Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pratylenchus vulnus
(walnut root lesion nematode)

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Datasheet

Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus vulnus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • walnut root lesion nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Necrosed and blackened roots of strawberry plant due to infection by Pratylenchus vulnus.
TitleNecrosed roots
CaptionNecrosed and blackened roots of strawberry plant due to infection by Pratylenchus vulnus.
Copyright©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience
Necrosed and blackened roots of strawberry plant due to infection by Pratylenchus vulnus.
Necrosed rootsNecrosed and blackened roots of strawberry plant due to infection by Pratylenchus vulnus.©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus vulnus Allen & Jensen, 1951

Preferred Common Name

  • walnut root lesion nematode

International Common Names

  • English: meadow nematode; root lesion nematode
  • Spanish: nematodo de la raiz del nogal (Mexico)
  • French: anguillule des racines du noyer

Local Common Names

  • Japan: kurumi-negusare-sentyu
  • Netherlands: vrijlevend wortelaaltje

EPPO code

  • PRATVU (Pratylenchus vulnus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus vulnus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentGao et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; Teng et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentLi et al., 2006
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentD'Souza and Kumar, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentLal and Khan, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; Bahmani et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadHyashi, 1976; Gotoh, 1970; Ohkawa and Saigusa, 1972; Sato et al., 1974; Ohkawa and Saigusa, 1981; Nemoto et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentJeong and Kim, 1989; Han et al., 1995
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentMohotti et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Africa

CameroonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentOteifa, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-OntarioAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-QuebecAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2002
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentBenson, 1978; Hogan et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadLownsberry & Serr, 1963; Allen and Jensen, 1951; Jensen, 1953; SHER and ALLEN, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentWalters et al., 2008
-MissouriPresentWrather et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentLopez et al., 1997; Lopez-Nicora et al., 2012
-TennesseeRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentBaranovskaya and Krilov, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentDoucet, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentLordello, 1973; Monteiro and Lordello, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentRossi et al., 2000
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentMinagawa & Maeso-Tozzi, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Europe

BelgiumWidespreadCoolen and Hendrickx, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentKatalan-Gateva & Baicheva, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentJakobsen, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
FinlandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Former USSRPresentZyubin, 1968
FranceWidespreadScotto, 1973; Berge and Cuany, 1975; Scotto, 1975; Vegh and Bourgeois, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespreadMuller, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentKalyviotis-Gazelas, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadInserra and Vovlas, 1974; Inserra, 1977; Inserra et al., 1981; Lamberti et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadOostenbrink, 1960; Den, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NorwayWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SpainWidespreadPinochet et al., 1993a; Marull and Pinochet, 1991; Pinochet et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentWinfield, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentMcLeod, 1979; Seinhorst and Sauer, 1956; Meagher, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentColbran, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentAmici and Lalatta, 1971; Stirling, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentDale, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Roots / stubby roots
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Alcaniz E; Pinochet J; Fernßndez C; Esmenjaud D; Felipe A, 1996. Evaluation of Prunus rootstocks for root-lesion nematode resistance. HortScience, 31(6):1013-1016; 28 ref.

Allen MW; Jensen HJ, 1951. Pratylenchus vulnus new species (Nematoda: Pratylenchinae), a parasite of trees and vines in California. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 18:47-50.

Amici A; Lalatta F, 1970. Experiments on soil fumigation for replanting peaches. II. The relationship between Pratylenchus vulnus and soil fatigue. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, IV, 6(2):107-125.

Amici A; Lalatta F, 1971. Studies on soil fumigation in replanting peaches. II. The relationship between Pratylenchus vulnus and soil exhaustion. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura, 2(1):257-276.

Amsing JJ, 1988. Results obtained with Nemacur in the control of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus on roses as a green-house crop. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer, 41(2):239-258; 6 ref.

Amsing JJ, 1990. Control of Pratylenchus vulnus: root nematodes easy to control in rock wool. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 45(45):38-39.

Amsing JJ, 1990. Spread and development of Pratylenchus vulnus populations: ebb and flow ideal for attacks by root nematodes. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 45(45):34-37.

Amsing JJ, 1991. Damage to soil-grown greenhouse roses from root lesion nematodes. Multic and Inermis equally sensitive. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 46(15):62-63.

Anwar SA, 1986. The influence of nematode stress on plant growth parameters that characterize the root shoot equilibrium. Dissertation Abstracts International, B Sciences and Engineering, 46(7):2150.

Anwar SA, 1995. Reproduction and influence of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus vulnus in the growth of grape. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 7(2):118-123; 28 ref.

