Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Spodoptera eridania
(southern armyworm)

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Datasheet

Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 January 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spodoptera eridania
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Spodoptera eridania is a polyphagous generalist feeder recorded on 200 plants species belonging to 58 botanic families. It is native to the USA and occurs throughout southern USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
LarvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980.  Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult male
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980.  Museum set specimen.
Adult maleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult male
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.
Adult maleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult female
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.
Adult femaleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult female
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.
Adult femaleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.
TitlePupa
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.
PupaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
TitleFinal instar larva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
Final instar larvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
TitleFinal instar larva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
Final instar larvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.
AdultSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
AdultSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.
TitleEggs
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.
EggsSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.
TitleEggs
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.
EggsSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleColour phases
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Colour phasesSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.
TitleLarva and larval damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.
Copyright©David Jones/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.
Larva and larval damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.©David Jones/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)
Copyright©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY-SA 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY-SA 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLeaf damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Leaf damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleDamaged cotton boll
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Damaged cotton bollSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval 'scarring' damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval 'scarring' damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval damage on a cotton crop
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval damage on a cotton cropSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).
Larval damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); second and third instar larvae on tomato.
TitleSecond and third instar larvae
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); second and third instar larvae on tomato.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); second and third instar larvae on tomato.
Second and third instar larvaeSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); second and third instar larvae on tomato.©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); newly hatched (neonate) larvae on a tomato leaf.
TitleNewly hatched larvae
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); newly hatched (neonate) larvae on a tomato leaf.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); newly hatched (neonate) larvae on a tomato leaf.
Newly hatched larvaeSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); newly hatched (neonate) larvae on a tomato leaf.©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.
Larval damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.
LarvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.
LarvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larva on tomato leaf.©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782)

Preferred Common Name

  • southern armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Laphygma eridania (Stoll, 1782)
  • Noctua eridania (Stoll, 1782)
  • Phalaena eridania Stoll, 1782
  • Prodenia eridania (Stoll, 1782)
  • Spodoptera amygia (Guenée, 1852)
  • Spodoptera bipunctata (Walker, 1857)
  • Spodoptera communicata (Walker, 1869)
  • Spodoptera derupta (Morrison, 1875)
  • Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1972)
  • Spodoptera externa (Walker, 1856)
  • Spodoptera ignobilis (Butler, 1878)
  • Spodoptera inquieta (Walker, 1857)
  • Spodoptera linea (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Spodoptera nigrofascia (Hulst, 1881)
  • Spodoptera peruviana (Walker, 1865)
  • Spodoptera phytolaccae (J.E. Smith, 1797)
  • Spodoptera putrida (Guenée, 1852)
  • Spodoptera strigifera (Walker, 1858)
  • Xylomyges eridania (Stoll, 1782)

International Common Names

  • English: armyworm, semitropical; armyworm, southern; semi-tropical armyworm
  • Spanish: gusano cortador (el salvador); gusano negro; gusano soldado sureño; rosquilla

EPPO code

  • PRODER (Spodoptera eridania)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Spodoptera eridania is a polyphagous generalist feeder recorded on 200 plants species belonging to 58 botanic families. It is native to the USA and occurs throughout southern USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean (Pogue, 2002). Due the fact that S. eridania occurs all across the USA and is present in many host plants, several regions around the world are in risk of invasion due to the global trade of vegetables, ornamental and aromatic plants, which can transport larvae and eggs. Even though it is not established in Europe, it has been detected on imported plants from the New World (Karsholt, 1994). The detection of S. eridania in Africa, demonstrates its high dispersal ability, indicating the importance of closely monitoring this species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Spodoptera
  •                                 Species: Spodoptera eridania

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Older references cite Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782), however, Pieter Cramer died in 1776 and it was Caspar Stoll who continued the description of species and the publication of books. Thus, taxonomy works indicate Stoll as the true author of the species. 

A complete list of synonyms is provided by Todd and Poole (1980). Spodoptera peruviana (Walker) (syn. Laphygma communicata Walker) was synonymized with Spodoptera eridania by Todd and Poole (1980) and Pogue (2002). However, it is currently considered once again to be a separate species (Poole, 1989).

