Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Parkia biglobosa
(néré)

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Datasheet

Parkia biglobosa (néré)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Parkia biglobosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • néré
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. biglobosa is an important tree in tropical and subtropical Africa, particularly valued for its seeds, which have many uses. It is a common tree in drier parts of West and East Africa, but is also found in mo...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleTree habit
Caption
CopyrightDirk Thies
Tree habitDirk Thies
TitleFoliage
Caption
CopyrightDirk Thies
FoliageDirk Thies
TitleFlower
Caption
CopyrightDirk Thies
FlowerDirk Thies
Sectioned seed pod on leaves
TitleFruit and foliage
CaptionSectioned seed pod on leaves
CopyrightICRAF
Sectioned seed pod on leaves
Fruit and foliageSectioned seed pod on leavesICRAF

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

Preferred Common Name

  • néré

Other Scientific Names

  • Inga biglobosa (Jacq.) Willd.
  • Inga senegalensis DC.
  • Mimosa biglobosa Jacq.
  • Mimosa taxifolia Pers.
  • Parkia africana R. Br.
  • Parkia clappertoniana Keay
  • Parkia filicoidea sensu auct.
  • Parkia intermedia Oliver
  • Parkia oliveri J. F. Macbr.

International Common Names

  • English: African locust bean; fern leaf; monkey cutlass tree; two ball nita tree; West African locust bean
  • French: arbre à farine; arbre à fauve; caroubier Africain; mimosa pourpre; nété

Local Common Names

  • : abahimedo; abata; ahuatin; ahwa; aridan; arouati; blel; boudoubou; bouguilabou; bouniek; boutifa; dobira; donbou; douaga; doubou; gbaliku kwen; houati; houlle; houoti; igba; kaloa; komébé; konga; kpalé; kparalé; lélé; léré; mahati; maté; naingué tchigué; namarrehi; narehi; narrehi; nédé; nerehi; neri; nété; néto; nette; nounnouhi; ouba; ouli; pamfé; paroba; séou; siné; ul; yendio; yif; zien
  • Germany: Nittabaum
  • Ghana: dawadawa
  • Guinea-Bissau: faroba

EPPO code

  • PRKAF (Parkia africana)

Trade name

  • dadawa
  • dawa-dawa
  • iru
  • kinda
  • kpalugu
  • nététou
  • soumbal
  • soumbara

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. biglobosa is an important tree in tropical and subtropical Africa, particularly valued for its seeds, which have many uses. It is a common tree in drier parts of West and East Africa, but is also found in more humid areas. It has been introduced, but not widely, with isolated records in Australia, India and Indonesia. Recently, reports have indicated that it is now widespread in the Caribbean. It has naturalized in Haiti, and there are unverified reports of P. biglobosa being naturalized and possibly invasive in Trinidad and Tobago, though further research is required to confirm the status of the tree on Caribbean islands.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Parkia
  •                                     Species: Parkia biglobosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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P. biglobosa is a generally well-accepted species with clear and agreed taxonomic limits. However, the naming authority P. biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. ex G. Don has been incorrectly misapplied in the past and is still used (e.g. USDA-ARS, 2014), whereas the currently accepted authority is P. biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don (e.g. ILDIS, 2014; The Plant List, 2014).

Parkia is a large genus present in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout Africa, Asia and the Americas, with 39 species recorded by The Plant List (2014), although only 17 species are recorded by USDA-ARS (2014). Only three closely related species are native to continental Africa, all belonging to the section Parkia, and a fourth is native to Madagascar. P. biglobosa is found in savanna woodland of the Sudanian zone, whereas the other two continental species (P. bicolor A.Chev. and P. filicoidea Oliv.) are principally rainforest species (Sina and Traoré, 2002).

The most common name in English is the African locust bean. However, the name ‘locust’ and ‘locust bean’ are also applied to a number of other legume trees such as species of Ceratonia, Gleditsia and Robinia and thus can cause confusion. Thus, néré is proposed as a clearer but still common name. This name is well understood through most of its native range, and especially in francophone West African countries where trees are economically valued. The name néré is also understood in lusophone and anglophone countries.

