Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Prunus campanulata
(Taiwan cherry)

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Datasheet

Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Prunus campanulata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Taiwan cherry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Prunus campanulata is a flowering cherry tree native to Taiwan, China and Vietnam that has been introduced as an ornamental to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the USA. In New Zealand, P. c...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Flowering habitPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowering habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
FlowersPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
FlowersPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Ceret Park, São Paulo, Brazil. June 2010.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Ceret Park, São Paulo, Brazil. June 2010.
Copyright©mauroguanandi/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Ceret Park, São Paulo, Brazil. June 2010.
FlowersPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); flowers. Ceret Park, São Paulo, Brazil. June 2010.©mauroguanandi/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); young leaves and bracts. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); young leaves and bracts. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); young leaves and bracts. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
LeavesPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); young leaves and bracts. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
LeavesPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); leaves. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); bark. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
TitleBark
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); bark. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); bark. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
BarkPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); bark. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits and leaves. Shibuya Farm Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleFruits
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits and leaves. Shibuya Farm Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits and leaves. Shibuya Farm Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
FruitsPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits and leaves. Shibuya Farm Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr-2011 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
TitleFruits
CaptionPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.
FruitsPrunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry); fruits. Rice Park Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2014.©Forest & Kim Starr-2014 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Prunus campanulata Maxim.

Preferred Common Name

  • Taiwan cherry

Other Scientific Names

  • Cerasus campanulata (Maxim.) A. Vassiliev
  • Cerasus cerasoides (D. Don) S.Ya.
  • Prunus cerasoides D. Don
  • Prunus pendula Maxim.

International Common Names

  • English: bellflower cherry; bell-flowered cherry; Formosan cherry
  • French: cerisier de Formose

Local Common Names

  • China: zhong hua ying tao
  • Germany: Glocken-Kirsche; Kirschbaum, Taiwan-
  • New Zealand: tui tree
  • Taiwan: Taiwan-Kirsche

EPPO code

  • PRNCM (Prunus campanulata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Prunus campanulata is a flowering cherry tree native to Taiwan, China and Vietnam that has been introduced as an ornamental to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the USA. In New Zealand, P. campanulata invades the understorey of relatively intact indigenous forests and is considered invasive in some areas, especially on the North Island, where it has spread and dominates native vegetation. There, in the region of Northland, it is prohibited to sell, propagate, breed, distribute or otherwise spread P. campanulata and in the Waikato region, the Regional Council requires residents to eradicate P. campanulata on personal property.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Prunus
  •                                 Species: Prunus campanulata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Prunus is subdivided into five subgenera: Pranophora, Amygdalus, Padus, Cerasus and Laurocerasus (Gilani et al., 2010). P. campanulata is in the subgenus Cerasus (USDA-ARS, 2018).  

P. campanulata was first described by Maximowicz in 1883, was reduced as the variety P. cerasoides var. campanulata in 1910, and has changed several times since (Wang and Xiang, 1998). Since 1985, the Flora of China lists it as Cerasus campanulata (Wang et al., 1998; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In 1998, Wang and Xiang suggested that P. campanulata should be reduced as a variety of Cerasus cerasoides, as the main difference is that flowers of P. campanulata appear before leaves, although this trait varies with elevation and climate (Wang and Xiang, 1998). 

Description

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P. campanulata is a small, deciduous, flowering tree that grows up to 8 m high (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; NZFlora, 2018). It has characteristic deep red, bell-shaped flowers of up to 2.2 cm diameter that hang in clusters in late winter to early spring (GISD, 2011). Clusters contain 1-5 flowers on very short shoots which elongate after anthesis (NZFlora, 2018). Flowers can appear on the branches before leaves emerge (GISD, 2011). Sepals are triangular, 3-6 mm, magenta to dark red, glabrous, shiny becoming spreading or reflexed. There are five petals, 5-12 mm in diameter, corolla appearing campanulate and eventually spreading, broadly elliptic-ovate, deep pink to rose-magenta (NZFlora, 2018). Flowers have 39-41 stamens, and the style is hairy and usually longer than the stamens (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). Filaments are flushed magenta to crimson. Fruits are ovoid, 12 x 10 mm, glabrous, glossy scarlet, with a smooth stone (NZFlora, 2018). Leaves are serrated, which is typical of other cherry species, 4-7 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, bright green on emergence, changing to dark green in summer and bronze in autumn (GISD, 2011). Leaf petioles are 12-20 mm and hairy, and blades obovate to broadly elliptical (NZFlora, 2018). The bark is blackish brown, branchlets are brown to purplish brown and young branchlets are green and hairy (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Plant Type

