Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Manduca sexta
(tobacco hornworm (USA))

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Datasheet

Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm (USA))

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Manduca sexta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tobacco hornworm (USA)
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
M. sexta adult: set specimen of the tobacco hornworm (male).
TitleAdult male
CaptionM. sexta adult: set specimen of the tobacco hornworm (male).
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
M. sexta adult: set specimen of the tobacco hornworm (male).
Adult maleM. sexta adult: set specimen of the tobacco hornworm (male).©A.R. Pittaway
Resting fifth instar larva of M. sexta on Lycium.
TitleFifth instar larva
CaptionResting fifth instar larva of M. sexta on Lycium.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Resting fifth instar larva of M. sexta on Lycium.
Fifth instar larvaResting fifth instar larva of M. sexta on Lycium.©A.R. Pittaway
Pinned male moth of M. sexta. This individual is darker than normal as a result of being reared under cool conditions.
TitleAdult male
CaptionPinned male moth of M. sexta. This individual is darker than normal as a result of being reared under cool conditions.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
Pinned male moth of M. sexta. This individual is darker than normal as a result of being reared under cool conditions.
Adult malePinned male moth of M. sexta. This individual is darker than normal as a result of being reared under cool conditions.©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Manduca sexta (Linnaeus, 1763)

Preferred Common Name

  • tobacco hornworm (USA)

Other Scientific Names

  • Macrosila carolina (Linnaeus) Clemens, 1839
  • Manduca carolina (Linnaeus) Hübner [1809]
  • Phlegethontius carolina (Linnaeus) Hübner [1819]
  • Phlegethontius sexta (Linnaeus) Kirby, 1892
  • Protoparce carolina (Linnaeus) Butler, 1876
  • Protoparce griseata Butler, 1875
  • Protoparce jamaicensis Butler, 1876
  • Protoparce leucoptera Rothschild and Jordan, 1903
  • Protoparce sexta (Linnaeus) Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
  • Protoparce sexta luciae Gehlen, 1928
  • Protoparce sexta peruviana Bryk, 1953
  • Protoparce sexta saliensis Kernbach, 1964
  • Sphinx caestri Blanchard, 1854
  • Sphinx carolina Linnaeus, 1764
  • Sphinx eurylochus Philippi, 1860
  • Sphinx lycopersici Boisduval, [1875]
  • Sphinx nicotianae Boisduval, [1875]
  • Sphinx paphus Cramer, 1779
  • Sphinx sexta Linnaeus, 1763
  • Sphinx tabaci Boisduval, [1875]

International Common Names

  • English: Carolina sphinx (USA); hornworm, tobacco; tobacco worm; tomato sphinx
  • Spanish: cachudo del tabaco; cornudo del tabaco; gusano cachudo del tabaco; gusano cornudo del tabaco; gusano de cuerno del tabaco (Mexico); gusano verde del tabaco; marandova; torito
  • French: sphinx du tabac
  • Portuguese: mandarova do fumo (Brazil)

Local Common Names

  • Turkey: mahmuzlu kurt

EPPO code

  • MANDSE (Manduca sexta)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Sphingidae
  •                             Genus: Manduca
  •                                 Species: Manduca sexta

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BahamasPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
BelizePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
British Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
CanadaPresent, LocalizedHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-QuebecPresentMcNeil et al. (2005)
Cayman IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Costa RicaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
CubaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
DominicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
GrenadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadHaxaire (1998); CABI and EPPO (2002)
GuatemalaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
HaitiPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
HondurasPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
JamaicaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadHaxaire (1998); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MexicoPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
MontserratPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
NicaraguaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
PanamaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
Puerto RicoPresentIngles Casanova and Medina Gaud (1975); CABI and EPPO (2002)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Saint LuciaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentSnow et al. (1976); CABI and EPPO (2002)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-AlabamaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-ArizonaPresentHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-ArkansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadHodges (1971); Kazmer and Luck (1991); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-ColoradoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-DelawarePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-GeorgiaPresentJackson et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-IowaPresentThornburg (1991); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-KentuckyPresentKatanyukul and Thurston (1979); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-LouisianaPresent, WidespreadHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-MarylandPresent, WidespreadHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-MichiganPresent, LocalizedHodges (1971); Bossart and Gage (1990); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-MinnesotaPresent, LocalizedHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-MissouriPresentRichard and Heitzman (1987); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-New JerseyPresentHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-New MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-New YorkPresentHodges (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-North CarolinaPresentJackson et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-OhioPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-South CarolinaPresentKinard et al. (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-South DakotaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-UtahPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-VirginiaPresentSemtner et al. (1980); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)

