Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Spodoptera eridania
(southern armyworm)

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Datasheet

Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 January 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spodoptera eridania
  • Preferred Common Name
  • southern armyworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Spodoptera eridania is a polyphagous generalist feeder recorded on 200 plants species belonging to 58 botanic families. It is native to the USA and occurs throughout southern USA, Central and South America, and...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
TitleLarva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
LarvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980.  Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult male
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980.  Museum set specimen.
Adult maleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, St George Co., Trinidad, West Indies. December 1980. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult male
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.
Adult maleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult male. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. August 1978. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult female
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.
Adult femaleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies. October 1980. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult female
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.
Adult femaleSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult female. Note scale. Moren Bleu, Trinidad, West Indies. February 1979. Museum set specimen.©Matthew Cock/CABI
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.
TitlePupa
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.
PupaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); pupa. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
TitleFinal instar larva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
Final instar larvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Close-up of head capsule and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
TitleFinal instar larva
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.
Final instar larvaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); final instar larva. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.
AdultSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, lateral view. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.
AdultSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); adult moth, head and anterior region. Laboratory specimen.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.
TitleEggs
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.
EggsSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); eggs. Laboratory sample.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.
TitleEggs
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.
EggsSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); extreme close-up of eggs. Laboratory sample.Public Domain - Released by the USGS Bee Inventory & Monitoring Lab.
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleColour phases
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Colour phasesSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar colour phases, on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.
TitleLarva and larval damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.
Copyright©David Jones/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.
Larva and larval damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); last instar larva and larval damage, on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). USA.©David Jones/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)
Copyright©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY-SA 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larva feeding damage on a strawberry leaf (Fragaria spp.)©Jonas Janner Hamann/Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/Bugwood.org - CC BY-SA 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larval feeding damage on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval feeding damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); early instar larvae, feeding near egg mass on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLeaf damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Leaf damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larva, feeding on a cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleDamaged cotton boll
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Damaged cotton bollSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); late instar larvae on a damaged cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval 'scarring' damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval 'scarring' damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval 'scarring' damage on a cotton boll (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
TitleLarval damage on a cotton crop
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Copyright©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.
Larval damage on a cotton cropSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on a cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum). USA.©Ronald Smith/Auburn University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).
Larval damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris).©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.
Larval damageSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); larval damage on green (unripe) tomato fruits.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782)

Preferred Common Name

  • southern armyworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Laphygma eridania (Stoll, 1782)
  • Noctua eridania (Stoll, 1782)
  • Phalaena eridania Stoll, 1782
  • Prodenia eridania (Stoll, 1782)
  • Spodoptera amygia (Guenée, 1852)
  • Spodoptera bipunctata (Walker, 1857)
  • Spodoptera communicata (Walker, 1869)
  • Spodoptera derupta (Morrison, 1875)
  • Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1972)
  • Spodoptera externa (Walker, 1856)
  • Spodoptera ignobilis (Butler, 1878)
  • Spodoptera inquieta (Walker, 1857)
  • Spodoptera linea (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Spodoptera nigrofascia (Hulst, 1881)
  • Spodoptera peruviana (Walker, 1865)
  • Spodoptera phytolaccae (J.E. Smith, 1797)
  • Spodoptera putrida (Guenée, 1852)
  • Spodoptera strigifera (Walker, 1858)
  • Xylomyges eridania (Stoll, 1782)

International Common Names

  • English: armyworm, semitropical; armyworm, southern; semi-tropical armyworm
  • Spanish: gusano cortador (el salvador); gusano negro; gusano soldado sureño; rosquilla

EPPO code

  • PRODER (Spodoptera eridania)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Spodoptera eridania is a polyphagous generalist feeder recorded on 200 plants species belonging to 58 botanic families. It is native to the USA and occurs throughout southern USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean (Pogue, 2002). Due the fact that S. eridania occurs all across the USA and is present in many host plants, several regions around the world are in risk of invasion due to the global trade of vegetables, ornamental and aromatic plants, which can transport larvae and eggs. Even though it is not established in Europe, it has been detected on imported plants from the New World (Karsholt, 1994). The detection of S. eridania in Africa, demonstrates its high dispersal ability, indicating the importance of closely monitoring this species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Spodoptera
  •                                 Species: Spodoptera eridania

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Older references cite Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782), however, Pieter Cramer died in 1776 and it was Caspar Stoll who continued the description of species and the publication of books. Thus, taxonomy works indicate Stoll as the true author of the species. 

