Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pratylenchus thornei

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Datasheet

Pratylenchus thornei

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus thornei
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus thornei Sher & Allen, 1953

International Common Names

  • Spanish: nematodo de Thorne (Mexico)

EPPO code

  • PRATTH (Pratylenchus thornei)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus thornei

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MalawiPresentOriginal citation: CABI Bioscience SQWORM database
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TunisiaPresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresentOriginal citation: CABI Bioscience SQWORM database
IndiaPresent
-AssamPresent
-DelhiPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresent
TajikistanPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
DenmarkPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentOriginal citation: Grujicic, 1969
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentOriginal citation: Tebenkova and Ivanova (1989)
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MarylandPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-OregonPresent
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pasteuria penetrans Parasite

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Containers and packaging - woodWith planting material. Yes
Land vehiclesIn soil. Yes
Mail Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abrantes IM de O; Faria CAT de; Santos MSN de A, 1987. Root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.) in Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15(2):375-378.

Andersen HJ, 1979. Migratory nematodes in Danish barley fields. I. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the fauna. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 83(1):1-8

Bajaj HK; Bhatti DS, 1982. Nematodes associated with cotton in Haryana and Punjab with description of two new leptonchid nematodes. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):6-13

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Pratylenchus thornei. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1124 (Edition 1).

Colbran RC; McCulloch JS, 1965. Nematodes associated with wheat in Queensland. Qd. J. Agric. Anim. Sci., 22:353-356.

Coolen WA; Hendricks GJ, 1972. Monografie over de nematologische situatie in de Belgische rozenteelt. Merelbeke, Belgium: Publikatie nr. W 10, Rijksstation voor Nematologie und Entomologie.

Darekar KS; Shelke SS; Mhase NL, 1990. Nematodes associated with groundnut in Maharashtra State, India. Bioved, 1(1):99-100; 4 ref.

D'Errico FP, 1970. Su alcuni nematodi fitoparassiti trovati in Italia. Boll. Lab. Entomol. Agraria Filippo Silvestri, Portici, Italy, 28:183-189.

Desaeger J; Rao MR, 2001. The potential of mixed covers of Sesbania, Tephrosia and Crotalaria to minimise nematode problems on subsequent crops. Field Crops Research, 70(2):111-125.

Devi NR, 2009. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Indian pennywort Centella asiatica (L.) urban in Manipur. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 1(12):617-618. http://www.threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/December/o211126xii09617-618.pdf

Doucet MC, 1988. Description of four populations of Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) prominent in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina. Revista de Ciencias Agropecuarias (Co^acute~rdoba), 6:7-21; 16 ref.

Edongali EA; El-Malih AKR, 1988. Pratylenchus thornei on almond in Libya. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 5(3):44; 5 ref.

Eissa MFM, 1982. Control of Pratylenchus thornei parasitizing potato under field conditions of Saudi Arabia. Research Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, No.1742:14pp.

Eissa MFM; Moussa FF, 1982. Efficacy of some systemic nematicides on nematode populations and yield of wheat in Nile-Delta with reference to a new criterion "Nematistatic value" for evaluation of nematode population characteristics. Research Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, No. 1741:10 pp.

Elbadri GAA; Bert W; Geraert E, 2001. Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan). Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent [Proceedings of the 53rd International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, Belgium, 8 May 2001. Part II.], 66(2b):633-643.

Elek¦ioglu IH, 1995. Occurrence of Pasteuria bacteria as parasites of plant-parasitic nematodes in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):213-215; 12 ref.

Fortuner R, 1977. Pratylenchus thornei. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set 7, No. 93:3 pp.

Fourie H; McDonald AH; Loots GC, 2001. Plant-parasitic nematodes in field crops in South Africa. 6. Soybean. Nematology, 3(5):447-454.

Gotoh A; Ohshima Y, 1963. Pratylenchus species and their geographical distribution in Japan (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Jap. J. Appl. Ent. Zool., 7:187-199.

