Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paradiplosis tumifex
(balsam gall midge)

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Datasheet

Paradiplosis tumifex (balsam gall midge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paradiplosis tumifex
  • Preferred Common Name
  • balsam gall midge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paradiplosis tumifex Gagne

Preferred Common Name

  • balsam gall midge

Other Scientific Names

  • Cecidomyia balsamicola
  • Dasyneura balsamicola

International Common Names

  • English: gall midge, balsam
  • Spanish: mosquita de las agallas del bálsamo
  • French: cécidomyie du sapin

EPPO code

  • PAADTU (Paradiplosis tumifex)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Cecidomyiidae
  •                             Genus: Paradiplosis
  •                                 Species: Paradiplosis tumifex

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

BermudaAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI (Undated)Original citation: Bermuda Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (1997)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New BrunswickPresent, WidespreadNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent, WidespreadNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-OntarioPresentNativeJohnson and Lyon (1991)
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, WidespreadNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-QuebecPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ConnecticutPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-DelawarePresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-MainePresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-MarylandPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-MassachusettsPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-MichiganPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-MinnesotaPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-New HampshirePresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-New JerseyPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-New YorkPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-North CarolinaPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-VirginiaPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)
-West VirginiaPresentNativeDrooz (1985); Johnson and Lyon (1991)

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pseudencyrtus borealis Parasite Larvae
Tetrastichus cecidivorus Parasite Larvae

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelPupae Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Adams NE, 2004. Using Growing Degree Days for Insect Management. University of New Hampshire. http://ceinfo.unh.edu/Agriculture/Documents/growch1.pdf

Akar H Jr, Osgood EA, 1987. The method by which larvae of Dasineura balsamicola (Lintner) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) gain access to the interior of galls induced by Paradiplosis tumifex Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Canadian Entomologist, 119(4):395-396

Akar H, Osgood EA, 1987. Emergence trap and collecting apparatus for capture of insects emerging from soil. Entomological News, 98(1):35-39

Benjamin DM, Banash SE, 1978. Selected chemicals for control of the balsam gall midge in Wisconsin Christmas tree plantations. Forestry Research Notes, April 1978, 215

Bergdahl DR, Mazzola M, 1985. Some relationships between Uredinopsis mirabilis, Paradiplosis tumifex, and Dasineura balsamicola in the needles of Abies balsamea. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 15(3):551-554

Bermuda Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1997. Unwelcome visitors to the island at Christmas. Monthly Bulletin - Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Parks, Bermuda, 68(1):8 pp.; 3 ref

Canadian Forest Service, 2004. Balsam Gall Midge. Natural Resources Canada. http://192.75.17.5/cfs_afc/CFS_AFC_FHN/health-e/addinf-e/balsamgallmidge-e.html

Connor JY, Osgood EA, 1979. Host determination of chalcidoid and proctotrupoid Hymenoptera associated with two species of midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) found in needle galls of balsam fir. Canadian Entomologist, 111(8):945-947

DNR-PNS, 2002. Balsam Gall Midge. Dept. of Natural Resources, Province of Nova Scotia. http://www.gov.ns.ca/natr/protection/IPM/Sheets/IpmBgm.htm

Drooz AT, 1985. Insects of Eastern Forests. Washington, DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Misc. Publ. 1426

Felt EP, 1940. Plant galls and gall makers. Ithaca, New York, Comstock Publishing Company

Gagné RJ, 1989. The Plant-Feeding Gall Midges of North America. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press

Hanson T, Walker EB, 1999. Balsam Gall Midge. Bugwood, Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees. http://www.forestpests.org/vermont/balsam_gall_midge.html

Johnson JA, Whitney NJ, 1994. Cytotoxicity and insecticidal activity of endophytic fungi from black spruce (Picea mariana) needles. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 40(1):24-27; 17 ref

Johnson WT, Lyon HH, 1991. Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs. Cornell University Press, 116-117

MacGown MW, 1979. Two new species of chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera) parasitic on the balsam gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Maine. Canadian Entomologist, 111(8):939-943

MacGown MW, EA Osgood Jr, 1971. Two new species of Platygaster (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea, Platygastridae) parasitic on balsam gall midge, Dasineura balsamicola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Can. Ent., 103(8):1143

Martineau R, 1984. Insects harmful to forest trees. Forestry Technical Report, Canadian Forestry Service, No. 32:x + 261 pp

MDC, 2004. Balsam Gall Midge. Maine Department of Conservation. http://www.state.me.us/doc/mfs/balsgalmid.htm

Osgood EA, 1979. Host determination of chalcidoid and proctotrupoid Hymenoptera associated with two species of midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) found in needle galls of balsam fir. Canadian Entomologist, 111(8):945-947

Osgood EA, Gagne RJ, 1978. Biology and taxonomy of two gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) found in galls on balsam fir needles with description of a new species of Paradiplosis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 71(1):85-91

Petrini LE, Petrini O, Laflamme G, 1989. Recovery of endophytes of Abies balsamea from needles and galls of Paradiplosis tumifex. Phytoprotection, 70(2):97-103

Rose AH, Lindquist OH, 1994. Insects of eastern spruces, fir and hemlock. Ottawa, Canada; Canada Communication Group Publishing, Rev. ed.:159 pp

Shorthouse JD, West RJ, 1982. Morphology of the Balsam Fir Needle Gall Induced by the Midge Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 60(2):131-140

Shorthouse JD, West RJ, 1986. Role of the inquiline, Dasineura balsamicola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in the balsam fir needle gall. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 117:1-7

Swier S R, 1994. Balsam Fir Needle Gallmaker. University of New Hampshire. Pest Fact Sheet 49. http://ceinfo.unh.edu/Agriculture/Documents/Aptnfs49.pdf

West RJ, Shorthouse JD, 1982. Morphology of the balsam fir needle gall induced by the midge Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 60(2):131-140

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Drooz AT, 1985. Insects of Eastern Forests., Washington, DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Misc Publ. 1426.

Johnson WT, Lyon HH, 1991. Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs., Cornell University Press. 116-117.

Distribution Maps

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