Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pratylenchus penetrans
(nematode, northern root lesion)

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Datasheet

Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus penetrans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • nematode, northern root lesion
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb, 1917) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941

Preferred Common Name

  • nematode, northern root lesion

Other Scientific Names

  • Pratylenchus gulosus (Kühn, 1890) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941
  • Tylenchus gulosus Kühn, 1890 (nomen oblitum)
  • Tylenchus penetrans Cobb, 1917

International Common Names

  • English: Cobb's root-lesion nematode; meadow nematode; northern root lesion nematode; root lesion nematode; root-lesion nematode
  • Spanish: nematodo del tulipan
  • French: anguillule des racines

Local Common Names

  • Iran: nematode tschaman
  • Japan: Kita-negusare-sentyu
  • Netherlands: Wortelaaltje, vrijlevend

EPPO code

  • PRATPE (Pratylenchus penetrans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus penetrans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentKasimova and Atakishieva, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiWidespreadChen et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentYang and Qi, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentWang, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanWidespreadYang et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentLi et al., 2006
-ZhejiangPresentWu et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentKundu and Mishra, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentZaki et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaRestricted distributionNarayanaswamy et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentRamakrishnan and Vadivelu, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentJauhari and Madan, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentDeimi et al., 2008; Mirghasemi et al., 2014
JapanPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentGotoh, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentJeong and Kim, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
KuwaitPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentGritsenko, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentQasim and Hashmi, 1988; Qasim and Ahmed, 1989; Khan et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentValdez Cowel, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Ahazimi, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentAVA, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentElekcioglu, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentRyss et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentLamberti, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentAbdel-Hadi and Ghorab, 1987; Haroon and Abadir, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentAnyango, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentEdongali, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentMeskine and Abbad, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentFawole and Mai, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentWillers, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentWay, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentTownshend, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentYu Qing, 2008
-British ColumbiaPresentMcElroy, 1977a; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentYu Qing, 2008
-New BrunswickPresentKimpinski et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentKimpinski et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentOlthof et al., 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentKimpinski et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentHamilton and Bernier, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentVazquez, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentNigh, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentMaggenti and Viglierchio, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentMiller et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentSchultz and Morehart, 1981; Seliskar and Huettel, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentSchenk and Kinloch, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentHussey and Barker, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentDavis et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentSikora et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentTaylor et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentNesmith, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentFreckman, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentHuettel et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentFunt et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentHung and Rohde, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentBird et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentMacDonald, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentPalmer and MacDonald, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentEstores and Chen, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentArneson and Mai, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentBarker and Hussey, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentRiedel et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentMartin et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentJensen and Vaughan, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentMai et al., 1977; Bookbinder et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentGould, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentZeng et al., 2012
-TexasPresentNorton et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentGriffin, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentConstante et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentElliott and Bird, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentSinclair, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentKeefer et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentOyekan and Mitchell, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentLopez and Salazar, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSingh, 1973; Singh and Farrell, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentHijano, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentRocha-Monteiro et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentFerraz and Monteiro, 1983; Silveira et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentYepez et al., 1972; Crozzoli, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentJovani, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
AustriaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
BelgiumPresentWuyts et al., 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentNikolova et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
CyprusWidespreadAnon, 1991; Philis, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentOndrej, 1974
DenmarkPresentJakobsen, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentKrall', 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentKurppa, 1985
FrancePresentCaubel et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentMuller, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentKoliopanos and Vovlas, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentFarkas et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentMancini and Moretti, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentNesterov and Lizogubova, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentGommers, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentStoen, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentSzczygiel and Danek, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentAbrantes et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentRojancovschi, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentKhurramov, 1972; Gritsenko, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentRomaniko, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentOvechnikov, 1972
-Russian Far EastPresentAntonova, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentLiskova et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SpainPresentWienberg et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentKauri-Paasuke, 1973a; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentHarr and Klinger, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentTrudgill and Brown, 1978; Lane, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentGrujicic, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Oceania

AustraliaPresentAnon, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentColbran, 1976; Dullahide et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentRiley et al., 2009
-TasmaniaPresentPethybridge et al., 2008
-VictoriaPresentSuatmadjii and Marks, 1983; Suatmadjii, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentRyan, 1975; Eade, 1975; Boesewinkel, 1977; Wood and Foot, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / external feeding
Roots / internal feeding
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis Antagonist
Dactylella lysipaga Predator
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Pasteuria penetrans Parasite Juveniles
Phorocera assimilis Pathogen
Pseudomonas chlororaphis Pathogen
Streptomyces Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abawi GS; Mai WF, 1975. Effect of foliar applications of oxamyl on movement of Pratylenchus penetrans in and outside host roots. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(10):795-799

Abawi GS; Mai WF, 1990. Dagger nematodes. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS, eds. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 73-74.