Grandison GS; Wallace HR, 1974. The distribution and abundance of Pratylenchus thornei in fields of strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum). Nematologica, 20(3):283-290

Greco N; Vito de M; Reddy MV; Saxena MC, 1984. A preliminary report of survey of plant parasitic nematodes of leguminous crops in Syria. Nematologia Mediterranea, 12:87-93.

Grujicic G, 1969. Contributions to the study of parasitic nematodes on wheat in Yugoslavia. Savremena Poljoprivreda, 17(11/12):531-539

Grujicic G, 1969. Contributions to the study of parasitic nematodes on wheat in Yugoslavia. Savremena Poljoprivreda, 17(11/12):531-539

Hollaway GJ, 2002. Effect of oat (Avena sativa) on the population density of Pratylenchus thornei in the field. Australasian Plant Pathology, 31(2):147-149.

Jelic A, 1992. A contribution to the study of phytoparasitic nematodes in wheat. Znanost i Praksa u Poljoprivredi i Prehrambenoj Tehnologiji, 22(1):229-236; 9 ref.

JOSHI LM; RENFRO BL; SAARI EE; WILCOXSON RD; RAYCHAUDHURI SP, 1970. Diseases of wheat in India other than rusts and smuts. Plant Disease Reporter, 54(7):594-597.

Khan A; Shaukat SS; Soomro MH; Samad MA, 2006. Nematodes associated with date-palm in Lasbela District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 24(2):191-197.

Kheiri A, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 40:224-239.

Koliopanos CN; Kalyviotis-Gazelas C, 1979. Nematodes and host-plants identified for the first time in Greece. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, 12(1):50-58

Li?ková M; Sasanelli N; D'Addabbo T, 2007. Some notes on the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes on fruit trees in Slovakia. Plant Protection Science, 43(1):26-32. http://www.cazv.cz

Loof PAA, 1960. Taxonomic studies on the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda). Tijdschr. Plantenziekten, 66:29-90.

McLeod RW; Doyle AD, 1987. Numbers of root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus thornei) in wheat yield decline areas. Plant Disease Survey New South Wales 1985-86, 55:19-22.

Meskine M; Abbad FA, 1993. Importance of plant parasitic nematodes associated with wheat and barley crops in Morocco. Al Awamia, No. 80:123-134; 12 ref.

Mojtahedi H; Santo GS; Kraft JM, 1988. First report of Pratylenchus thornei on dry land wheat in Washington State. Plant Disease, 72:175.

Oostenbrink M, 1954. Over de betekenis van vrijlevende wortelaaltjes in land- en tuinbouw. Versl. Meded. PlZiekt. Dienst Wageningen, 124:196-233.

Oostenbrink M; s'Jacob JJ; Kuiper K, 1956. An interpretation of some crop rotation experiences based on nematode surveys and population studies. Nematologica, 1:202-215.

Orion D; Krikun J; Sullami M, 1979. The distribution, pathogenicity and ecology of Pratylenchus thornei in the northern Negev. Phytoparasitica, 7(1):3-9

Oteifa BA; El-Sharkawi SE, 1965. Species identity of some Egyptian parasitic nematodes of onion. Bull. zool. Soc.Egypt, 20:55-62.

Oteifa BA; Rushdi M; El-Sharkawi SE, 1964. A preliminary survey of nematodes associated with onion fields of Assiut Province with special reference to distribution of parasitic genera. Bull. Sci. Technol. Assiut Univ., 7:205-252.

Oteifa BA; Rushdi M; Salem A, 1963. Nematodes associated with sugarcane. Bull. Sci. Technol. Assiut Univ., 6:251-261.

Perez B; Van Gundy SD; Stolzy LH; Thomason IJ; Laird RJ, 1970. Pratylenchus thornei, a nematode pest of wheat in Sonora, Mexico. Phytopathology, 60:1307.

Perichi G; Crozzoli R; Greco N; Rivas JT, 2002. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in Venezuela. Carabobo State. (Nematodos fitoparasíticos asociados a la caña de azúcar en Venezuela. Estado Carabobo.) Fitopatología Venezolana, 15(2):26-29.