South America

ArgentinaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
BoliviaPresentSquire (1972); CABI and EPPO (2002)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadMoss (1920); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-AmazonasPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-ParaPresent, WidespreadMoss (1920); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-ParanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
-Sao PauloPresentCoelho et al. (1979); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ChilePresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
EcuadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
French GuianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
GuyanaPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
ParaguayPresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
SurinamePresentRothschild and Jordan (1903); CABI and EPPO (2002)
UruguayPresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
VenezuelaPresentClavijo and Chacín (1992); CABI and EPPO (2002)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus sphingidis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis alesti Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Campoletis sonorensis Parasite
Cardiochiles nigriceps Parasite Larvae
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator
Cotesia congregata Parasite Larvae
Cotesia glomeratus Parasite Larvae
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses Pathogen Larvae
Glabromicroplitis croceipes Parasite Larvae
Goniozus legneri Parasite
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Hyposoter exiguae Parasite Larvae
Hyposoter fugitivus Parasite
Jalysus spinosus Predator Eggs
Jalysus wickhami Predator Eggs
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Metarhizium flavoviride Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Palexorista laxa Parasite Larvae
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogen
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
Telenomus spodopterae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma exiguum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma maltbyi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma nubilale Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs
Vespula vidua Predator
Winthemia manducae Parasite Eggs/Larvae

References

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Andrews WV, 1877. Descriptions of some larvae of Lepidoptera, respecting Sphingidae especially. Psyche, 2(41-42):65-79

Beckage NE, Templeton TJ, 1985. Temporal synchronization of emergence of Hyposoter exigup and H. fugitivus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) with apolysis preceding larval molting in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78(6):775-782

Bossart JL, Gage SH, 1990. Biology and seasonal occurrence of Manduca quinquemaculata and M. sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in southwestern Michigan. Environmental Entomology, 19(4):1055-1059

Buron Ide, Beckage NE, 1997. Developmental changes in teratocytes of the braconid wasp Cotesia congregata in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Journal of Insect Physiology, 43(10):915-930; 50 ref

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Manduca sexta. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 638. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Clavijo JA, Chacin ME, 1992. Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) reported as pests of Venezuelan crops: key to the species. Boletin de Entomologia Venezolana, 7(2):119-125

Coelho IP, Silveira Neto S, Dias JFS, Forti LC, Chagas EF, Lara FM, 1979. Phenology and faunistic analysis of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera), by means of light-trap surveys in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 8(2):295-307

Covell CV Jr, 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Co

D'Abrera B, 1986. Sphingidae Mundi: Hawk Moths of the World. Faringdon, UK: E. W. Classey Ltd., 226 pp. [published 1987]

Fuentes Jimenez R, 1973. Diptera parasitising Lepidopterous larvae in some municipalities in the Cauca Valley. Acta Agronomica, 23(1/2):7-50

Haxaire J, 1998. Sphingidae of the French Antilles. World Wide Web page at http:/ /www.jouy.inra.fr/papillon/sphingid/texteng/m_sexta.htm

Hodges RW, 1971. Sphingoidea, Hawkmoths. In: Dominick RB et al., eds. The Moths of America North of Mexico (including Greenland) Vol. 21. London, UK: EW Classey & R.B.D. Publications

Holland WJ, 1968. The Moth Book. New York, USA: Dover Publications, Inc

Ingles Casanova R, Medina Gaud S, 1975. Notes on the life cycle of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera; Sphingidae), in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 59(1):51-62

