Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chilo sacchariphagus
(spotted borer)

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Datasheet

Chilo sacchariphagus (spotted borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chilo sacchariphagus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Forewings 12-18 mm long with dull light-brown ground-colour, veins and areas between veins outlined in whitish-beige, discal spot distinct, often double, hindwings dirty-white to light-brown in the male, silky white in the female.
TitleAdult
CaptionForewings 12-18 mm long with dull light-brown ground-colour, veins and areas between veins outlined in whitish-beige, discal spot distinct, often double, hindwings dirty-white to light-brown in the male, silky white in the female.
CopyrightNatural History Museum, London
Forewings 12-18 mm long with dull light-brown ground-colour, veins and areas between veins outlined in whitish-beige, discal spot distinct, often double, hindwings dirty-white to light-brown in the male, silky white in the female.
AdultForewings 12-18 mm long with dull light-brown ground-colour, veins and areas between veins outlined in whitish-beige, discal spot distinct, often double, hindwings dirty-white to light-brown in the male, silky white in the female.Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer, 1856)

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Argyria indicus
  • Argyria sacchariphagus
  • Borer saccharellus Guenée
  • Chilo indicus (Kapur)
  • Chilo mauriciellus (Walker, 1863)
  • Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur)
  • Chilo sacchariphagus sacchariphagus (Bojer)
  • Chilo sacchariphagus venosatus (Bojer)
  • Chilo venosatus (Walker, 1863)
  • Diatraea mauriciella Walker
  • Diatraea sacchariphagus (Bojer)
  • Diatraea striatalis (Snellen, 1890)
  • Diatraea venosata (Wlk.)
  • Diatrea mauriciella
  • Diatrea striatalis
  • Diatrea venosata
  • Proceras indicus Kapur
  • Proceras sacchariphagus Bojer, 1873
  • Proceras venosatus (Wlk.)

International Common Names

  • English: cane moth borer; internodal borer; mauritius spotted cane borer; paddy stem borer; spotted sugarcane borer; stalk moth borer; striped stalk borer; sugar cane internode borer; sugar cane stem borer; sugarcane internode borer; sugarcane stalk borer; sugarcane stem borer
  • Spanish: barrenador manchado de la caña
  • French: borer de la canne a sucre; borer ponctue; pyrale tachetée de la canne à sucre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohrer, Gestreifter Zuckerrohr-; Bohrer, Zuckerrohr-
  • Netherlands: gestreepte boorder; gestreepte stengelboorder

EPPO code

  • PROSSA (Chilo sacchariphagus)
  • PROSVE (Proceras venosatus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Crambidae
  •                             Genus: Chilo
  •                                 Species: Chilo sacchariphagus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentAPPPC, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
CambodiaRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
ChinaPresentBleszynski, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-GuangdongPresentGuo et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-Hong KongPresentAPPPC, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-HunanPresentXu et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
IndiaWidespreadDavid, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Andhra PradeshPresentRajak and Ashok, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
-GujaratPresentPandya and Patel, 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-KarnatakaPresentShivasharanappa et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentChelvi et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Uttar PradeshPresentGangwar et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-West BengalPresentSitesh et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2012
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentEPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
IranPresentGhahari et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2012
JapanPresentUesumi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
LaosRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
MalaysiaWidespreadWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentBleszynski,1970; CABI/EPPO, 2012
SingaporeRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
Sri LankaPresentWilliams, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
ThailandRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012
VietnamWidespreadWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Africa

ComorosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2012
MadagascarPresentBleszynski, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentBleszynski, 1970; Williams, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentWilliams, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2012
RéunionPresentBleszynski, 1970; Williams, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentConlong and Goebel, 2002
TanzaniaPresentPolaszek, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2012

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Growing point / rot
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / rot
Whole plant / dead heart