A complete list of synonyms is provided by Todd and Poole (1980). Spodoptera peruviana (Walker) (syn. Laphygma communicata Walker) was synonymized with Spodoptera eridania by Todd and Poole (1980) and Pogue (2002). However, it is currently considered once again to be a separate species (Poole, 1989).

Spodoptera recondita (Möschler) has been removed from the list (see Todd and Poole (1980), Poole (1989) and Pogue (2002)) and validated as a new species (Anicla recondita (Möschler, 1890) by Barbut and Lalanne-Cassou (2009).

Description

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Eggs

Flattened sphere, measuring about 0.45 m in diameter and 0.35 mm in height. The eggs are greenish initially, turning tan as they age. Eggs are laid in large groups on the foliage, and covered with a layer of grey bristles (scales) derived from the abdomen of the female.

Larvae

There are usually six instars (Montezano et al., 2014). Fully grown caterpillars measure 35-40 mm. Young larvae are black with yellow lateral lines, but older instars are grey-brown with a dorsal row of paired black triangular spots, and subdorsal reddish lines when older; the head capsule is yellow-brown. Larvae are characterized by a prominent yellow subspiracular line which is broken by a dark (sometimes diffuse) spot on the first abdominal segment (Levy and Habeck, 1976). A full description of the larvae is given in Crumb (1956) and Pogue (2002).

Pupae

The pupal stage lasts an average of 9 days under laboratory conditions (Montezano et al., 2014). A typical noctuid pupa, measuring 16-20 mm long with rounded head and abdomen. Shiny mahogany brown, with darker head, spiracles and anterior edges of abdominal segments. Anal segment terminates in a two-spined cremaster. Female pupae are heavier (377 mg) than male pupae (329 mg) (Montezano et al., 2014).

Adult

A sturdy grey-brown moth, wing-span 28-40 mm, forewings grey, hindwings pearly-white above with a stronger lustre below. Markings variable, some individuals have a strongly marked reniform spot or bar on the forewing, a very prominent blackish posterior marginal line and a similar black line on the lateral posterior margin. Others have a straight, broad, jet-black band from the mid forewing to the lateral margin. Abdomen brownish-grey and antennae yellowish-brown. The posterior angle of the forewing is narrowly divided from the rest of the wing by an irregular, oblique, pale band. The principal definitive features are in the male genitalia (Todd and Poole, 1980; Pogue, 2002).

Distribution

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Spodoptera eridania occurs throughout southern USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean (Pogue, 2002). Although it is not established in Europe, S. eridania is commonly recorded as an accidental introduction from the New World, for example, in Denmark (Karsholt, 1994).

The distribution map incudes records based on specimens of S. eridania from the collection in the Natural History Museum (BMNH, London, UK).

A record of S. eridania in Guernsey (CABI/EPPO, 2006) published in previous versions of the Compendium was erroneous. Guernsey is not included in the list of countries for S. eridania in CABI/EPPO (2006).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent2017Goergen (2018); EPPO (2020)
CameroonPresentGoergen (2018); EPPO (2020)
GabonPresentGoergen (2018); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresent2016Goergen (2018); EPPO (2020)