Jackson MD, Johnson AW, Severson RF, Chaplin JF, Stephenson MG, 1987. Levels of cuticular components and insect damage on green leaves of normal, late-planted and ratoon tobacco. Tobacco International, 189(23):55-59

Johnson AW, 1996. Sub-group collaborative study on insect-host plant resistance. Bulletin d'Information - CORESTA, (No. 3/4):52-55

Katanyukul W, Thurston R, 1979. Mortality of eggs and larvae of the tobacco hornworm on jimson weed and various tobacco cultivars in Kentucky. Environmental Entomology, 8(5):802-807

Kazmer DJ, Luck RF, 1991. Female body size, fitness and biological control quality: field experiments with Trichogramma pretiosum. Colloques de l'INRA, No. 56:37-40

Kester KM, Jackson DM, 1996. When good bugs go bad: intraguild predation by Jalysus wickhami on the parasitoid, Cotesia congregata. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 81(3):271-276; 27 ref

Kinard WS, Henneberry TJ, Allen N, 1972. Tobacco stalk cutting: effect on insect populations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65(5):1417-1421

Kolodny-Hirsch DM, Harrison FP, 1986. Yield loss relationships of tobacco and tomato hornworms (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) at several growth stages of Maryland tobacco. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(3):731-735

McNeil JN, Maury M, Bernier-Cardou M, Cusson M, 2005. Manduca sexta allatotropin and the in vitro biosynthesis of juvenile hormone by moth corpora allata: a comparison of Pseudaletia unipuncta females from two natural populations and two selected lines. Journal of Insect Physiology, 51(1):55-60

Mechaber WL, Hildebrand JG, 2000. Novel, non-solanaceous hostplant record for Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in the Southwestern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93(3):447-451; 28 ref

Moss AM, 1920. Sphingidae of Pará, Brazil. Novitates Zoologicae, 27:333-424

North Carolina State University, 1998. Hornworms. World Wide Web page at http:\\ipmwww.ncsu.edu/AG271/tobacco/hornworms.html

Reagan TE, Rabb RL, Collins WK, 1978. Selected cultural practices as affecting production of tobacco hornworms on tobacco. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71(1):79-82

Richard J, Heitzman JE, 1987. Butterflies and Moths of Missouri. Missouri, USA: Missouri Department of Conservation

Roltsch WJ, Mayse MA, 1983. Parasitic insects associated with Lepidoptera on fresh-market tomato in southeast Arkansas. Environmental Entomology, 12(6):1708-1713

Rothschild LW, Jordan K, 1903. A revision of the lepidopterous family Sphingidae. Novitates Zoologicae, 9 (Suppl.):1-972

Scudder SH, 1893. Some notes on the early stages, especially the chrysalis, of a few American Sphingidae. Psyche, 6:435-437

Semtner PJ, Rasnake M, Terrill TR, 1980. Effect of host-plant nutrition on the occurrence of tobacco hornworms and tobacco flea beetles on different types of tobacco. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73(2):221-224

Snow JW, Haile DG, Baumhover AH, Cantelo WW, Goodenough JL, Stanley JM, Henneberry TJ, 1976. Control of the tobacco hornworm on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, by the sterile male technique. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. USA, ARS-S-98:6pp

Squire FA, 1972. Insect pests of fruit crops. PANS, 18:259-260

Thornburg RW, 1991. Modes of expression of a wound-inducible gene in field trials of transgenic plants. Biological monitoring of genetically engineered plants and microbes. Proceedings of the Kiawah Island Conference, South Carolina, USA, 27-30 November 1990 [edited by MacKenzie, D. R.; Henry, S. C.] Bethesda, MD, USA; Agricultural Research Institute, 147-154

Warren GW, Carozzi NB, Desai N, Koziel MG, 1992. Field evaluation of transgenic tobacco containing a Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein gene. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1651-1659; 20 ref

Distribution References

Bossart J L, Gage S H, 1990. Biology and seasonal occurrence of Manduca quinquemaculata and M. sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in southwestern Michigan. Environmental Entomology. 19 (4), 1055-1059. DOI:10.1093/ee/19.4.1055

CABI, EPPO, 2002. Manduca sexta. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 638.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Clavijo J A, Chacín M E, 1992. Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) reported as pests of Venezuelan crops: key to the species. (Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) reportados como plagas en cultivos Venezolanos: clave para las especies.). Boletín de Entomología Venezolana. 7 (2), 119-125.