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alabagrus stigma Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Apanteles diatraeae Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Campyloneurus erythothorax Parasite Larvae
Cotesia chilonis Parasite Larvae
Cotesia flavipes Parasite Larvae Indonesia; Indonesia; Sumatra; Madagascar sugarcane
Elasmus zehntneri Parasite Mauritius sugarcane
Enicospilus Parasite
Enicospilus sp. Parasite Pupae
Euborellia annulata Predator
Euborellia annulata Predator Larvae/Pupae
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen
Goniozus indicus Parasite Mauritius sugarcane
Goryphus ornatipennis Parasite
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Itoplectis naranyae Parasite Reunion
Lixophaga diatraeae Parasite Larvae Madagascar; Mauritius; Reunion; Taiwan sugarcane
Lydella striatalis Parasite Larvae Indonesia;Madagascar;Mauritius;Reunion sugarcane
Metagonistylum minense Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Myosoma chinensis Parasite Larvae
Myosoma chinensis Parasite Larvae Java; Mauritius sugarcane
Nosema furnacalis Pathogen
Nosema medinalis Pathogen
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Palpozenillia palpalis Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Parallorhogas pyralophagus Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Parallorhogas pyralophagus Parasite Larvae
Paratheresia claripalpis Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Pediobius furvus Parasite Mauritius sugarcane
Rhaconotus scirpophagae Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Spilochalcis dux Parasite Mauritius sugarcane
Stenobracon deesae Parasite Larvae Madagascar sugarcane
Stenobracon nicevillei Parasite Larvae Madagascar; Mauritius sugarcane
Stenobracon rufus Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Sturmiopsis inferens Parasite Larvae Indonesia; Indonesia; Sumatra; Mauritius sugarcane
Sturmiopsis parasitica Parasite Larvae
Telenomus alecto Parasite Mauritius sugarcane
Telenomus beneficiens Parasite India; Tamil Nadu sugarcane
Telenomus beneficiens Parasite Eggs
Telenomus dignoides Parasite Eggs
Telenomus dignoides Parasite India; Tamil Nadu sugarcane
Temelucha philippinensis Parasite
Tetrastichus atriclavus Parasite Pupae
Tetrastichus israeli Parasite Mauritius; Reunion sugarcane
Trichogramma bournieri Parasite Conlong and Goebel, 2006
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs China; Guangdong; Indonesia; Tamil Nadu sugarcane
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs Mauritius sugarcane
Trichogramma fasciatum Parasite Eggs Madagascar sugarcane
Trichogramma japonicum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea australicum Parasite Eggs Taiwan; Tamil Nadu
Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea nana Parasite Eggs
Trichospilus diatraeae Parasite Pupae Mauritius; Reunion sugarcane
Trichospilus pupivora Parasite Mauritius sugarcane
Tropobracon schoenobii Parasite Larvae Mauritius sugarcane
Xanthopimpla citrina Parasite Pupae Reunion sugarcane
Xanthopimpla stemmator Parasite Pupae Madagascar; Mauritius; Reunion sugarcane

References

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Appert J, 1973. Insect parasites of borers of Graminaceae in Madagascar. Entomophaga, 18(1):77-94

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Beevor PS; David H; Jones OT, 1990. Female sex pheromones of Chilo spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their development in pest control applications. Insect Science and its Application, 11(4-5):787-794

Betbeder-Matibet M, 1990. Insect pests of food crops in Africa and the Indian Ocean region. Montpellier, France; Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales, 122 pp.

Bleszynski S, 1970. A revision of the world species of Chilo Zincken (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, 25:101-195.

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Chilo sacchariphagus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 177 (1st revision).

Chelvi CT; Kandasamy R; Singh JP, 2010. Case study on the use of pheromone technology for the control of shoot borer and internode borer in sugarcane. Cooperative Sugar, 41(7):61-64. http://www.coopsugar.org

Cheng WY, 1999. Borer infestation of millable cane. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute, No. 165:1-14; 11 ref.

Conlong DE; Goebel FR, 2006. Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sugarcane in Mozambique: a new association. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 42(3/4):417-422. [Special Issue: The cereal stem borers of Sub-Saharan Africa and their antagonists.]

Conlong DE; Goebel R, 2002. Biological control of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Moçanbique: the first steps. Proceedings of the Annual Congress - South African Sugar Technologists' Association [Proceedings of the 76th Annual Congress of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association, Mount Edgecombe, South Africa, 30 July-2 August 2002.], No.76:310-320.

David H, 1986. The internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur). In: David H, Easwaramoorthy S, Jayanthi R, eds. Sugarcane Entomology in India. Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India: Sugarcane Breeding Institute, ICAR, 121-134.

David H; Easwaramoorthy S, 1990. Biological control of Chilo spp. in sugar-cane. Insect Science and its Application, 11(4-5):733-748

Easwaramoorthy S; Nandagopal V, 1986. Life tables of internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (K.), on resistant and susceptible varieties of sugarcane. Tropical Pest Management, 32(3):221-228, 257, 259

Easwaramoorthy S; Strongman DB; Santhalakshmi G, 1997. Record of Hirsutella nodulosa Petch from Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur), sugarcane internode borer in India. Journal of Biological Control, 11(1/2):79-80; 5 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Etienne J, 1971. Attempt to establish two species of Tachinids for the control of Chilo sacchariphagus in Reunion. Agronomie Tropicale, 26(3):337-340

Gangwar SK; Tewari RK; Lakshman Lal, 2003. Monitoring of insect pest incidence, yield losses and their management in late planted sugarcane. In: Proceedings of the 65th Annual Convention of the Sugar Technologists' Association of India, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa, India, 22-24 August, 2003. New Delhi, India: Sugar Technologists' Association of India, A186-A195.