Top of page Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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P. campanulata is native to Taiwan, China and Vietnam and has been introduced as an ornamental to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the USA (GISD, 2011).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeGISD, 2011; Kanazawa et al., 2016
-FujianPresentNativeChen, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
-GuangdongPresentNativeChen, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
-JiangxiPresentNativeChen, 2008
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
JapanPresentIntroducedGISD, 2011; Kanazawa et al., 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
TaiwanPresentNativeOu and Chen, 2002; Song et al., 2007; GISD, 2011; Huang et al., 2012; Kanazawa et al., 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018
VietnamPresentNativeGISD, 2011; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018

North America

USAPresentIntroducedGISD, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedGISD, 2011

Europe

UKPresentIntroducedGISD, 2011

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedGISD, 2011
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988; GISD, 2011; NZ-DOC, 2014; NZPCN, 2014; NRC, 2018

History of Introduction and Spread

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In New Zealand, P. campanulata is thought to have escaped from gardens, where it was planted as an ornamental after import from Asia in the 1960s (Scoop Media, 2011). By 1988, the species was naturalized in parts of New Zealand (NZPCN, 2014). 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
New Zealand Asia 1960s Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Scoop Media (2011)

Risk of Introduction

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Where P. campanulata is still available as an ornamental, it may continue to spread from gardens and parks into natural areas.

Habitat

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In Taiwan, P. campanulata is widely distributed in broadleaved forests at 500-2000 m of altitude (Ou and Chen, 2002). In China, it is found in forests in ravines, and in forest margins at 100-1300 m above sea level (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

In New Zealand, it is found in forests, riparian zones, urban areas, hillsides and in scrub (Webb et al., 1988; GISD, 2011). In Northland, New Zealand, P. campanulata prefers native forest, including urban fragments, regenerating secondary bush and relatively intact forest via canopy gaps, edges and riparian margins. It also occurs on roadsides and occasionally as an epiphyte. Urban forest fragments are the most invaded habitats (NRC, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

P. campanulata is diploid with 2n= 16 and karyotype A1 (Wang et al., 2018). AFLP analysis has shown that populations of P. campanulata in Japan, China and Taiwan are genetically different (Kanazawa et al., 2016).

Many flowering cherry cultivars have been shown to have originated from P. campanulata (Kanazawa et al., 2016). AFLP analysis has shown that Prunus × kanzakura cv. Atami-zakura is the F1 hybrid of P. jamasakura [Prunus serrulata f. spontanea] and P. campanulata. It has also shown that Prunus × kanzakura cv. Kawazu-zakura is the F1 hybrid of P. lannesiana var. speciosa [Prunus speciosa] and P. campanulata (Ogawa et al., 2012). Chloroplast DNA analysis suggests that natural crossing between hybrids of P. speciosa and P. campanulata often occur in Izu, Japan. It is hypothesized that these hybrid varieties developed near a human settlement where the two species were planted as a genetic resource for breeding desirable traits, such as the dark red petals of P. campanulata (Ohta et al., 2011).

In P. campanulata, 84 unigenes are associated with a response to cold stress, with upregulation of the DRP, MYB, HSP, GPX and GA20-ox genes, and downregulation of TIL and CDPK (Zhang et al., 2015a). Two P. campanulata MADS-box family genes involved in petal and stamen development were found to be very similar to the same genes in other members of the Rosaceae (Huang et al., 2017).

Reproductive Biology

P. campanulata is insect-pollinated, and flowers and seeds within 1-2 years (GISD, 2011). Seeds are long-lived and widely dispersed (Weedbusters, 2018). P. campanulata can also spread vegetatively (GISD, 2011).

The seeds exhibit physiological and morphological dormancy, which requires both warm and cold conditions to break (Lee et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; GISD, 2011). Dormancy may be broken by 4 to 6 weeks of warm conditions, followed by 8 weeks of cold conditions, and is promoted by removal of the endocarp and seed coat. Dormancy break is accompanied by a decrease in abscisic acid content of the covering layers and germination is accompanied by an increase in embryonic gibberellic acid (Chen at al., 2007).

Physiology and Phenology

Different strains of P. campanulata have been shown to have different leaf functional characteristics, which can be used to select strains suitable as ornamental street tree species (Hong et al., 2015).

It is one of the earliest flowering cherries, starting in early spring or late winter (GISD, 2011). In China, it flowers from January to March and fruits from April to May (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In New Zealand, it flowers from July to September (Webb et al., 1988; NZFlora, 2018).