Abdel-Hadi MA; Ghorab AI, 1987. Studies on the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb, 1917) Chitwood & Oteifa, 1952 in cloves. Proceedings of the First Conference of the Agricultural Development Research, 3(1):148-160; [Meeting held at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 19-21 Dec. 1987.]; 27 ref.

Abrantes IM de O; Faria CAT de; Santos MSN de A, 1987. Root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.) in Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15(2):375-378.

Acedo JR; Rohde RA, 1971. Histochemical root pathology of Brassica oleracea capitata L. infected by Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven (Nematoda: Tylenchidae). Journal of Nematology, 3:62-68.

Al-Ahazimi AS, 1988. Relative reproductive rate of Pratylenchus penetrans on selected cultivars of alfalfa and corn. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 6(1):49-52; 8 ref.

Allen WR; Marks CF, 1977. Chemical control and population studies of Pratylenchus penetrans on fruit tree understocks. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(2):84-87

Anon., 1971. Report 1969-71. Plant Nematology, 32-39.

Antonova VV, 1976. Parasitic nematodes on flax in the north-western zone of the RSFSR and their control. VIII Vsesoyuznoe soveshchanie no nematodnym boleznyam sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii. Izdatel'stvo "Shtiintsa". Kishinev USSR, 126-127

Anyango JJ, 1988. The effect of root-knot (Meloidogyne hapla) and lesion (Pratylenchus penetrans) nematodes of pyrethrum seedlings in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, No. 218:355-358; [^italic~Proceedings of the 12th African Symposium on Horticultural Crops, Nairobi, Kenya, held on 24-30 Nov. 1985^roman~]; 7 ref.

Arneson PA; Mai WF, 1976. Root diseases of fruit trees in New York State. VII. Costs and returns of preplant soil fumigation in a replanted apple orchard. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(12):1054-1057

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Banck A, 1974. Root nematodes, especially Pratylenchus convallariae, the cause of heavy losses to lily-of-the-valley. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 38(4):67-72

Barker KR; Hussey RS, 1976. Histopathology of nodular tissues of legumes infected with certain nematodes. Phytopathology, 66(7):851-855

Barnes DK; Thies JA; Rabas DL; Nelson DL; Smith DM, 1990. Registration of two alfalfa germplasms with field resistance to the root-lesion nematode. Crop Science, 30(3):751-752; 2 ref.

Belair G, 1991. Effects of preplant soil fumigation on nematode population densities and on growth and yield of raspberry. Phytoprotection, 72:21-25.

Bergeson GB; Green RJ Jr, 1979. Damage to cultivars of peppermint, Mentha piperita, by the lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans in Indiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(1):91-94

Bernard EC; Laughlin CW, 1976. Relative susceptibility of selected cultivars of potato to Pratylenchus penetrans. Journal of Nematology, 8(3):239-242

Bird GW, 1977. Population dynamics of Pratylenchus penetrans associated with three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum. Journal of Nematology, 9(4):265

Bird GW, 1989. Avoidance and management of nematode problems in tree fruit production in Michigan. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-801-R, 8-9.

Bird GW; Coley C; Sarette M; Meister E, 1975. Potential of heuristic models for development of nematology research priorities. Nematropica, 5(2):19

Boesewinkel HJ, 1977. New plant disease records in New Zealand: records in the period 1969-76. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 20(4):583-589

Bookbinder MG; Bloom JR; Lukezic FL, 1980. Interactions of nematodes and bacteria on alfalfa. Phytopathology, 70(5):459

Bootsma J, 1979. Improving the growing conditions of apple replants. Fruitteelt, 69(45):1308-1311

Bridge J, 1975. Hot water treatment to control plant parasitic nematodes of tropical crops. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 40(2 Pt. 1):249-259

Brodie BB; Evans K; Franco J, 1993. Nematode parasites of potatoes. In: Evans K, Trudgill DL, Webster JM, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 87-132.