Description

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African locust bean grows up to 20 m tall or even taller on fertile soils and has a large, spreading, umbrella-shaped crown. The leaves are dark green, bipinnate, up to 40 cm long with an orbicular gland on the petiole. Up to 40 pairs of pinnae have up to 65 pairs of leaflets each. Leaflets are oblong to linear, 0.8–3.0 cm x 0.2–0.8 cm. The rachis is greyish to light brown and pubescent. Younger trees and root suckers have large leaves. Capitula are red, turning to salmon pink, biglobose, 45–70 x 33–60 mm, with hermaphrodite and staminoidal flowers, on peduncles up to 30 cm long. Flowering and maturation of fruit occurs during the dry season. The ball-like remnant flower-heads produce clusters of pods, which grow into fruits that are brown pods, slightly bent, about 45 cm long and 2 cm wide, hanging in racemes from the club-shaped fruit base. The fruit split open when mature and contain about 20 flattened black seeds, embedded in a yellow fruit pulp containing sucrose. The fruit are produced in bunches and ripen over the rainy season. The seeds, 5–20 per pod, are oval (0.9–1.5 cm) and weigh about 250 mg each. The seed consists of 30% testa and 70% cotyledon. The seedcoat is thick and protects the embryo from extreme heat and drought (Janick and Paull, 2008).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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P. biglobosa occurs naturally in Africa at latitudes of 0-15°N in a strip extending from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, from Senegal to Guinea, across Mali and Chad, to Cameroon, Sudan and Uganda, as well as the Central African Republic. The belt is widest in West Africa (maximum 800 km) and narrows to the east. It can also be found in Sao Tomé and Principe, where it is possibly introduced (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Sina and Traoré, 2002). According to White (1983), the natural phytogeographical distribution of P. biglobosa corresponds to the 'Sudanian Regional Centre of Endemism' and the 'Guineo-Congolia/Sudania Regional Transition Zone'.

P. biglobosa has been introduced to the Caribbean, where it is cultivated (Hopkins, 1986; FAO, 1988). It is naturalized in Haiti (Booth and Wickens, 1988). Trial plantations have been established in Tanzania (Sina and Traoré, 2002). It has not been recorded on Pacific islands (PIER, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
BeninPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
Burkina FasoPresentNative Not invasive Planted, NaturalILDIS, 2014
CameroonPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
ChadPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative Not invasive Planted, NaturalILDIS, 2014
GambiaPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
GhanaPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
GuineaPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
Guinea-BissauPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
KenyaPresent Natural
LiberiaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
MadagascarPresentIntroducedHopkins, 1983
MaliPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
MayottePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2014
NigerPresentNative Not invasive Planted, NaturalILDIS, 2014
NigeriaPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
RwandaPresent Natural
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroduced Not invasive ILDIS, 2014Probably introduced
SenegalPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
SudanPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Natural Sina and Traoré, 2002
TogoPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014
UgandaPresentNative Not invasive Natural ILDIS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
BarbadosPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
CubaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
DominicaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
GrenadaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
HaitiPresentIntroducedPlanted, NaturalBooth and Wickens, 1988; Kairo et al., 2003
JamaicaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedKairo et al., 2003

South America

GuyanaPresentIntroducedSina and Traoré, 2002

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedAVH, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. biglobosa was introduced to the Caribbean more than 200 years ago, probably as a consequence of the slave trade, and later to Guyana (Sina and Traoré, 2002).

Risk of Introduction

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As a valued multipurpose tree not yet reported as an invasive species, it is likely that it could be further introduced to other areas.

Habitat

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P. biglobosa is most conspicuous in anthropogenic landscapes, but occurs on rocky hills, e.g. sandstone hills and stony ridges such as granite inselbergs (Sina and Traoré, 2002). P. biglobosa is a tree of savannas and natural forests, though it is also found in some urban areas. There is no published information regarding the habitats in the Caribbean where P. biglobosa has become naturalized.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Deserts Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

P. biglobosa is a diploid species with chromosome counts of 2n = 22 and 2n = 24, recorded with different accessions by Uyoh et al. (2011).

Reproductive Biology

P. biglobosa is monoecious and protandrous, though it is possible that some degree of self-compatibility may occur (Hopkins, 1983). Crossing experiments estimated a selfing rate of 5% (Lompo et al., 2017). Microsatellite analysis by Lassen et al. (2014) showed that a single plant sired all seeds in a pod. Different flower types occur in the hermaphrodite capitulum: 2200 fertile female flowers in the ball-shaped portion, 80 male flowers positioned close to the peduncle and 260 infertile nectar flowers in a ring, producing nectar (Hopkins, 1983). Despite the high number of fertile female flowers, only up to 25 pods form the infructescence (Ouedraogo, 1995). 