Coelho I P, Silveira Neto S, Dias J F S, Forti L C, Chagas E F, Lara F M, 1979. Phenology and faunistic analysis of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera), by means of light-trap surveys in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. (Fenologia e analise faunistica da familia Sphingidae (Lepidoptera), atraves de levantamentos com armadilha luminosa em Piracicaba-SP.). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil. 8 (2), 295-307.

Haxaire J, 1998. Sphingidae of the French Antilles., http://www.jouy.inra.fr/papillon/sphingid/texteng/m_sexta.htm

Hodges RW, 1971. Sphingoidea, Hawkmoths. In: The Moths of America North of Mexico (including Greenland), 21 [ed. by Dominick RB et al]. London, UK: EW Classey & R.B.D. Publications.

Ingles Casanova R, Medina Gaud S, 1975. Notes on the life cycle of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera; Sphingidae), in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 59 (1), 51-62.

Jackson M D, Johnson A W, Severson R F, Chaplin J F, Stephenson M G, 1987. Levels of cuticular components and insect damage on green leaves of normal, late-planted and ratoon tobacco. Tobacco International. 189 (23), 55-59.

Katanyukul W, Thurston R, 1979. Mortality of eggs and larvae of the tobacco hornworm on jimson weed and various tobacco cultivars in Kentucky. Environmental Entomology. 8 (5), 802-807. DOI:10.1093/ee/8.5.802

Kazmer D J, Luck R F, 1991. Female body size, fitness and biological control quality: field experiments with Trichogramma pretiosum. In: Colloques de l'INRA, 37-40.

Kinard W S, Henneberry T J, Allen N, 1972. Tobacco stalk cutting: effect on insect populations. Journal of Economic Entomology. 65 (5), 1417-1421. DOI:10.1093/jee/65.5.1417

McNeil J N, Maury M, Bernier-Cardou M, Cusson M, 2005. Manduca sexta allatotropin and the in vitro biosynthesis of juvenile hormone by moth corpora allata: a comparison of Pseudaletia unipuncta females from two natural populations and two selected lines. Journal of Insect Physiology. 51 (1), 55-60. DOI:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2004.11.004

Moss A M, 1920. Sphingidae of Pará, Brazil. Novitates Zoologicae. 333-424.

Richard J, Heitzman JE, 1987. Butterflies and Moths of Missouri., Missouri, USA: Missouri Department of Conservation.

Rothschild L W, Jordan K, 1903. A revision of the lepidopterous family Sphingidae. Novitates Zoologicae. 9 (Suppl.), 972 pp.

Semtner P J, Rasnake M, Terrill T R, 1980. Effect of host-plant nutrition on the occurrence of tobacco hornworms and tobacco flea beetles on different types of tobacco. Journal of Economic Entomology. 73 (2), 221-224. DOI:10.1093/jee/73.2.221

Snow J W, Haile D G, Baumhover A H, Cantelo W W, Goodenough J L, Stanley J M, Henneberry T J, 1976. Control of the tobacco hornworm on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, by the sterile male technique. In: Control of the tobacco hornworm on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, by the sterile male technique. USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 6pp.

Squire F A, 1972. Insect pests of fruit crops. PANS. 259-260.

Thornburg R W, 1991. Modes of expression of a wound-inducible gene in field trials of transgenic plants. In: Biological monitoring of genetically engineered plants and microbes. Proceedings of the Kiawah Island Conference, South Carolina, USA, 27-30 November 1990. [Biological monitoring of genetically engineered plants and microbes. Proceedings of the Kiawah Island Conference, South Carolina, USA, 27-30 November 1990.], [ed. by MacKenzie D R, Henry S C]. Bethesda, MD, USA: Agricultural Research Institute. 147-154.

Distribution Maps

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