Anwar SA; Van Gundy SD, 1989. Influence of four nematodes on root and shoot growth parameters in grape. Journal of Nematology, 21(2):276-283.

Anwar SA; Van Gundy SD, 1993. Influence of the interaction of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus vulnus on root shoot growth parameters in grape. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 3(1):5-11.

Bahmani J; Khozeini F; Barooti S; Rezaee S; Ghaderi R, 2013. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with walnut in the Sanandej region of west Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 53(4):404-408. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2013.53.issue-4/jppr-2013-0060/jppr-2013-0060.xml?format=INT

Baranovskaya IA; Krilov PS, 1968. Some results of the study of plant nematodes in Cuba. Moscow: Izdat. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, 385-388.

Benson DM, 1978. A direct versus a photographic technique as nondestructive estimates of growth response on perennial ornamentals affected with nematode decline. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):68-70

Benson DM; Barker KR, 1978. Aldicarb and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane as postplant treatments for control of nematodes on American boxwood, and Japanese and Chinese hollies. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(3):209-212

Benson DM; Barker KR; Aycock R, 1976. Effects of density of Helicotylenchus dihystera and Pratylenchus vulnus on American boxwood growing in microplots. Journal of Nematology, 8(4):322-326

Bergé J, 1971. Host studies of some rose rootstocks for certain plant-parasitic nematoedes. Meded. Fak. LandbWeten. Gent, 36(3):883-888.

Berge JB; Cuany A, 1975. The possibility of disinfecting rose plants infested with two endoparasitic nematodes by dipping in nematicidal solutions. Pepinieristes Horticulteurs Maraichers, No. 153:15-17

Beuzenberg MP, 1972. Infestation of glasshouse roses by Pratylenchus vulnus. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 27(21):10-11.

Bossis M; Caubel G, 1982. Monoxenic culture of plant parasitic nematodes on callus tissue. Sciences Agronomiques, Rennes, No.2:115-125

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Pratylenchus vulnus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 858. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CafT Filho AC; Huang CS, 1989. Description of Pratylenchus pseudofallax n. sp. with a key to species of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Praylenchidae). Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 12(1):7-15; 21 ref.

Calvet C; Pinochet J; Camprubi A; Fernandez C, 1995. Increased tolerance to the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus in mycorrhizal micropropagated BA-29 quince rootstock. Mycorrhiza, 5(4):253-258

Camprubi A; Pinochet J; Calvet C; Estaun V, 1993. Effects of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth of three plum rootstocks. Plant and Soil, 153(2):223-229

Chikaoka I, 1970. Studies on the control of Pratylenchus vulnus infesting strawberry. Bulletin of the Agricultural Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, 109:61-77

Chitambar JJ; Raski DJ, 1984. Reactions of grape rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne spp. Journal of Nematology, 16(2):166-170

Chitambar JJ; Raski DJ, 1985. Life history of Pratylenchus vulnus on carrot discs. Journal of Nematology, 17(2): 235-236.

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes. Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, Florida: Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Florida.

Ciancio A; Landriscina S; Lamberti F, 1995. Temporal and spatial dynamics of Pratylenchus vulnus parasitizing walnut. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):367-371; 14 ref.

Colbran RC, 1974. Nematodes in strawberries. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 100(11):522-525

Coolen EA; Hendrickx GJ; D' Herde CJ, 1972. Nematode control in glasshouse rose culture by means of methyl bromide and dibromochloropropane. Publikatie nr. W 11, 22. Rijksstation voor Nematologie en Entomologie, Merelbeke.

Coolen WA; Hendrickx GJ, 1972. Monograph on the nematological situation in Belgian rose culture. Publikatie nr. W 10, Rijksstation voor Nematologie en Entomologie, Merelbeke, 29 pp.

Corbett DCM, 1969. Pratylenchus pinguicaudatus n. sp. (Pratylenchinae: Nematoda) with a key to the genus Pratylenchus. Nematologica, 15:550-556.

Corbett DCM, 1974. Pratylenchus vulnus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 37. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Coviello R; Barnett WW; Bentley WJ; Kodira UC; Westerdahl BB, 1993. Fig. Pest management guidelines. UCPMG Publications, No. 4:7-9

Culver DJ; Ramming DW; McKenry MV, 1989. Procedures for field and greenhouse screening of Prunus genotypes for resistance and tolerance to root lesion nematode. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 114(1):30-35; 17 ref.