Anthesis occurs at dusk, when large quantities of nectar and pollen are produced and capitula may smell foetid, fruity or like cow manure; flowers wilt during the night. Pollination in its native range is by bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae), including Eidolon helvum, Epomorphorus gambianus, Micropteropus pusillus and Nanonycteris veldkampi. Seed set can also occur in the absence of bats, however, and honeybees, flies, wasps, ants, tenebrioid beetles and tettigometid bugs may be involved. Sunbirds (Nectariniidae) also visit capitula but are negligible as pollinators.

Trees can also be established using vegetative propagation by cuttings, grafting and stump planting.

Physiology and Phenology

P. biglobosa is drought and fire tolerant and nitrogen-fixing. P. biglobosa flowers towards the end of the dry season from December to April in West Africa (beginning later with increasing latitude), although occasionally it flowers in other months. Flowering coincides with loss of leaves; new foliage develops after peak flowering. The flowering period lasts 3-8 weeks depending on the region. Fruiting occurs at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season, by April/May. However, two periods of flowering and fruiting per year may occur (Sina and Traoré, 2002). Soil moisture plays an important role in flowering (Janick and Paull, 2008).

The seedling shows semi-hypogeal germination, the testa splits but remains associated with the fleshy, pale green cotyledons. The first true leaf is a cataphyll, and subsequent juvenile leaves are bipinnate usually with 3 pairs of pinnae. A white-yellow taproot develops first during germination and gives rise to lateral roots. Growth is comparatively fast, and seedlings may reach a height of 1 m in a single year, and young trees of superior provenances can reach 7 m after 6 years (Sina and Traoré, 2002).

Tree development is in accordance with Champagnat's architectural model, i.e. the trunk is formed by superposition of renewal shoots from lateral buds; the new shoot is initially orthotropic but later becomes plagiotropic, and the phyllotaxy is spiral (Sina and Traoré, 2002). Trees start flowering at 5-7 years while still comparatively small (Sina and Traoré, 2002), although fruiting is reported to start at 8 years by Maydell (1983). Trees reach their maximum height after 30-50 years, and can reach the age of 100 (Sina and Traoré, 2002).

Associations

The natural phytogeographical distribution of P. biglobosa corresponds to the Sudanian regional centre of endemism and the Guineo-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone (White, 1983). An important associated tree in these parklands is Vitellaria paradoxa. In savanna woodland, P. biglobosa occurs with Pterocarpus erinaceus, Khaya senegalensis, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana and others.

Environmental Requirements

The main geographical distribution of P. biglobosa corresponds to the African Sudanian climate zone, characterized by annual precipitation of (500-) 650-800 (-1300) mm, mostly falling in the summer, with a dry season lasting 4 to 8 months. It also occurs in regions with much higher rainfall, such as 2200 mm in Guinea Bissau, 3500 mm in Sierra Leone, and even up to 4500 mm in Guinea (Sina and Traoré, 2002). It prefers regions with a mean annual temperature of 26-28°C, but can survive at temperatures of 45°C and tolerates lower temperatures. In the Fouta Djalon uplands in Guinea, P. biglobosa tolerates minimum temperatures of 5°C, though it cannot tolerate frost. It grows up to 1800 m above sea level (Sina and Traoré, 2002Janick and Paull, 2008). Although it prefers deep soils with good drainage and fertility, P. biglobosa can also be found on shallow lateritic soils, stony slopes and rocky hills (Sina and Traoré, 2002). P. biglobosa may occur locally in areas with impeded drainage, which leads to stunted growth (Hopkins and White, 1984).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
15 0 0 1800

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 26 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 37 45
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 19

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration48number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5004500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Dissemination is largely by mammals and birds that eat the seeds. Although humans are probably the main dispersers, parrots, hornbills, monkeys, baboons, goats, antelopes, squirrels and other rodents also play an important role in seed dispersal (Sina and Traoré, 2002). Pods are also eaten by chimpanzees, which sometimes swallow and sometimes spit the seeds out. Seeds have a thick resistant testa, which ensures seeds pass undamaged through animal guts, and passage is also likely to break dormancy (Hopkins, 1983).