Ghahari H; Tabari M; Ostovan H; Imani S; Parvanak K, 2009. Host plants of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and identification of Chilo species in Mazandaran province, Iran. Journal of New Agricultural Science, 5(17):Pe65-Pe74, en10. http://www.m-iau.ac.ir/SubPages/Emagazine.html

Goebel R; Fernandez E; Begue JM; Alauzet C, 1999. Predation by Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) (Hym.: Formicidae) on eggs of the sugarcane stem borer Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Lep.: Pyralidae) on Reunion Island. Actes de la IV Conference Internationale Francophone d'Entomologie, Saint-Malo, France, 5-9 juillet 1998. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 35, Supp.:440-442.

Goebel R; Fernandez E; Tibere R; Alauzet C, 1999. Damage and yield losses to sugarcane caused by the stem borer Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Lep.: Pyralidae) on RTunion. Actes de la IV Conference Internationale Francophone d'Entomologie, Saint-Malo, France, 5-9 juillet 1998. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 35, Supp.:476-481.

Greathead DJ, 1971. A review of biological control in the Ethiopian Region. CIBC Technical Communication No. 5. Farnham Royal, UK: CAB International.

Guo LiangZhen; Feng RongYang; Liang EnYi; Wei DongTian; Kang FuGuo, 2000. Infestation by Tetramoera schistaceana Snellen, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen and C. sacchariphagus of sugarcane plants and their control by chemicals. Plant Protection, 26(1):23-25.

Harris KM, 1990. Bioecology of Chilo species. Insect Science and its Application, 11(4-5):467-477

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Metcalfe JR, 1969. The estimation of loss caused by sugar cane moth borers. In: Williams JR, Metcalfe JR, Mungomery RW, Mathes R. Pests of Sugar Cane. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 61-79.

Moutia LA, 1954. Notes sur le cycle biologique de trois lepidoptFres nuisibles à la canne à sucre à Maurice. Revue Agricole de l'Ile Maurice, 33:325-359.

Nesbitt BF; Beevor PS; Hall DR; Lester R; Williams JR, 1980. Components of the sex pheromone of the female sugar cane borer, Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Identification and field trials. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 6(2):385-394

Pandya HV; Patel MB, 2007. Extent of damage of sugarcane borers in Gujarat. Indian Sugar, 57(5):27-30. http://www.indiansugar.com

Polaszek A, 1998. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control., x + 530 pp.; 42 pp. of ref.

Rajabalee A, 1990. Management of Chilo spp. on sugar-cane with notes on mating disruption studies with the synthetic sex pheromone of C. sacchariphagus in Mauritius. Insect Science and its Application, 11(4-5):825-836

Rajak DC; Ashok Varma, 2001. Natural enemy complex of insect-pest of sugarcane in the southern zone of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology, 16(1):114-116.

Rajendran B; Gopalan M; Hanifa AM, 1996. Screening for field reaction of sugarcane to internode borer Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur). Indian Sugar, 46(4):257-261; 4 ref.

Shivasharanappa Yalawar; Pradeep S; Kumar MAA; Venkatesh Hosamani; Siddalingappa Rampure, 2010. Performance of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis against sugarcane internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1):142-143. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/1307/1249

Sitesh Chatterjee; Ray BR; Bera MK, 2007. Population dynamics of adult moths of different sugarcane borer pests by using pheromone trap. Cooperative Sugar, 38(10):35-39. www.coopsugar.org

Thirumurugan A; Shah SE; Panneerselvam S; Devaraj G, 1999. Reaction of sugarcane shoot borer and internode borer under field condition. Cooperative Sugar, 30(9):889-890; 4 ref.

Uesumi Y, 1972. Some ecological notes on the sugar-cane borer, Chilo sacchariphagus stramineellus (Caradja)(=Proceras[chilo]venosatus (Walker)) in Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 16(1):53-55

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Williams JR, 1953. The larvae and pupae of some important Lepidoptera. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43:691-701.

Williams JR, 1983. The sugar cane stem borer (Chilo sacchariphagus) in Mauritius. Revue Agricole et Sucriere de l'Ile Maurice, 62(1):5-23

Xu ZhiDe; Huang HeQing; Tian JiRong; Xiao BaoGang; Liu XiaoFeng; Wang JianWen, 2002. Bionomics of Proceras venosatus in northern part of Hunan Province. Entomological Knowledge, 39(3):194-197.

Distribution Maps

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