Pethybridge SJ; Hay FS; Esker PD; Gent DH; Wilson CR; Groom T; Nutter FW Jr, 2008. Diseases of pyrethrum in Tasmania: challenges and prospects for management. Plant Disease, 92(9):1260-1271. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Philis J, 1976. Occurrence and control of nematodes affecting carrot crops in Cyprus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 4:7-12.

Rakesh Pandey, 2003. Root-knot disease of safed musli. Indian Journal of Nematology, 33(1):64.

Riga E; Porter LD; Mojtahedi H; Erickson D, 2008. Pratylenchus neglectus, P. thornei, and Paratylenchus hamatus nematodes causing yield reduction to dryland peas and lentils in Idaho. Plant Disease, 92(6):979. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Riley IT; Kelly SJ, 2002. Endoparasitic nematodes in cropping soils of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 42(1):49-56.

Rubilar P; Aballay E, 2006. Morphometrics of two Pratylenchus species associated with sugar beet in the Eighth Region (Bio-Bio), Chile. Fitopatología, 41(2):81-85. http://www.fitopatologia.org

Ryss A; Baicheva O; Stoyanov D, 1991. A new phytonematode for Bulgaria Pratylenchus pinguicaudatus Corbett, 1969 and morphological description of Pratylenchus thornei Sher et Allen, 1953 and Zygotylenchus guevarai Tobar Jimenez, 1963. Khelmintologiya, No. 30:3-8; 11 ref.

Sethi CL; Swarup G, 1971. Plant parasitic nematodes of North-Western India. III. The genus Pratylenchus. Indian Phytopathology, 24(2):410-412

SHER SA; ALLEN MW, 1953. Revision of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda : Tylenchidae). University of California Publications in Zoology, 57(6):441-470.

Shukla BN; Vadhera I; Tiwari SP; 2001, publ. 2002. Impact of deep summer ploughing, seed dressing and soaking with nematicide on Pratylenchus thornei. JNKVV Research Journal, 35(1/2):82-83.

Smiley RW; Sheedy JG; Easley SA, 2008. Vertical distribution of Pratylenchus spp. in silt loam soil and Pacific Northwest dryland crops. Plant Disease, 92(12):1662-1668. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Smiley, R. W., Whittaker, R. G., Gourlie, J. A., Easley, S. A., 2005. Pratylenchus thornei associated with reduced wheat yield in Oregon. Journal of Nematology, 37(1), 45-54.

Subramaniyan S; Sivakumar CV, 1991. Pratylenchus species. Current Research, 20:17-20.

Teben'kova TM; Ivanova TS, 1989. Plant-parasitic nematodes of fruits in Tadzhikistan. 1. Nematodes of cultivated fruits in the lowland zone. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhiskoi^breve~ SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 3:7-11.

Thorne G, 1961. Principles of Nematology. London, UK: McGraw Hill.

Van Grundy SD; Perez B JG; Stolzy LH; Thomason IJ, 1974. A pest management approach to the control of Pratylenchus thornei on wheat in Mexico. Journal of Nematology, 6(3):107-116

Vito de M; Greco N; Oreste G; Saxena MC; Singh KB; Kusemenoglu I, 1994. Plant parasitic nematodes of legumes in Turkey. Nematologia Mediterranea, 22:245-251.

Vito Mdi; Catalano F; Zaccheo G, 2002. Reproduction of six populations of Pratylenchus spp. from the Mediterranean region on selected plant species. Nematologia Mediterranea, 30(1):103-105.

Yan, G. P., Smiley, R. W., Okubara, P. A., 2012. Detection and quantification of Pratylenchus thornei in DNA extracted from soil using real-time PCR. Phytopathology, 102(1), 14-22. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-03-11-0093

Yu Qing, 2008. Species of Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) in Canada: description, distribution, and identification. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 30(3):477-485. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Zaki FA; Kaul V; Waliullah MIS, 1993. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with potato-turnip rotation and other vegetable crops in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Nematology, 21:174-175.

Distribution References

Aballay E, Persson P, Mårtensson A, 2009. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Chilean vineyards. Nematropica. 39 (1), 85-97. http://fulltext10.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00995444/0039_001/85-98.pdf

Abrantes I M de O, Faria C A T de, Santos M S N de A, 1987. Root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.) in Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea. 15 (2), 375-378.