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Water Yes

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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P. biglobosa is a multipurpose tree as all its parts including leaves, pods, seeds, bark and timber are used for food, feed and other products. The tree improves soil due to nitrogen fixation and has an extensive root system that can help to reduce soil erosion. In addition, it plays a significant role in rural economies and has great potential for inclusion in agroforestry systems. The major use, however, is for food. The yellowish fruit pulp is very rich in carbohydrates (ca 80%), which makes it an excellent energy source (Sina and Traoré, 2002). The pulp is eaten raw, made into a refreshing drink when mixed with water, used as a sweetener and fermented into an alcoholic beverage. The young pods are cooked as a vegetable or roasted. Young leaves are eaten as a vegetable and can be fermented and moulded into balls mixed with cereal flour. The pollen and nectar are sources of good quality honey, and farmers often keep hives near to, or in the branches of, the trees. The seeds can be lightly roasted and used as a substitute for coffee (Szolnoki, 1985).

Seeds contain anti-nutritional factors and have to be processed before use as food or livestock feed (Sina and Traoré, 2002). Seeds are fermented and give a greasy extract of unpleasant odour and appearance, or a black, strong smelling, flavoursome food, rich in proteins (Campbell-Platt, 1980). Dried fermented seeds keep for more than one year in traditional earthenware pots, without refrigeration, and small amounts are crumbled, during cooking, into traditional soups and stews which are usually eaten with sorghum- or millet-based dumplings or porridges. Campbell-Platt (1980) reviewed information on nutritional values; it is rich in protein (37%), fat (35%) and vitamin B2. Fermented beans are rich in lysine. The fat in the beans is nutritionally beneficial (approximately 60% of fat is unsaturated); the major fatty acid is linoleic acid. Only a proportion of the fermented seed is nutritionally available (Booth and Wickens, 1988). The dry pulp is rich in sugar (about 60%) and vitamin C, with a moderate mineral content (FAO, 1988). The seeds also yield a yellowish oil.

Whole pods are eaten by domestic livestock, including cattle, and branches are sometimes used for fodder. The leaves are very rich in energy, but owing to poor protein levels, they are only of medium feed quality. Requirements of K and Fe are largely met, but those of Mg, and particularly Na, are not met when used as forage. Therefore animals should not be fed on leaves of P. biglobosa alone (Zech and Weinstabel, 1983).

In northern Nigeria, the annual production of seeds is estimated at 200,000 tonnes. P. biglobosa beans are not important in international commercial trade. However, local trade is important in West Africa, especially in the Sahel region, where the dried or fermented seeds are often transported far from the sites of production, often across country borders.

Leaves, bark, roots and fruit are used in ethnomedicine to treat a range of conditions including fever, diarrhoea, stomach problems, boils and burns (Nyandanu et al., 2017). The bark specifically is traditionally used to treat serious colic, diarrhoea, sterility, bronchitis, pneumonia, leprosy, venereal diseases, bad teeth, skin irritations, parasitic worms and swellings (Sina and Traoré, 2002). Komolafe et al. (2017) demonstrated that leaf extracts exhibited considerable angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory effects, antioxidant activity and effects on mitochondrial redox chemistry in vitro on isolated rat tissue. Hexane extracts of bark showed significant antimicrobial activity against a range of bacterial pathogens (Abioye et al., 2017). Butanolic leaf extracts were used to orally treat diabetic rates and significantly decreased blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance ability, compared to controls. Treatments also improved pancreatic β cell function (HOMA-β), stimulated insulin secretions, decreased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), restored liver glycogen, ameliorated serum dyslipidaemia and prevented hepatic and renal damage (Ibrahim et al., 2016). Adi et al. (2013) noted that P. biglobosa is one of the main medicinal plants used to treat cardiovascular disease in Africa. They demonstrated cardioprotective effects of hydroalcoholic bark extracts injected subcutaneously in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Phytochemical analysis by Udobi and Onaolapo (2012) reported the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides in stem bark extracts.  Coumarin derivatives in leaf extracts have anticoagulant activity (Sina and Traoré, 2002). Fruits are reported to be diuretic and act as a febrifuge (Basilevskaia, 1969Booth and Wickens, 1988).

In addition, twigs are used to clean teeth. Bark and pods are used as piscicides (Booth and Wickens, 1988). Husks of pods with the bark may be used to produce a blue dye. Fibres from pods and roots are used as sponges and as strings for musical instruments. Mucilage from fruit is made into a fluid and used for hardening earth floors, and to give a black glaze to pottery (Booth and Wickens, 1988). A mass obtained from pounding the leaves is used as soap for bathing.