Spodoptera recondita (Möschler) has been removed from the list (see Todd and Poole (1980), Poole (1989) and Pogue (2002)) and validated as a new species (Anicla recondita (Möschler, 1890) by Barbut and Lalanne-Cassou (2009).

Description

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Eggs

Flattened sphere, measuring about 0.45 m in diameter and 0.35 mm in height. The eggs are greenish initially, turning tan as they age. Eggs are laid in large groups on the foliage, and covered with a layer of grey bristles (scales) derived from the abdomen of the female.

Larvae

There are usually six instars (Montezano et al., 2014). Fully grown caterpillars measure 35-40 mm. Young larvae are black with yellow lateral lines, but older instars are grey-brown with a dorsal row of paired black triangular spots, and subdorsal reddish lines when older; the head capsule is yellow-brown. Larvae are characterized by a prominent yellow subspiracular line which is broken by a dark (sometimes diffuse) spot on the first abdominal segment (Levy and Habeck, 1976). A full description of the larvae is given in Crumb (1956) and Pogue (2002).

Pupae

The pupal stage lasts an average of 9 days under laboratory conditions (Montezano et al., 2014). A typical noctuid pupa, measuring 16-20 mm long with rounded head and abdomen. Shiny mahogany brown, with darker head, spiracles and anterior edges of abdominal segments. Anal segment terminates in a two-spined cremaster. Female pupae are heavier (377 mg) than male pupae (329 mg) (Montezano et al., 2014).

Adult

A sturdy grey-brown moth, wing-span 28-40 mm, forewings grey, hindwings pearly-white above with a stronger lustre below. Markings variable, some individuals have a strongly marked reniform spot or bar on the forewing, a very prominent blackish posterior marginal line and a similar black line on the lateral posterior margin. Others have a straight, broad, jet-black band from the mid forewing to the lateral margin. Abdomen brownish-grey and antennae yellowish-brown. The posterior angle of the forewing is narrowly divided from the rest of the wing by an irregular, oblique, pale band. The principal definitive features are in the male genitalia (Todd and Poole, 1980; Pogue, 2002).

Distribution

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Spodoptera eridania occurs throughout southern USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean (Pogue, 2002). Although it is not established in Europe, S. eridania is commonly recorded as an accidental introduction from the New World, for example, in Denmark (Karsholt, 1994).

The distribution map incudes records based on specimens of S. eridania from the collection in the Natural History Museum (BMNH, London, UK).

A record of S. eridania in Guernsey (CABI/EPPO, 2006) published in previous versions of the Compendium was erroneous. Guernsey is not included in the list of countries for S. eridania in CABI/EPPO (2006).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent2017
CameroonPresent
GabonPresent
NigeriaPresent2016

Europe

DenmarkAbsent, Intercepted only
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyBased on long-term annual surveys, 362 survey observations in 2012.
SloveniaAbsent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent, Few occurrences
GuadeloupePresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresentOriginal citation: BMNH
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Localized
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MississippiPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentOriginal citation: BMNH
BrazilPresent
-AlagoasPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent, Localized
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Localized
-Galapagos IslandsPresentOriginal citation: BMNH
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent, Localized
PeruPresent, Localized
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Risk of Introduction

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Spodoptera eridania is now classed as an EPPO A1 list of quarantine pests, but it is not listed as a quarantine pest by any other regional plant protection organization. As a subtropical species, it is most likely to become established in southern Europe. In the New World it is not especially recorded as a glasshouse pest, but it could become so in Europe. S. eridania occurs very regularly in Europe on imported plant produce from the New World. S. eridania is commonly intercepted in Europe on plants and tomato fruit (Seymour, 1978; EUROPHYT).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. eridania is a polyphagous generalist feeder recorded on more than 200 plant species belonging to 58 families, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae and Malvaceae (Montezano et al., 2014). Crops damaged include aubergines, species of Beta and Capsicum, cassava, cotton, several members of the Brassicaceae, a wide range of legumes, maize and other Poaceae, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes, yams, and many pot plants and vegetables.