Șahİn E, Nıcol J M, Elekçİoğlu İ H, Yorgancılar O, Yıldırım A F, Tülek A, Hekİmhan H, Yorgancılar A, Kılınç A T, Bolat N, Ergİnbaș-Orakcı G, 2009. Frequency and diversity of cereal nematodes on the Central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey. In: Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009 [Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009.], [ed. by Riley I T, Nicol J M, Dababat A A]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). 100-105. http://www.spipm.cgiar.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_1_id=17828&folderId=18430&name=DLFE-139.pdf

Akgul H C, Bayram S, Erdogus F D, 2010. Two new records of Turkish nematode fauna: Ditylenchus equalis and Pratylenchus pseudopratensis. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 28 (2), 285-293.

Ali S S, Sharma S B, 2003. Nematode survey of chickpea production areas in Rajasthan, India. Nematologia Mediterranea. 31 (2), 147-149.

Andersen H J, 1979. Migratory nematodes in Danish barley fields. I. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the fauna. Tidsskrift for Planteavl. 83 (1), 1-8.

Bahmani J, Khozeini F, Barooti S, Rezaee S, Ghaderi R, 2013. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with walnut in the Sanandej region of west Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 53 (4), 404-408. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2013.53.issue-4/jppr-2013-0060/jppr-2013-0060.xml?format=INT DOI:10.2478/jppr-2013-0060

Bajaj H K, Bhatti D S, 1982. Nematodes associated with cotton in Haryana and Punjab with description of two new leptonchid nematodes. Indian Journal of Nematology. 12 (1), 6-13.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Pratylenchus thornei. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 1124 (Edition 1). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20123172037

COLBRAN R C, McCULLOCH J S, 1965. Nematodes associated with wheat in Queensland. Qd J. agric. Anim. Set. 22 (3), 353-356.

Coolen WA, Hendricks GJ, 1972. (Monografie over de nematologische situatie in de Belgische rozenteelt)., Merelbeke, Belgium: Publikatie nr W 10, Rijksstation voor Nematologie und Entomologie.

Darekar K S, Shelke S S, Mhase N L, 1990. Nematodes associated with groundnut in Maharashtra State, India. Bioved. 1 (1), 99-100.

Deimi A M, Chitambar J J, Maafi Z T, 2008. Nematodes associated with flowering ornamental plants in Mahallat, Iran. Nematologia Mediterranea. 36 (2), 115-123. http://www.edizioniets.com

Deimi A M, Mitkowski N, 2010. Nematodes associated with vineyards throughout Markazi Province (Arak), Iran. Australasian Plant Pathology. 39 (6), 571-577. DOI:10.1071/AP10044

D'ERRICO F P, 1970. Some plant parasitic nematodes found in Italy. (Su alcuni nematodi fitoparassiti trovati in Italia.). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici. 183-189.

Desaeger J, Rao M R, 2001. The potential of mixed covers of Sesbania, Tephrosia and Crotalaria to minimise nematode problems on subsequent crops. Field Crops Research. 70 (2), 111-125. DOI:10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00127-7

Devi N R, 2009. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Indian pennywort Centella asiatica (L.) urban in Manipur. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 1 (12), 617-618. http://www.threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/December/o211126xii09617-618.pdf

Doucet M C, 1988. Description of four populations of Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) prominent in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina. (Descripcion de cuatro poblaciones de Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) provenientes de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina.). Revista de Ciencias Agropecuarias (Córdoba). 7-21.

Edongali E A, El-Malih A K R, 1988. Pratylenchus thornei on almond in Libya. International Nematology Network Newsletter. 5 (3), 44.

Eissa M F M, 1982. Control of Pratylenchus thornei parasitizing potato under field conditions of Saudi Arabia. In: Research Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, 14pp.

Elbadri G A A, Bert W, Geraert E, 2001. Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan). Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent. 66 (2b), 633-643.

