for controlling downy mildew. Sugarcane Pathologists' Newsletter, No. 29:11-13

Lal S; Bhargava SK; Upadhyay RM, 1979. Control of sugarcane downy mildew of maize with metalaxyl. Plant Dis. Rep., 63:986-989.

Lal S; Nath K; Saxena SC, 1977. Integrated control of sugarcane downy mildew of maize. Indian Phytopathol., 30:143-144.

Lal S; Nath K; Saxena SC, 1980. Use of pesticides and natural products in control of Sclerospora sacchari in maize. Tropical Pest Management, 26(3):286-292

Lal S; Saxena SC, 1977. Evaluation of fungicides on corn 1976. Fung. Nem. Tests, 32:112.

Lal S; Saxena SC, 1981. Date of planting in relation to sugarcane downy mildew of maize. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 11(2):195-200

Lal S; Singh J; Pandey MC; Renfro BL, 1973. Performance of Indian maize cultivars against Sclerospora sacchari. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 3(2):210-211

Leu LS, 1982. Sporulation and germination of conidia of Peronosclerospora sacchari (Miyake). Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics Malaysian Plant Protection Society Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, 199-210

Malein PJ, 1993. Fungicidal control of Peronosclerospora sacchari (T. Miyake) Shirai and K. Hara in sugarcane in Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(3):325-327

Matsumoto T; Chen PC; Yang SM, 1961. Downy mildew of sugarcane in Taiwan (lll). Rep. Taiwan Sugar Exp. Stn., 25:95-110.

Mikoshiba H, 1983. Studies on the control of downy mildew disease of maize in tropical countries of Asia. Technical Bulletin of the Tropical Agriculture Research Center, No.16:62 pp.

Mukerji KG; Holliday P, 1975. Sclerospora sacchari. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 453. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Payak MM, 1975. Epidemiology of maize downy mildews with special reference to those occurring in Asia. Trop. Agric. Res. Ser. No. 8, 81-91.

Poon ES; Leu LS; Liu C, 1982. Pathogeographic studies of sugarcane downy mildew in Taiwan II. A preliminary characterization of host factors in four pathogeographic regions. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 48(2):162-168

PSI (Philippine Sugar Institute), 1976. Philippines develops new sugar varieties. South African Sugar Journal. 1976, 60:5, 201.

Pupipat U, 1975. Host range, geographical distribution and physiologic races of the maize downy mildews. Trop. Agric. Res. Ser. No. 8, 63-80.

Schmitt CG; Freytag RE, 1977. Response of selected resistant maize genotypes to three species of Sclerospora. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(6):478-481

Shaw CG, 1978. Peronosclerospora species and other downy mildews of the Graminep. Mycologia, 70(3):594-604

Singh IP; Lal S, 1985. Effective spray schedule of metalaxyl formulations for the therapy of sugarcane downy mildew of maize. Tropical Pest Management, 31(4):327-328

SINGH RS; CHAUBE HS; KHANNA RN; JOSHI HM, 1967. Internally seedborne nature of two downy mildews on Corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 51(12):1010-1012.

SINGH RS; JOSHI MM; CHAUBE HS, 1968. Further evidence of the seedborne nature of Corn downy mildews and their possible control with chemicals. Plant Disease Reporter, 52(6):446-449.

Sun MH, 1970. Sugarcane downy mildew of maize. Indian Phytopathol., 23:262-269.

Sun MH; Chang SC; Tseng CM, 1976. Research advances in sugarcane downy mildew of corn in Taiwan. Kasetsart J., 10:89-93.

Sun MH; Hou H-H, 1979. Sporulation process and cytology of asexual stage in Sclerospora sacchari. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 21(4):423-431

Taiwan Taiwan Sugar Research Institute, 1994. Plant protection. Annual Report - Taiwan Sugar Research Institute., 22-30.

UK CAB International, 1986. Peronosclerospora sacchari. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, March (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 21.

Wang YA; Wu PS; Yao CL; Chen SX; Zhou SY, 1994. The correct name for the pathogen of maize downy mildew in Guangxi and Yunnan, China. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 13(1):1-7

Yao CL; Magill CW; Frederiksen RA; Bonde MR; Wang Y; Wu PS, 1991. Detection and identification of Peronosclerospora sacchari in maize by DNA hybridization. Phytopathology, 81(8):901-905; 26 ref.

Distribution Maps

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