Many potential crop hosts are available in Europe, especially those more commonly grown in the southern part of the region. Sugarbeet and field tomatoes could be especially vulnerable, as well as a wide range of vegetables and flowers, including those grown in glasshouses.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
    Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeOther
      Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeOther
        Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
          Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion)LiliaceaeOther
            Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeOther
              Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther
                Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                  Amaranthus deflexus (Perennial Pigweed)AmaranthaceaeOther
                    Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)AmaranthaceaeOther
                      Amaranthus quitensisAmaranthaceaeOther
                        Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)AmaranthaceaeOther
                          Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                            Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                              Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeOther
                                  Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
                                    Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)AsteraceaeOther
                                      Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeOther
                                        BetaChenopodiaceaeMain
                                          Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                            Beta vulgaris var. ciclaChenopodiaceaeOther
                                              Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeOther
                                                Brassica napus var. oleiferaBrassicaceaeOther
                                                  Brassica nigra (black mustard)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                    Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                      Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                        Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                          Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                            Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeOther
                                                              Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
                                                                  Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree)CecropiaceaeOther
                                                                    Centrosema pubescens (Centro)FabaceaeOther
                                                                      Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                                        Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeOther
                                                                          Cicer arietinum (chickpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                            Citharexylum fruticosumVerbenaceaeOther
                                                                              Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                CitrusRutaceaeOther
                                                                                  Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                    Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                      Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                                        Commelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)CommelinaceaeOther
                                                                                          Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                            Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                              Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                        Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Dianthus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeMain
                                                                                                                Digitaria (crabgrass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Digitaria ischaemumPoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                            EucalyptusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                    Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                        Gonzalagunia spicataRubiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                            Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                  Hamelia patensRubiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Helianthus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                      Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                          Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)BalsaminaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                              Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                  Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      Laportea aestuansUrticaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
                                                                                                                                                                              Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Ludwigia (waterprimrose)OnagraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Malva parviflora (pink cheeseweed)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                            Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                              Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                Mentha (mints)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mentha arvensis var. piperascens (Japanese mint)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mentha piperita (Peppermint)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mentha spicata (Spear mint)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mimosa scabrellaFabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nasturtium officinale (watercress)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Neurolaena lobataAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Nicotiana alata (sweet-scented tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OcoteaLauraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                OdontoglossumOrchidaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pelargonium hortorumGeraniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Phyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)PhytolaccaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Phytolacca dioicaPhytolaccaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Phytolacca rivinoidesPhytolaccaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PhytolaccaceaePhytolaccaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PlantaginaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Poaceae (grasses)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rheum hybridum (rhubarb)PolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rumex (Dock)PolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rumex crispus (curled dock)PolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Salix (willows)SalicaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)AcanthaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Solanum americanumSolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Solanum rugosumSolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sonchus (Sowthistle)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Urera bacciferaUrticaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vitis labrusca (fox grape)VitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Xanthosoma (cocoyam)AraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ZinniaAsteraceaeOther

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Symptoms

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaf-eating and skeletonization is the main damage to the host plant, and in extreme cases complete defoliation may occur. Larvae are not normally observed because they are nocturnal feeders, but the first two instars are gregarious and can be seen in clusters on the foliage. Holes may be observed on tomato fruits and large larvae sometimes act as cutworms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fruit / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves / shredding