Dale PS, 1972. List of plant hosts of nematodes in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science, 15(3):442-448

Den Ouden H; Beuzenberg MP, 1971. Comparison of the action of nematicides against Pratylenchus vulnus. Jaarverslag-1971. Proefstation voor de Bloemisterij in Nederland te Aalsmeer, 115-117.

D'Esclapon G de R, 1971. Soil fumigation: a problem not to be neglected. Arboriculture Fruitiere, 18:30-31.

DeVay JE; Lownsbery BF; English WH; Lembright H, 1967. Activity of soil fumigants in reltion to increased growth response and control of decline and bacterial canker in trees of Prunus persica. Phytopathology, 57:809.

Doucet M; Pinochet J; Rienzo JAdi, 1996. Comparative analysis of morphological and morphometrical characters in six isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus Allen & Jensen, 1951 (Nemata: Tylenchida). Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 19(1):79-84; 16 ref.

Doucet MC, 1988. Description of four populations of Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) prominent in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina. Revista de Ciencias Agropecuarias (Co^acute~rdoba), 6:7-21; 16 ref.

D'Souza GI; Kumar AC, 1969. Occurrence of Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus vulnus in India. All India Nematology Symposium, New Delhi, 21-22 August, 1969. New Delhi, India: Indian Agricultural Research Institute.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.

Filipjev IN, 1936. On the classification of the Tylenchinae. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 3:80-82.

Fliegel P, 1969. Population dynamics and pathogenicity of three species of Pratylenchus on peach. Phytopathology, 59(2):120-124.

Frederick JJ; Tarjan AC, 1989. A compendium of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nemata : Pratylenchidae). Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 12(3):243-256; 96 ref.

Gao X; Cheng H; Fang C, 1998. A new type of morphological variation of Pratylenchus vulnus on peach in China. International Journal of Nematology, 7(2):147-151.

Gao XB; Cheng HR; Fang ZD, 1989. Identification and determination of pathogenicity of lesion nematodes in peach roots. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 19(2):65-68; 6 ref.

Goheen AC; Williams CF, 1955. Seasonal flunctuations in the population of meadow nematodes in the roots of cultivated brambles in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 39(12):904-905.

Goodey JB; Franklin MT; Hooper DJ, 1965. T. Goodey's The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued under their Hosts. 3rd. ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Gotoh A, 1970. The root-lesion nematodes found in uncultivated soils, mainly in natural grasslands in Japan. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, Japan, 16:34-37.

Han H; Han SC; Kim YG, 1995. Anatomical and biochemical changes of corn roots infected with Pratylenchus vulnus. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 34(2):112-119; 34 ref.

Handoo ZA; Golden AM, 1989. A key and diagnostic compendium to the species of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (lesion nematodes). Journal of Nematology, 21(2):202-218; 20 ref.

Hart WH, 1951. Root-lesion nematodes in California. Bulletin of California Department of Agriculture, 40(3):85-92.

Hayashi I, 1976. Studies on parasitic nematodes and their control in greenhouse roses. Bulletin of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experiment Station, No. 23:54-63

Hogan A; Mullen J; Gilliam C, 1983. Post-plant treatment of American boxwood with granular nematicides, 1983. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, American Phytopathological Society, 39:87

Inserra R, 1977. Parasitic nematodes of citrus and methods of control. Italia Agricola, 114(3):90-97

Inserra R; Vovlas N, 1974. Damage by Pratylenchus vulnus to sour orange in Puglia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 2(2):183-185

Inserra R; Vovlas N; Lamberti F; Bleve Zacheo T, 1976. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with declining olive trees in southern Italy. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, No. 39 (49):419-424

Inserra RN; Vovlas N, 1976. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus vulnus to sour orange seedlings. Journal of Nematology, 8(4):289

Inserra RN; Vovlas N, 1977. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on the growth of sour orange. Journal of Nematology, 9(2):154-157

Inserra RN; Vovlas N; Fontanazza G; Casta Gla, 1981. The response of several olive cultivars to infestation by four species of nematode. Rivista della Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana, 65(2):143-148

Jakobsen J, 1974. Migratory nematodes as the causes of damage to rose crops under glass. Nordisk Jordbrugsforskning, 56(4):417-418.

Jakobsen J, 1975. Plant parasitic nematodes on roses in Danish glasshouses. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 79(4):489-494

Jensen HJ, 1953. Experimental greenhouse host range studies of two root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus vulnus and Pratylenchus penetrans. Plant Disease Reporter, 37(7):384-387.