Environmental Requirements

P. campanulata prefers part-shade or sun, is hardy to -12˚C and prefers fertile, light, well-drained soil (GIDS, 2011). The species is tolerant of warm and cold climates, and low to medium rainfall (Weedbusters, 2018).

In 11 natural populations of P. campanulata in China, flower colour and the number of flowers per plant were significantly correlated to longitude, latitude and annual rainfall, petal width was correlated to longitude and altitude, the number of flowers per plant, petal width and flowering habit were correlated to hours of sunshine, and petal width was correlated to annual mean temperature and frost-free period (Chen, 2008).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 42

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -12

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chrysozephyrus nishikaze Herbivore
Phellinus noxius Pathogen Adults
Phytophthora cambivora Pathogen Seedlings
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Taiwan, Phytophthora cambivora was found to cause stem blight and root rot to P. campanulata (Huang et al., 2012), Phellinus noxius was found to naturally infect the species (Ann et al., 1999) and the larvae of the butterfly Chrysozephyrus nishikaze was found to feed on P. campanulata (Savela, 2018).

In New Zealand, six sap transmissible viruses, including the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, were identified in flowering cherries, including P. campanulata (Everett et al., 1993).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

P. campanulata can spread vegetatively (GISD, 2011).

Vector Transmission

P. campanulata seeds can be dispersed by birds (GISD, 2011; Weedbusters, 2018).

Accidental Introduction

P. campanulata has escaped from gardens, including via garden waste (GISD, 2011).

Intentional Introduction

P. campanulata is a popular ornamental tree that has been intentionally planted in both private gardens and public areas (GISD, 2011; Hong et al., 2015).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationExplants are produced and tissue culture propagated for the horticulture industry Yes Zhang et al., 2015b; Chen et al., 2016
Digestion and excretionCan be dispersed by birds Yes GISD, 2011
Garden waste disposal Yes GISD, 2011
Horticulture Yes Yes GISD, 2011
Internet sales Yes Yes GISD, 2011
Ornamental purposesPopular ornamental tree for both private gardens and public areas Yes Yes Song, 2007; GISD, 2011

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesHas escaped from gardens via garden waste Yes GISD, 2011

Economic Impact

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In New Zealand, where the species is considered invasive, the regulation, management, removal and continued monitoring of P. campanulata has an associated high cost.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

In New Zealand, P. campanulata invades the understorey of relatively intact indigenous forests (GISD, 2011). More specifically, in Northland, P. campanulata invades all shrublands, light gaps in the forest, roadsides, gardens and reserves, negatively impacting entire natural ecosystems (NRC, 2018). In open or disturbed areas, it forms dense stands that are long-lived and prevent regeneration of other species (Weedbusters, 2018).

Impact on Biodiversity

In New Zealand, P. campanulata competes with regenerating native species in native forests (GISD, 2011). In Northland, the species has the potential to spread and dominate native vegetation, displacing it completely and negatively affecting natural ecosystems (NRC, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

P. campanulata is a popular ornamental tree with economic value where sold (USDA-ARS, 2018).

There is a significant body of research being done into advancing the breeding of new cultivars and propagation techniques for the species (LüYueLiang et al., 2006) and the species is micropropagated for the horticulture industry (Zhang et al., 2015b; Chen at al., 2016).

P. campanulata is one of the cherry trees used to attract tourists to Kawazu City, Izu, Japan, every year for the Kawazu Cherry Blossom Festival (Ohta et al., 2011).

Although traditionally planted as an ornamental in Taiwan, with fruits of low edible value as a human food source, trials have been undertaken to improve fruit size and economic value of P. campanulata, with eight good selections identified as having potential (Song et al., 2007).

In the USA, the National Arboretum has a breeding program for ornamental cherry trees that, from 2012-2013, released two P. campanulata cultivars, ‘Abigail Adams’ and ‘Helen Taft’. ‘Abigail Adams’ has dark pink semi-double flowers and was selected for wider use in breeding programs, and ‘Helen Taft’ was selected for its vigorous growth, large pale pink flowers and ease of production (Pooler, 2013). 

Social Benefit

P. campanulata is a popular ornamental tree in both private gardens and public areas (GISD, 2011). It is one of the most commonly planted trees on school campuses in Lu-Gu and Shinyi Townships, Nantou County, Taiwan (Yang et al., 2012; 2016).

Environmental Services

In Taiwan, part of its native range, P. campanulata is an important food source for Taiwan Yuhina birds (Yuhina brunneiceps) (Lee et al., 2005). Furthermore, three species of forest bird have been observed consuming the nectar of P. campanulata (Chen and Chou, 1999).