Europe

DenmarkAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020); Karsholt (1994); CABI and EPPO (2006)
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)Based on long-term annual surveys, 362 survey observations in 2012.
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
BahamasPresentEPPO (2020)
BarbadosPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
BermudaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
Costa RicaPresentEPPO (2020)
CubaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
DominicaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
Dominican RepublicPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
El SalvadorPresentEPPO (2020)
GrenadaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
GuadeloupePresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
HondurasPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
JamaicaPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)Original citation: BMNH
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
MexicoPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
NicaraguaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
PanamaPresentEPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
Saint LuciaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-AlabamaPresentEPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-GeorgiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentEPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentEPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentEPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentMeagher et al. (2008)
-MississippiPresentEPPO (2020)
-New HampshirePresentEPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentEPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-TexasPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)Original citation: BMNH
BrazilPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-AlagoasPresentDias et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
-Espirito SantoPresentEPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentEPPO (2020)
-Mato GrossoPresentEPPO (2020)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentEPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2020)
-ParaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-ParanaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO (2020)
ChilePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
ColombiaPresentEPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2006)Original citation: BMNH
French GuianaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
GuyanaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
PeruPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2006)
SurinamePresentEPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentEPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentEPPO (2020)

Risk of Introduction

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Spodoptera eridania is now classed as an EPPO A1 list of quarantine pests, but it is not listed as a quarantine pest by any other regional plant protection organization. As a subtropical species, it is most likely to become established in southern Europe. In the New World it is not especially recorded as a glasshouse pest, but it could become so in Europe. S. eridania occurs very regularly in Europe on imported plant produce from the New World. S. eridania is commonly intercepted in Europe on plants and tomato fruit (Seymour, 1978; EUROPHYT).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Buildings Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. eridania is a polyphagous generalist feeder recorded on more than 200 plant species belonging to 58 families, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae and Malvaceae (Montezano et al., 2014). Crops damaged include aubergines, species of Beta and Capsicum, cassava, cotton, several members of the Brassicaceae, a wide range of legumes, maize and other Poaceae, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes, yams, and many pot plants and vegetables.

Many potential crop hosts are available in Europe, especially those more commonly grown in the southern part of the region. Sugarbeet and field tomatoes could be especially vulnerable, as well as a wide range of vegetables and flowers, including those grown in glasshouses.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeOther
Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeOther
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion)LiliaceaeOther
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeOther
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus deflexus (Perennial Pigweed)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus quitensisAmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)AsteraceaeOther
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeOther
BetaChenopodiaceaeMain
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Beta vulgaris var. ciclaChenopodiaceaeOther
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeOther
Brassica napus var. oleiferaBrassicaceaeOther
Brassica nigra (black mustard)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeOther
Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree)CecropiaceaeOther
Centrosema pubescens (Centro)FabaceaeOther
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeOther
Cicer arietinum (chickpea)FabaceaeOther
Citharexylum fruticosumVerbenaceaeOther
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeOther
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Commelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)CommelinaceaeOther
Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeOther
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)FabaceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)PoaceaeOther
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Dianthus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeOther
Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeMain
Digitaria (crabgrass)PoaceaeOther
Digitaria ischaemumPoaceaeOther
Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PoaceaeOther
Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeOther
EucalyptusMyrtaceaeOther
Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry)RosaceaeOther
Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeOther
Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
Gonzalagunia spicataRubiaceaeOther
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Hamelia patensRubiaceaeOther
Helianthus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeOther
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeOther
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)BalsaminaceaeOther
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeOther
Laportea aestuansUrticaceaeOther
Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PoaceaeOther
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeOther
Ludwigia (waterprimrose)OnagraceaeOther
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
Malva parviflora (pink cheeseweed)MalvaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)PoaceaeOther
Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)LamiaceaeOther
Mentha (mints)LamiaceaeOther
Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)LamiaceaeOther
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens (Japanese mint)LamiaceaeOther
Mentha piperita (Peppermint)LamiaceaeOther
Mentha spicata (Spear mint)LamiaceaeOther
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeOther
Mimosa scabrellaFabaceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)FabaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeOther
Nasturtium officinale (watercress)BrassicaceaeOther
Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeOther
Neurolaena lobataAsteraceaeOther
Nicotiana alata (sweet-scented tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
OcoteaLauraceaeOther
OdontoglossumOrchidaceaeOther
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeMain
Pelargonium hortorumGeraniaceaeOther
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PoaceaeOther
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Phyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)PhytolaccaceaeOther
Phytolacca dioicaPhytolaccaceaeOther
Phytolacca rivinoidesPhytolaccaceaeOther
PhytolaccaceaePhytolaccaceaeOther
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
Plantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PlantaginaceaeOther
Poaceae (grasses)PoaceaeOther
Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeOther
Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
Rheum hybridum (rhubarb)PolygonaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeOther
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)RosaceaeOther
Rumex (Dock)PolygonaceaeOther
Rumex crispus (curled dock)PolygonaceaeOther
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PolygonaceaeOther
Salix (willows)SalicaceaeWild host
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)AcanthaceaeOther
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeOther
Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeOther
Solanum americanumSolanaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum rugosumSolanaceaeOther
Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sonchus (Sowthistle)AsteraceaeOther
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeOther
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)AsteraceaeOther
Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeOther
Urera bacciferaUrticaceaeOther
Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeOther
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)EricaceaeOther
Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeOther
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)VitaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
Xanthosoma (cocoyam)AraceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
ZinniaAsteraceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Leaf-eating and skeletonization is the main damage to the host plant, and in extreme cases complete defoliation may occur. Larvae are not normally observed because they are nocturnal feeders, but the first two instars are gregarious and can be seen in clusters on the foliage. Holes may be observed on tomato fruits and large larvae sometimes act as cutworms.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / shredding