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    One female can oviposit 1500-3000 eggs over its lifetime. Eggs are laid in large batches on the leaves of the host plant, protected by a layer of grey bristles from the female abdomen. Observations made at 20-25°C using different host plants and artificial diets show that the incubation period of S. eridania is invariable and lasts 4 days (Chittenden and Russel, 1909; Valverde and Sarmiento, 1987; Mattana and Foerster, 1988; Montezano et al., 2014). Larvae, as with some other Noctuidae, are gregarious and remain together on the leaf for the first two instars, resulting in leaf skeletonization. The third-instar larvae disperse and become more solitary and nocturnal. During the day they hide in the leaf litter or plant foliage, and emerge to feed on the leaves at night. Larval development usually takes 14-21 days and undergoes six and, rarely, seven instars. As with other Noctuidae, the rate of larval development is affected by the quality of diet and prevailing temperatures; the latter also affects the adult condition. Larvae sometimes swarm and migrate to adjacent fields when food is scarce. Occasionally, large larvae have been recorded acting as cutworms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pupation takes place in the soil in a weak earthen cell and typically requires 9-12 days. Adults are nocturnal in habit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S. eridania is essentially a subtropical species and so a temperature of 20-25°C is optimum for development, and breeding may be continuous. The life-cycle can be completed in 28-30 days, but up to 40 days is common. There are several to many generations per year, the number depending on local conditions. Experiments in Brazil by Foerster and Dionizio (1989) showed that development at temperatures of 17 (115 days) and 30°C (33 days) was retarded. At 30°C, pupae weighed less and survival rates were lower.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The sex pheromone produced by female moths has been described, comprising of (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (59.7%), (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (23.8%), (Z)-9-tetradecenol (8.4%), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (5.1%), (Z,Z)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (3%) and (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (trace).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Climate

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Preferred < 860mm precipitation annually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 35

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Air Temperature

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 17 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 15

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rainfall

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dry season duration38number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mean annual rainfall4003000mm; lower/upper limits

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Natural enemies

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Larvae Pereira et al. (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae Pereira et al. (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae Pereira et al. (2009); Santos et al. (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Baculovirus Pathogen Larvae Huiza and Laoyza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae Gardner and Noblet (1978); Michereff Filho et al. (2008)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Campoletis flavicincta Parasite Larvae Capinera (2018)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chelonus insularis Parasite Eggs/Larvae Tingle et al. (1978); Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysopa Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chrysoperla externa Predator Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae Tingle et al. (1978); Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Doru luteipes Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Euphorocera claripennis Parasite Larvae Capinera (2018)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Euphorocera floridensis Parasite Larvae Silva et al. (1968)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Euplectrus Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Euplectrus platyhypenae Parasite Larvae Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Geocoris punctipes Predator Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Labidura riparia Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lespesia archippivora Parasite Larvae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae Tingle et al. (1978)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meteorus laphygmae Parasite Larvae Capinera (2018)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae Zeddam et al. (1998); Zeddam et al. (1999)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ophion flavidus Parasite Larvae/Pupae Capinera (2018)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Orius insidiosus Predator Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paratriphleps laeviusculus Predator Huiza and Loayza (1993)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Patelloa similis Parasite Larvae
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Telenomus remus Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trichogramma Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Winthemia quadripustulata Parasite Larvae Capinera (2018)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Numerous parasitic wasps from the Hymenoptera family and true flies from the Tachinidae family are of importance for natural control in the field. King and Saunders (1984) list important species on Caribbean Islands. Biological control was attempted on a number of Commonwealth Caribbean islands, resulting in the establishment of Telenomus remus (Cock, 1985).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Even though Ferguson et al. (1991) include S. eridania as a migratory species present in the islands of Bermuda (approximately 1500 km from the continent), in the New World, S. eridania does not engage in long-distance migrations, so it would be most unlikely to make a transatlantic crossing as a flying adult. It is not known how the infestation of the Galapagos Islands occurred, but it might have been by flying moths. The frequent European records are usually of intercepted larvae on the foliage of infested host plants (Seymour, 1978), but occasionally in the UK and other parts of Europe, larvae are found on plants and some adult moths are found in light traps.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pathway Causes

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cut flower tradeMovement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt (1994)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Flooding and other natural disastersOutbreaks recorded after the passage of a hurricane Yes Yes Torres (1992)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Habitat restoration and improvementOutbreaks recorded after reforestation projects of native species Yes Yes Mattana and Foerster (1988)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HitchhikerMovement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HorticultureMovement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt (1994)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes Karsholt (1994)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WindOutbreaks recorded after the passage of a hurricane Yes Torres (1992)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plant Trade

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs; larvae Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Leaves eggs; larvae Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impact Summary