Brodie BB; Plaisted RL, 1993. Resistance in potato to Pratylenchus penetrans. Journal of Nematology, 25(3):466-471; 18 ref.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Pratylenchus penetrans. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 888. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caubel G; Curvale JP; Bohec J Le, 1975. The root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, a pest of globe artichoke in Brittany. Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 61(2):89-97.

Caubel G; Hemery J; Le Bohec F, 1978. Control of nematodes. Observations on the effect of Tagetes patula and T. erecta on Pratylenchus penetrans. Defense des Vegetaux, No. 194:219-228

Chen XW (et-al), 1991. Studies on the occurrence and control of citrus disease caused by nematodes. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis, 13(4):344-351.

Chikaoka I, 1970. Studies on the control of Pratylenchus vulnus infesting strawberry. Bulletin of the Agricultural Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, 109:61-77

Chikaoka I, 1976. Studies on the root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) of Japanese radish. Bulletin of the Agricultural Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, 116:35-43

Chikaoka I, 1977. Survival of Pratylenchus penetrans in soil stored in polyethylene bags. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 7(12):45-48

Chitwood DJ, 1992. Nematicidal compounds from plants. In: Nigg HN, Seigler D, eds. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 185-204.

Christie BR; Townshend JL, 1992. Selection for resistance to the root-lesion nematode in alfalfa. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72(2):593-598; 13 ref.

Colbran RC, 1976. The effects of cultural practices and fumigation on the growth of apple replants. Australian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter, 5(1, Suppl.):Abs. 104

Corbett DCM, 1973. Pratylenchus penetrans. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2(No. 25). Wallingford, UK:CAB International, 4 pp.

Costante JF; Autio WR; Berkett LP, 1991. Controlling apple replant disease in 'McIntosh' apple trees on various rootstocks. HortScience, 26(5):604; 7 ref.

Costante JF; Mai WF; Aleong J; Klein RM, 1987. Effects of apple rootstocks and nematicides on Pratylenchus penetrans populations and apple tree growth. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 112:441-444.

Costante JF; Mai WF; Klein RM, 1985. Effects of rootstock and soil type on Pratylenchus penetrans populations in apple feeder roots. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 110:38-41.

Crozzoli PR, 1989. Control of the nematode Pratylenchus penetrans in chrysanthemum with different doses of aldicarb. Fitopatologi^acute~a Venezolana, 2(2):33-34; 8 ref.

Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, 1991. Nematology. Review for 1990, Agricultural Research Institute, Cyprus., 39-41.

Davis JR; Hafez SL; Soressen LH, 1986. The Butte potato cultivar: a tool for interpreting field interactions between Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus spp. Phytopathology, 76:842.

De Guiran G, 1966. Coloration des nematodes dans les tissus vegetaux par le bleu coton a froid. Nematologica, 12:646.

Deimi AM; Chitambar JJ; Maafi ZT, 2008. Nematodes associated with flowering ornamental plants in Mahallat, Iran. Nematologia Mediterranea, 36(2):115-123. http://www.edizioniets.com

Dicklow MB; Acosta N; Zuckerman BM, 1993. A novel Streptomyces species for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19(2):159-173

Dullahide SR; Stirling GR; Nikulin A; Stirling AM, 1994. The role of nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and abiotic factors in the etiology of apple replant problems in the Granite Belt of Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(8):1177-1182; 25 ref.

Dunn RA, 1972. Importance of depth in soil, presence of host roots, and role of eggs as compared to vermiform stages in overwintering of Pratylenchus penetrans at Ithaca, New York. Journal of Nematology, 4(4):221-222

Dunn RA, 1973. Effect of temperature on survival and reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb, 1917) Filipjev and Schurmans Stekhoven, 1941. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34B(1):14

Dunn RA, 1973. Resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum) to Pratylenchus penetrans. International Congress of Plant Pathology (2nd) Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 5-12. Abstracts of the papers. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Inc., No. 0860.

Eade RP, 1975. Controlling of nematodes in tobacco. New Zealand Tobacco Growers' Journal, November:14-15

Edongali EA, 1996. Diseases of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 14(1):41-43; 3 ref.

Edwards L; Vrain T; Utkhede RS, 1994. Effect of antagonistic plants on apple replant disease. Acta Horticulturae, 363:135-140

Elek¦ioglu IH, 1995. Occurrence of Pasteuria bacteria as parasites of plant-parasitic nematodes in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):213-215; 12 ref.

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