The wood of P. biglobosa is used mainly as a light structural timber, in the making of vehicle bodies, agricultural implements, boxes, crates and barrels (Gotz, 1983), furniture seats, hoe handles, mortars, pestles, bowls, planks and carvings (Booth and Wickens, 1988). Sometimes branches are lopped for fuelwood. The wood is medium weight, with a density of 550 to 650 kg/m3 when air-seasoned to 15% moisture content. It is relatively hard and moderately solid. Seasoning does not take long and only occasionally causes the wood to distort in shape. The wood is not durable and is attacked by termites, which damage or even destroy it. In water, marine borers rapidly destroy the wood. While in contact with the ground the wood decays rapidly due to attack by certain types of fungi, which, although they do not damage or destroy it, still cause ugly discolourations, considerably reducing its value (Gotz, 1983). Working the wood with hand or power tools presents no problems. Sometimes, however, the wood can split around knots when being processed. It is easy to nail, screw or glue planks or strips together to make firm joints (Gotz, 1983). Varnishing or painting does not seem to present any problems.

P. biglobosa has soil conservation properties and is nitrogen fixing. It serves as a shade tree for livestock and as a windbreak (Teklehaimanot, 2004). There have been few attempts at yield improvement as most trees are protected rather than planted, although farmers select seed for planting from strong healthy trees. P. biglobosa is generally conserved during clear-felling and bush clearance, due to its range of uses. It occurs in savanna woodlands and is abundant in so-called parklands near villages in Africa, where semi-permanent cultivation of crops such as sorghum is undertaken. Sorghum yields in field trials in Burkina Faso were reduced to 70% compared with yields in an open field, particularly due to reduced light intensity. However, the crop yield losses were outweighed by the valuable products from the tree, which explains why trees are maintained on agricultural fields (Kessler, 1994). Local laws often prevent destruction of the tree; it can be individually owned and thus serve for land demarcation.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Flour/starch
  • Food additive
  • Gum/mucilage
  • Honey/honey flora
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Alcohol
  • Bark products
  • Beads
  • Carved material
  • Dyestuffs
  • Tanstuffs
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Boats

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Cooperage

Furniture

Roundwood

  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For light construction

Vehicle bodies

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Wood carvings

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. biglobosa is sometimes confused with the shea butter tree Vittelaria paradoxa, with which it shares very similar habitats. Although tree habit and form mean that, from a distance, those who are unaccustomed to the species could mistake them, they are quite distinct morphologically and can be differentiated with little difficulty.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Research is required to assess the status of P. biglobosa in the Caribbean as a naturalized and potentially invasive species.

References

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Abioye, O. E., Akinpelu, D. A., Okoh, A. I., 2017. Synergistic effects of n-hexane fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) bark extract and selected antibiotics on bacterial isolates. Sustainability, 9(2), 228. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/2/228/htm doi: 10.3390/su9020228

Abubakar, Z., Maimuna, A., 2013. Effect of hydrochloric acid, mechanical scarification, wet heat treatment on germination of seed of Parkia biglobosa African locust bean (Daurawa) case study of Gombe local government area. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 17(1), 119-123. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/90478/79897

Adegeye, A. O., 2010. Fungicidal control of two pathogenic fungi of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) benth. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Social Sciences, 8(2), unpaginated. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/joafss/article/view/71680

Adesoye, A. I., Apo, K. A., 2015. Evaluating genetic biodiversity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex Don (African locust bean) accessions from Nigeria using seed protein electrophoresis. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 18(3), 171-180. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12892-014-0119-9 doi: 10.1007/s12892-014-0119-9

Adesoye, A. I., Ogunremi, C. O., Aina, O. O., 2013. Genetic variation and heritability of seedling traits in African locust bean-Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.br. ex G.don. Legume Research, 36(2), 89-97.

Adi, K., Metowogo, K., Mouzou, A., Lawson-Evi, P., Eklu-Gadegbeku, K., Agbonon, A., Lamboni, C., Essien, K., Aklikokou, K., Gbeassor, M., 2013. Evaluation of cardioprotective effects of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth) Mimosaceae stem bark. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 3(2), 60-64. http://www.japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/787_pdf.pdf

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