Biology and Ecology

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One female can oviposit 1500-3000 eggs over its lifetime. Eggs are laid in large batches on the leaves of the host plant, protected by a layer of grey bristles from the female abdomen. Observations made at 20-25°C using different host plants and artificial diets show that the incubation period of S. eridania is invariable and lasts 4 days (Chittenden and Russel, 1909; Valverde and Sarmiento, 1987; Mattana and Foerster, 1988; Montezano et al., 2014). Larvae, as with some other Noctuidae, are gregarious and remain together on the leaf for the first two instars, resulting in leaf skeletonization. The third-instar larvae disperse and become more solitary and nocturnal. During the day they hide in the leaf litter or plant foliage, and emerge to feed on the leaves at night. Larval development usually takes 14-21 days and undergoes six and, rarely, seven instars. As with other Noctuidae, the rate of larval development is affected by the quality of diet and prevailing temperatures; the latter also affects the adult condition. Larvae sometimes swarm and migrate to adjacent fields when food is scarce. Occasionally, large larvae have been recorded acting as cutworms.

Pupation takes place in the soil in a weak earthen cell and typically requires 9-12 days. Adults are nocturnal in habit.

S. eridania is essentially a subtropical species and so a temperature of 20-25°C is optimum for development, and breeding may be continuous. The life-cycle can be completed in 28-30 days, but up to 40 days is common. There are several to many generations per year, the number depending on local conditions. Experiments in Brazil by Foerster and Dionizio (1989) showed that development at temperatures of 17 (115 days) and 30°C (33 days) was retarded. At 30°C, pupae weighed less and survival rates were lower.

The sex pheromone produced by female moths has been described, comprising of (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (59.7%), (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (23.8%), (Z)-9-tetradecenol (8.4%), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (5.1%), (Z,Z)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (3%) and (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (trace).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Preferred < 860mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 35

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 17 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration38number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4003000mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai Pathogen Larvae Pereira et al., 2009
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae Pereira et al., 2009
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae Pereira et al., 2009
Baculovirus Pathogen Larvae Huiza and Laoyza, 1993
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae Gardner and Noblet, 1978
Campoletis flavicincta Parasite Larvae Capinera, 2018
Chelonus insularis Parasite Eggs/Larvae Tingle et al., 1978
Chrysopa Predator
Chrysoperla externa Predator Huiza and Loayza, 1993
Cotesia marginiventris Parasite Larvae Tingle et al., 1978
Doru luteipes Predator
Euphorocera claripennis Parasite Larvae Capinera, 2018
Euphorocera floridensis Parasite Larvae Silva et al., 1968
Euplectrus Parasite
Euplectrus platyhypenae Parasite Larvae Huiza and Loayza, 1993
Geocoris punctipes Predator Huiza and Loayza, 1993
Labidura riparia Predator
Lespesia archippivora Parasite Larvae
Meteorus autographae Parasite Larvae Tingle et al., 1978
Meteorus laphygmae Parasite Larvae Capinera, 2018
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae Zeddam et al., 1998
Ophion flavidus Parasite Larvae/Pupae Capinera, 2018
Orius insidiosus Predator Huiza and Loayza, 1993
Paratriphleps laeviusculus Predator Huiza and Loayza, 1993
Patelloa similis Parasite Larvae
Telenomus remus Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs
Winthemia quadripustulata Parasite Larvae Capinera, 2018