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CategoryImpact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Environment (generally) Negative

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impact

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S. eridania is usually only a minor pest on most crops in the New World, but occasionally serious infestations occur. It is most damaging on tomato fruits and sweet potatoes, although many vegetables and flowers can be seriously locally affected on occasions. Since most damage is caused by leaf-eating, light infestations on field crops can be tolerated and ignored, but on tomatoes and ornamentals, control may more often be required. S. eridania larvae have also been recorded as occasional pests of cotton, amaranth and lucerne. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Additionally, S. eridania has been reported from outbreaks under different conditions, such as after the passage of a hurricane (Torres, 1992), in reforestation projects of native species (Mattana and Foerster, 1988) and in truck crops (Michereff Filho et al., 2008), reaching economic injury levels in commercial crops, especially lucerne (Hichings and Rabinovich, 1974) cotton and soyabeans (Santos et al., 2009).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Invasiveness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Invasive in its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Has a broad native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Abundant in its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Highly adaptable to different environments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Is a habitat generalist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tolerant of shade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Highly mobile locally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fast growing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Has high reproductive potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Has high genetic variability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impact outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Altered trophic level
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Damaged ecosystem services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Host damage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Increases vulnerability to invasions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Monoculture formation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Damages animal/plant products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Impact mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Interaction with other invasive species
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rapid growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Adults of S. eridania can be confused with some European Hadeninae and Cuculliinae, especially some species of Cucullia, but these latter moths usually do not have hindwings with translucent white colouration. The forewing margin of S. eridania is also squarer and less oblique than those of Cuculliinae, which have more slender, elongate and pointed wings than species of Spodoptera.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/EPPO, 2015).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chemical Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As S. eridania is often only a minor pest, control is only occasionally required. Insecticidal sprays are the usual means of killing the larvae on the plant foliage when damage is seen. Insecticides recommended for Helicoverpa control can be used for S. eridania: suitable chemicals are listed by COPR (1983) and King and Saunders (1984).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Phytosanitary measures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plants used for production should come from locations found free from the pest during the previous 3 months. Certain types of plants (for example, cuttings) may be treated by being held at low temperatures <1.7°C) for 2-4 days, followed by fumigation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    References

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Angulo, A. O., Olivares, T. S., Weigert, G. T. H., 2008. (Estados inmaduros de lepidópteros nóctuidos de importancia agrícola y forestal en Chile y claves para su identificación (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 3a edición). Concepción, Chile: Universidad de Concepción.154 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Barbut, J., Lalanne-Cassou, B., 2009. (Contribution à la connaissance des Noctuoidea des Antilles et descriptions de quatre nouvelles espèces (Lepidoptera)). In: Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France,114(4) . 409-418.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biezanko, C. M., Bertholdi, R. E., 1951. (Principais noctuídeos prejudiciais às plantas cultivadas em arredores de Pelotas). Agronomia, 10, 235-247.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI/EPPO, 2006. Spodoptera eridania. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 685. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Capinera, J. L., 2018. Southern Armyworm, Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) - EENY-106. Florida, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN26300.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chittenden, F. H., Russel, H. M., 1909. Some insects injurious to truck crops - the semitropical army worm (Prodenia eridania Cram.). In: USDA Bureau Entomol. Bull,66. 53-70.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarke-Harris, D. O., Fleischer, S., Fender, A., 1998. The Pennsylvania State University. Major pests of callaloo. In: Identification guide . http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/TechTransfer/Callaloo.pdf

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COPR, 1983. Pest Control in Tropical Tomatoes. London, UK: COPR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coto, D., Saunders, J. L., Vargas, S. C. L., King, B. S., 1995. (Plagas invertebradas de cultivos tropicales con énfasis en América Central - Un inventário, Turrialba, Costa Rica). In: Série Técnica: Manual Técnico , (12) . Turrialba, Costa Rica: CATIE. 200 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Crumb SE, 1956. The Larvae of the Phalaenidae. Technical Bulletin No. 1135. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dias Nda S, Micheletti SMFB, Tourinho Lde L, Rodrigues Vde M, 2009. First record of Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attacking Crotalária spp. in Alagoas State, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de ocorrência de Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) atacando Crotalária no estado de Alagoas, Brasil.) Caatinga, 22(1):1-8. http://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/index.php/sistema/article/view/842/529