Jeong MG; Kim SS, 1989. Effects of plant callus, temperature, pH, medium and growth regulating substances on the culture of Pratylenchus penetrans and P. vulnus in vitro. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(4):359-363; 28 ref.

Kalyviotis-Gazelas C, 1981. Nematodes and host-plants reported for the first time in Greece. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, N.S., 13(1):30-35

Katalan-Gateva Sh; Baicheva O, 1978. The nematode fauna of tobacco Oriental-261 in the Blagoevgrad region. II. Khelmintologiya, Sofia, No. 5:47-59

L=pez A; Pinochet J; Fernßndez C; Calvet C; Camprubf A, 1997. Growth response of OHF-333 pear rootstock to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus nutrition and Pratylenchus vulnus infection. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 20(1):87-93; 37 ref.

Lal A; Khan E, 1989. Species of Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda : Tylenchida) found associated with forest trees in northern India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 19(1):44-50; 5 ref.

Lalatta F; Amici A, 1965. Prove sulla fumigazione del terreno nel reimpianto del pesco. Frutticoltura, 27 (8-9):741-751.

Lamberti F, 1969. Presence in Italy of a disease of olive caused by nematode Pratylenchus vulnus All. et Jens. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 8(3):232-234.

Lamberti F; Tacconi R; Marinari A; D'Errico FP; Basile M, 1987. Major plant parasitic nematodes associated with flower crops in Italy and their control. Difesa delle Piante, 10(1):77-84; 25 ref.

Laviola C, 1992. Phytopathological problems and the protection of olive (diseases caused by pathogens). Difesa delle Piante, 15(1-2):101-114

Lembright HW, 1976. Solutions to problems associated with the replanting of peaches. Down to Earth, 32(1):12-21

Li WeiFen; Yang YanLi; Li ShiKai; Hu XianQi, 2006. Preliminary investigation on parasitic nematode species of flowers and plants in Rosaceae. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 19(5):906-911.

Loof PAA, 1960. Taxonomic studies on the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda). Tijdschr. Plantenziekten, 66:29-90.

Loof PAA, 1978. The genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): a review of its anatomy, morphology, distribution, systematics and identification. The genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): a review of its anatomy, morphology, distribution, systematics and identification. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Research Information Centre. Uppsala Sweden, iv + 50 pp.

Lopez-Nicora HD; Mekete T; Taylor NJ; Niblack TL, 2012. First report of lesion nematode (Pratylenchus vulnus) on boxwood in Ohio. Plant Disease, 96(9):1385. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lordello LGE, 1973. A nematode pest of peach trees. Revista de Agricultura, 48(2/3):128

Lownsbery BF; Hart WH; Martin GC, 1969. Procedures for controlling root-lesion nematodes. Diamond Walnut News, 51(1):5-6.

Lownsbery BF; Martin GC; Forde HI; Moody EH, 1974. Comparative tolerance of walnut species, walnut hybrids, and wingnut to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(7):630-633.

Lownsbery BF; Serr EF, 1963. Fruit and nut tree rootstocks as hosts for a root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 82:250-254.

Lownsbery BL, et al. , 1968. Responses to postplanting and preplanting soil fumigation in California peach, walnut, and prune orchards. Plant Disease Reporter, 52(11):890-894.

Maggenti AR; Viglierchio DR, 1975. Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum: hosts of common plant-parasitic nematodes of California. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(2):116-119

Manzo P, 1974. Comparative trials of various peach rootstocks in fumigated and non fumigated replanted soil. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura, 5:35-50.

Manzo P, 1978. Comparative trials of various peach rootstocks in fumigated and non-fumigated replanted soil. II. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura, 9:49-56

Marull J; Pinochet J, 1991. Host suitability of Prunus to four Meloidogyne species and Pratylenchus vulnus in Spain. Nematropica, 21(2):185-195; 24 ref.

Marull J; Pinochet J; Verdejo S, 1990. Response of five almond cultivars to four root-lesion nematodes in Spain. Nematropica, 20(2):143-151; 21 ref.

McKenry MV, 1989. Damage and development of several nematode species in a plum orchard. Applied Agricultural Research, 4(1):10-14.

McLeod RW, 1979. Plant parasitic and soil nematodes found in New South Wales. Department of Agriculture, New South Wales. Science Bulletin, 87:1-48.

Meagher JW, 1969. Nematodes and their control in vineyards in Victoria, Australia. International Pest Control, 11(5):14-18.

Minagawa N; Maeso-Tozzi D, 1990. Plant-parasitic nematodes of Uruguay: a preliminary report. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 20:44-50.

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