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Numerous parasitic wasps from the Hymenoptera family and true flies from the Tachinidae family are of importance for natural control in the field. King and Saunders (1984) list important species on Caribbean Islands. Biological control was attempted on a number of Commonwealth Caribbean islands, resulting in the establishment of Telenomus remus (Cock, 1985).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Even though Ferguson et al. (1991) include S. eridania as a migratory species present in the islands of Bermuda (approximately 1500 km from the continent), in the New World, S. eridania does not engage in long-distance migrations, so it would be most unlikely to make a transatlantic crossing as a flying adult. It is not known how the infestation of the Galapagos Islands occurred, but it might have been by flying moths. The frequent European records are usually of intercepted larvae on the foliage of infested host plants (Seymour, 1978), but occasionally in the UK and other parts of Europe, larvae are found on plants and some adult moths are found in light traps.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Cut flower tradeMovement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt, 1994
Flooding and other natural disastersOutbreaks recorded after the passage of a hurricane Yes Yes Torres, 1992
Habitat restoration and improvementOutbreaks recorded after reforestation projects of native species Yes Yes Mattana and Foerster, 1988
HitchhikerMovement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes
HorticultureMovement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt, 1994

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes Karsholt, 1994
WindOutbreaks recorded after the passage of a hurricane Yes Torres, 1992

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs; larvae Yes
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Yes
Leaves eggs; larvae Yes Yes
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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S. eridania is usually only a minor pest on most crops in the New World, but occasionally serious infestations occur. It is most damaging on tomato fruits and sweet potatoes, although many vegetables and flowers can be seriously locally affected on occasions. Since most damage is caused by leaf-eating, light infestations on field crops can be tolerated and ignored, but on tomatoes and ornamentals, control may more often be required. S. eridania larvae have also been recorded as occasional pests of cotton, amaranth and lucerne. 

Additionally, S. eridania has been reported from outbreaks under different conditions, such as after the passage of a hurricane (Torres, 1992), in reforestation projects of native species (Mattana and Foerster, 1988) and in truck crops (Michereff Filho et al., 2008), reaching economic injury levels in commercial crops, especially lucerne (Hichings and Rabinovich, 1974) cotton and soyabeans (Santos et al., 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Adults of S. eridania can be confused with some European Hadeninae and Cuculliinae, especially some species of Cucullia, but these latter moths usually do not have hindwings with translucent white colouration. The forewing margin of S. eridania is also squarer and less oblique than those of Cuculliinae, which have more slender, elongate and pointed wings than species of Spodoptera.

An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/EPPO, 2015).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

As S. eridania is often only a minor pest, control is only occasionally required. Insecticidal sprays are the usual means of killing the larvae on the plant foliage when damage is seen. Insecticides recommended for Helicoverpa control can be used for S. eridania: suitable chemicals are listed by COPR (1983) and King and Saunders (1984).

Phytosanitary measures

Plants used for production should come from locations found free from the pest during the previous 3 months. Certain types of plants (for example, cuttings) may be treated by being held at low temperatures <1.7°C) for 2-4 days, followed by fumigation.

References

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Angulo, A. O., Olivares, T. S., Weigert, G. T. H., 2008. (Estados inmaduros de lepidópteros nóctuidos de importancia agrícola y forestal en Chile y claves para su identificación (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 3a edición). Concepción, Chile: Universidad de Concepción.154 pp.

Barbut, J., Lalanne-Cassou, B., 2009. (Contribution à la connaissance des Noctuoidea des Antilles et descriptions de quatre nouvelles espèces (Lepidoptera)). In: Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France,114(4) . 409-418.