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ferguson, D. C., Hilburn, D. J., Wright, B., 1991. The Lepidoptera of Bermuda: their food plants, biogeography, and means of dispersal. In: Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada , (No. 158) . 105 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foerster LA, Dionizio ALM, 1989. Temperature requirements for the development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Leguminosp). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 18(1):145-154

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gardner, W. A., Noblet, R., 1978. Effects of host age, route of infection, and quantity of inoculum on the susceptibility of Heliothis virescens, Spodoptera eridania, S. frugiperda to Beauveria bassiana. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 13(3), 214-222.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Goergen, G., 2018. New alien invasive pest identified in West and Central Africa!. In: IITA Factsheet . Cotonou, Benin: IITA.http://www.iita.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/SAW_factsheet-22-May-2018.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hichings, O. N., Rabinovich, J. E., 1974. (Fluctuaciones de la población de larvas de cinco especies de Nóctuidos de importancia económica asociadas a la alfalfa en el Valle de Lluta). Idesia, 3, 35-79.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Huiza, I. R., Loayza, R. M., 1993. (Los controladores biológicos de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) en la costa Central de Peru). Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 35, 121-124.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    King ABS, Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Maes, J. M., Tellez Robleto, J., 1988. List of insects and terrestrial arthropods associated with the economically most important plants of Nicaragua. (Catálogo de los insectos y artrópodos terrestres asociados a las principales plantas de importancia económica en Nicaragua). In: Revista Nicaragüense de Entomología , (No. 5) . 1-95.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mattana, A. L., Foerster, L. A., 1988. Life cycle of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on a new host, Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Leguminosae). (Ciclo de vida de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em um novo hospedeiro, bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) (Leguminosae)). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 17(1), 173-183.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meagher RL, Brambila J, Hung E, 2008. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 91(4):517-522. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Montezano, D. G., Specht, A., Sosa-Gomez, D. R., Roque-Specht, V. F., de Barros, N. M., 2014. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants. Journal of Insect Science, 14(1), 238.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nuessly, G. S., Hentz, M. G., Beiriger, R., Scully, B. T., 2004. Insects associated with faba bean, Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae), in Southern Florida. Florida Entomologist, 87(2), 204-211. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ doi: 10.1653/0015-4040(2004)087[0204:IAWFBV]2.0.CO;2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OEPP/EPPO, 2015. EPPO Standards PM 7/124(1) Diagnostic protocol for Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34:257-270

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pogue, G. M., 2002. A world revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In: Mem. Am. Entomol. Soc , 43. 1-202.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Semillas del Caribe, 2010. Cultivo-Plagas. 44 pp. http://www.semilladelcaribe.com.mx/sc/archi/plagas.pdf

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Distribution References

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI, EPPO, 2006. Spodoptera eridania. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 685. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20073010152

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dias N da S, Micheletti S M F B, Tourinho L de L, Rodrigues V de M, 2009. First record of Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attacking Crotalária spp. in Alagoas State, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de ocorrência de Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) atacando Crotalária no estado de Alagoas, Brasil.). Caatinga. 22 (1), 1-8. http://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/index.php/sistema/article/view/842/529

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Goergen G, 2018. New alien invasive pest identified in West and Central Africa! In: IITA Factsheet, Cotonou, Benin: IITA. http://www.iita.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/SAW_factsheet-22-May-2018.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Karsholt O, 1994. Some moths introduced into Denmark, with remarks on this subject (Lepidoptera). (Nogle indslæbte sommerfugle i Danmark, samt bemærkninger om dette emne.). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 62 (1), 1-6.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meagher R L, Brambila J, Hung E, 2008. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist. 91 (4), 517-522. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Links to Websites

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Contributors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    09/10/2019 Review by:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Debora Montezano, Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Alexandre Specht, EMBRAPA Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil

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