Fourie H, McDonald A H, Loots G C, 2001. Plant-parasitic nematodes in field crops in South Africa. 6. Soybean. Nematology. 3 (5), 447-454. DOI:10.1163/156854101753250773

Gill Z, Firoza K, 2014. Nematodes associated with datepalm orchards of Kairpur district Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 32 (1), 113-119.

GOTOH A, OHSHIMA Y, 1963. Pratylenchus species and their geographical distribution in Japan (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology. 7 (3), 187-199. DOI:10.1303/jjaez.7.187

Greco N, Di Vito M, Reddy M V, Saxena M C, 1984. A preliminary report of survey of plant parasitic nematodes of leguminous crops in Syria. Nematologia Mediterranea. 12 (1), 87-93.

Hay F S, Stirling G R, Pethybridge S J, Chung B, 2009. A survey of nematodes associated with pyrethrum in Tasmania, Australia, and the susceptibility of pyrethrum cultivars to root-lesion nematode. Australasian Plant Pathology. 38 (1), 1-5. DOI:10.1071/AP08068

Hollaway G J, 2002. Effect of oat (Avena sativa) on the population density of Pratylenchus thornei in the field. Australasian Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 147-149. DOI:10.1071/AP02002

Hollaway G J, Vanstone V A, Nobbs J, Smith J G, Brown J S, 2008. Pathogenic nematodes of cereal crops in south-west Victoria, Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 37 (5), 505-510. DOI:10.1071/AP08048

Ibrahim I K A, Handoo Z A, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 34 (2), 163-169.

Ibrahim I K A, Mokbel A A, Handoo Z A, 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica. 40 (2), 239-262. http://www.ontaweb.org/

İmren M, Çİftçİ V, Yıldız Ș, Kütük H, Dababat A A, 2017. Occurrence and population dynamics of the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei (Sher and Allen) on wheat in Bolu, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 41 (1), 35-41. DOI:10.3906/tar-1609-82

Jelić A, 1992. A contribution to the study of phytoparasitic nematodes in wheat. (Prilog proučavanju fitoparazitnih nematoda pšenice.). Znanost i Praksa u Poljoprivredi i Prehrambenoj Tehnologiji. 22 (1), 229-236.

Joshi L M, Renfro B L, Saari E E, Wilcoxson R D, Raychaudhuri S P, 1970. Diseases of wheat in India other than rusts and smuts. Plant Disease Reporter. 54 (7), 594-597.

Khan A, Shaukat S S, Soomro M H, Samad M A, 2006. Nematodes associated with date-palm in Lasbela District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 24 (2), 191-197.

Kheiri A, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea. 224-239.

LOOF P A A, 1960. Taxonomic studies on the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda). Tijdschrift over Plantenziekten. 66 (2), 29-90.

Mahdikhani E, Alvani S, 2013. Plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) with two new records of Geocenamus squamatus and Filenchus pratensis from Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 31 (2), 99-103.

McLeod RW, Doyle AD, 1987. Numbers of root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus thornei) in wheat yield decline areas. In: Plant Disease Survey New South Wales 1985-86, 55 19-22.

Mennan S, Handoo Z A, 2006. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cabbages (Brassica oleracea) in Samsun (Middle Black Sea Region), Turkey. Nematropica. 36 (1), 99-104. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/

Meskine M, Abbad F A, 1993. Importance of plant parasitic nematodes associated with wheat and barley crops in Morocco. (Importance et repartition des nematodes phythoparasites associes aux cultures de ble et orge au maroc.). Al Awamia. 123-134.

Mojtahedi H, Santo G S, Kraft J M, 1988. First report of Pratylenchus thornei on dry land wheat in Washington State. In: Plant Disease, 72 (2) 175. DOI:10.1094/PD-72-0175C

Mokrini F, Andaloussi F A, Alaoui Y, Troccoli A, 2009. Importance and distribution of the main cereal nematodes in Morocco. In: Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009 [Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009.], [ed. by Riley I T, Nicol J M, Dababat A A]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). 45-50. http://www.spipm.cgiar.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_1_id=17828&folderId=18430&name=DLFE-139.pdf

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