Biezanko, C. M., Bertholdi, R. E., 1951. (Principais noctuídeos prejudiciais às plantas cultivadas em arredores de Pelotas). Agronomia, 10, 235-247.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Spodoptera eridania. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 685. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Capinera, J. L., 2018. Southern Armyworm, Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) - EENY-106. Florida, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN26300.pdf

Chittenden, F. H., Russel, H. M., 1909. Some insects injurious to truck crops - the semitropical army worm (Prodenia eridania Cram.). In: USDA Bureau Entomol. Bull,66. 53-70.

Clarke-Harris, D. O., Fleischer, S., Fender, A., 1998. The Pennsylvania State University. Major pests of callaloo. In: Identification guide . http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/TechTransfer/Callaloo.pdf

Cock, M. J. W., 1985. A review of biological control of pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. [ed. by Cock, M. J. W.]. Farnham Royal, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.218 pp.

COPR, 1983. Pest Control in Tropical Tomatoes. London, UK: COPR

Coto, D., Saunders, J. L., Vargas, S. C. L., King, B. S., 1995. (Plagas invertebradas de cultivos tropicales con énfasis en América Central - Un inventário, Turrialba, Costa Rica). In: Série Técnica: Manual Técnico , (12) . Turrialba, Costa Rica: CATIE. 200 pp.

Crumb SE, 1956. The Larvae of the Phalaenidae. Technical Bulletin No. 1135. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture

Dias Nda S, Micheletti SMFB, Tourinho Lde L, Rodrigues Vde M, 2009. First record of Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attacking Crotalária spp. in Alagoas State, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de ocorrência de Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) atacando Crotalária no estado de Alagoas, Brasil.) Caatinga, 22(1):1-8. http://periodicos.ufersa.edu.br/index.php/sistema/article/view/842/529

EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Ferguson, D. C., Hilburn, D. J., Wright, B., 1991. The Lepidoptera of Bermuda: their food plants, biogeography, and means of dispersal. In: Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada , (No. 158) . 105 pp.

Foerster LA, Dionizio ALM, 1989. Temperature requirements for the development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Leguminosp). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 18(1):145-154

Gardner, W. A., Noblet, R., 1978. Effects of host age, route of infection, and quantity of inoculum on the susceptibility of Heliothis virescens, Spodoptera eridania, S. frugiperda to Beauveria bassiana. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 13(3), 214-222.

Goergen, G., 2018. New alien invasive pest identified in West and Central Africa!. In: IITA Factsheet . Cotonou, Benin: IITA.http://www.iita.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/SAW_factsheet-22-May-2018.pdf

Hichings, O. N., Rabinovich, J. E., 1974. (Fluctuaciones de la población de larvas de cinco especies de Nóctuidos de importancia económica asociadas a la alfalfa en el Valle de Lluta). Idesia, 3, 35-79.

Huiza, I. R., Loayza, R. M., 1993. (Los controladores biológicos de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) en la costa Central de Peru). Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 35, 121-124.

Janzen, D. H., Hallwachs, W., 2009. In: Dynamic database for an inventory of the macrocaterpillar fauna, and its food plants and parasitoids, of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica (nn-SRNP-nnnnn voucher codes) , USA: University of Pennsylvania.http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu

Karsholt O, 1994. Some moths introduced into Denmark, with remarks on this subject (Lepidoptera). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 62(1):1-6

King ABS, Saunders JL, 1984. The invertebrate pests of annual food crops in Central America. A guide to their recognition and control. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration

Levy R, Habeck DH, 1976. Descriptions of the larvae of Spodoptera sunia and S. latifascia with a key to the mature Spodoptera larvae of the eastern United States (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(4):585-588

Maes, J. M., Tellez Robleto, J., 1988. List of insects and terrestrial arthropods associated with the economically most important plants of Nicaragua. (Catálogo de los insectos y artrópodos terrestres asociados a las principales plantas de importancia económica en Nicaragua). In: Revista Nicaragüense de Entomología , (No. 5) . 1-95.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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09/10/2019 Review by:

Debora Montezano, Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

Alexandre Specht, EMBRAPA Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil

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