In New Zealand, P. campanulata attracts the endemic bird species tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and bellbird (Anthornis melanura) (Tully, 2018).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In New Zealand, P. campanulata can be distinguished from other naturalized cherry trees, such as Japanese hill cherry (P. serrulata), cherry laurel (P. laurocerasus), Portugal laurel (P. lusitanica) and sweet cherry (P. avium) by its deep pink narrowly campanulate flowers that have a narrow hypanthium, with a tube-like lower corolla. Young trees may retain a Lombardy poplar upright habit for some years before spreading out (Webb et al., 1988; NZPCN, 2014; Weedbusters, 2018).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS measures

In Northland, North Island, New Zealand, it is prohibited to sell, propagate, breed, distribute or otherwise spread P. campanulata (NRC, 2018) and the species is classified as a community pest (GISD, 2011; NRC, 2018). In the Auckland region, North Island, it is considered a species requiring further research to determine its effects on biodiversity, and is listed by the Waitakere City Council as an environmental weed posing a risk to conservation, for which eradication is recommended (GISD, 2011). In Waikato, North Island, it is included in the Regional Pest Management Strategy and classified as a ‘containment (occupier control) pest plant’. The Waikato Regional Council requires residents to eradicate P. campanulata on personal property (GISD, 2011).

In the regions of Bay of Plenty (North Island), Marlborough (South Island) and West Coast (South Island), P. campanulata is also considered a garden escapee and planting of alternative native species is recommended (GISD, 2011).

Control

In Northland, New Zealand, P. campanulata is a sustained control plant, i.e. a widespread pest in suitable habitat that causes adverse effects to the environment. As a consequence, landowners are responsible for management of the plant and need to act to reduce its impact and spread (NRC, 2018).

Physical/mechanical control

P. campanulata trees should be removed by felling, and seedlings can be dug out (GISD, 2011). In Northland, New Zealand, it is recommended to pull out seedlings and small plants of P. campanulata and then to apply mulch, and to cut and stump treat more established plants all year round (NRC, 2018).

Chemical control

Once felled, stumps of P. campanulata should be treated with herbicide. Follow up treatments should be used to check for subsequent sprouting or seedlings (GISD, 2011). In Northland, New Zealand, it is recommended to cut P. campanulata trees and to stump treat them with metasulfuron-methyl or picloram all year round, followed by mulching the cut branches and leaves (NRC, 2018). Another recommended year-round method of chemical control is to cut, drill or ringbark, then inject the trunk at a downward angle with metasulfuron-methyl or picloram (NRC, 2018). Summer spraying with metasulfuron-methyl or picloram is also recommended for the control of P. campanulata.

Ecosystem Restoration

After physical and chemical control of P. campanulata, sites should be monitored for potential growth and seed bank for two years. It is also recommended that a dense cover of native trees or shrubs is planted to produce shade (Weedbusters, 2018).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is little information about specific species, including endangered species, which may be negatively affected by P. campanulata.

References

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Ann, P. J., Lee, H. L., Tsai, J. N., 1999. Survey of brown root disease of fruit and ornamental trees caused by Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 8(2), 51-60.

Chen BiHua, Li JianMin, Zhang Juan, Wu ZhuoXi, Fan HuiHua, Li QianZhen, 2016. Optimizing the rapid technique for propagation of Cerasus campanulata by tissue culture. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(1), 305-309. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/48(1)/38.pdf

Chen ChaoChieh, Chou LienSiang, 1999. The diet of forest birds at Fushan Experimental Forest. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science, 14(3), 275-287.

Chen ShunYing, Chien ChingTe, Chung JengDer, Yang YuhShyong, Kuo ShingRong, 2007. Dormancy-break and germination in seeds of Prunus campanulata (Rosaceae): role of covering layers and changes in concentration of abscisic acid and gibberellins. Seed Science Research, 17(1), 21-32. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=SSR doi: 10.1017/S0960258507383190

Chen Zhang, 2008. Phenotypic variation in natural populations of Cerasus campanulata Maxim. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 16(1), 61-68. http://xuebao.scib.ac.cn

Everett, K. R., Milne, K. S., Forster, R. L. S., 1993. Sap-transmissible viruses in flowering cherry in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 21(4), 311-316.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gilani, S. A., Qureshi, R. A., Khan, A. M., Potter, D., 2010. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L. (Rosaceae) from Pakistan using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) spacer DNA. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(31), 4867-4872. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2010/2Aug/Gilani%20et%20al.pdf

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03/06/18 Original text by:

Vicki Cottrell, Consultant, UK

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