Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pratylenchus loosi
(root lesion nematode)

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Datasheet

Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 August 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pratylenchus loosi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root lesion nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Pratylenchidae
  •         Genus: Pratylenchus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The tea roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots, which are succulent and whitish in colour. Larger storage roots display dark brown, necrotic patches or lesions of varying size.
TitleSymptoms on tea roots
CaptionThe tea roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots, which are succulent and whitish in colour. Larger storage roots display dark brown, necrotic patches or lesions of varying size.
CopyrightJohn Bridge/CABI BioScience
The tea roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots, which are succulent and whitish in colour. Larger storage roots display dark brown, necrotic patches or lesions of varying size.
Symptoms on tea rootsThe tea roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots, which are succulent and whitish in colour. Larger storage roots display dark brown, necrotic patches or lesions of varying size.John Bridge/CABI BioScience
Typical field symptoms of damage caused by P. loosi, in both young and mature tea, include patches of unthrifty tea. Affected plants show spindly growth with sparse foliage.
TitleSymptoms in an infested tea field
CaptionTypical field symptoms of damage caused by P. loosi, in both young and mature tea, include patches of unthrifty tea. Affected plants show spindly growth with sparse foliage.
CopyrightNalini C. Gnanapragasam
Typical field symptoms of damage caused by P. loosi, in both young and mature tea, include patches of unthrifty tea. Affected plants show spindly growth with sparse foliage.
Symptoms in an infested tea fieldTypical field symptoms of damage caused by P. loosi, in both young and mature tea, include patches of unthrifty tea. Affected plants show spindly growth with sparse foliage.Nalini C. Gnanapragasam
Infested plants show a marked reduction in the growth of feeder roots. The remaining roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots which are succulent and whitish in colour.
TitleSymptoms on young tea plants
CaptionInfested plants show a marked reduction in the growth of feeder roots. The remaining roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots which are succulent and whitish in colour.
CopyrightNalini C. Gnanapragasam
Infested plants show a marked reduction in the growth of feeder roots. The remaining roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots which are succulent and whitish in colour.
Symptoms on young tea plantsInfested plants show a marked reduction in the growth of feeder roots. The remaining roots appear brown and dried up when compared to normal healthy roots which are succulent and whitish in colour.Nalini C. Gnanapragasam
Lesions on the branches of a tea bush.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLesions on the branches of a tea bush.
CopyrightNalini C. Gnanapragasam
Lesions on the branches of a tea bush.
SymptomsLesions on the branches of a tea bush. Nalini C. Gnanapragasam

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pratylenchus loosi Loof, 1960

Preferred Common Name

  • root lesion nematode

International Common Names

  • English: Loos' root lesion nematode; meadow nematode; nematode, Loos' root lesion
  • French: anguillule de racines du theier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Nematode, Teewurzel-
  • Japan: Tya-negusare-sentyu

EPPO code

  • PRATLO (Pratylenchus loosi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Pratylenchidae
  •                 Genus: Pratylenchus
  •                     Species: Pratylenchus loosi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentSivapalan & Gnananpragasa, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008
ChinaPresentSivapalan & Gnananpragasa, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-SichuanPresentLi, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-DelhiPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-Himachal PradeshPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-KeralaPresentReni and Mohandas, 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-RajasthanPresentSethi and Swarup, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-SikkimPresentBaquri, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-West BengalPresentMukerjee & Dasgupta, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2008
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; Mirghasemi and Seraji, 2010; Mirghasemi et al., 2014; Azad and Seraji, 2016
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-HonshuPresentGotoh, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-KyushuPresentGotoh, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentGotoh, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-ShikokuPresentGotoh, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Korea, Republic ofPresentPark et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Sri LankaPresentHutchinson and Vythilingam, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2008
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
TurkeyPresentKasapoglu et al., 2014

Africa

SenegalPresentBaujard et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008

North America

USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-FloridaPresentInserra, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2008

Central America and Caribbean

GuadeloupePresentBerg and Quénéhervé, 2000; Berg and Quénéhervé, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2008
GuadeloupePresentBerg and Quénéhervé, 2000; Berg and Quénéhervé, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2008

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva et al., 2008
ChilePresentRubilar and Aballay, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2008

Europe

BulgariaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

Oceania

American SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / rot of wood
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith plant material. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf tea leaves. Yes
MailImporting tea plants. Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Azad AY, Seraji A, 2016. Shade tree Tonka (Dipteryx odorata) new host for Pratylenchus loosi in tea plantation. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 52(2):Pe295-Pe296. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_22432.html

Baquri QH, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India - Occasional paper, 128:23-24

Basu SD, 1978. Heat the soil and kill nematodes. Two and A Bud, 14:84-85

Baujard P, Mounport D, Martiny B, 1990. Scanning electron microscopy study of four species of the genus Pratylenchus Filip'ev 1936 (Nemata: Pratylenchidae). Revue de Ne^acute~matologie, 13(2):203-210; 8 ref

Berg Evan den, Quénéhervé P, 2000. Hirschmanniella caribbeana sp. n. and new records of Pratylenchus spp. (Pratylenchidae: Nematoda) from Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Nematology, 2(2):179-190

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Pratylenchus loosi. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1042

Das VM, Sultana S, 1979. Five new species of the genus Pratylenchus from vegetable crops of Hyderabad, (Andhra Pradesh). Indian Journal of Nematology, 9(1):5-14

Gadd CH, 1939. A destructive root disease of tea caused by the nematode, Anguillulina pratensis. Tea Quarterly, 12:131-139

Gadd CH, 1947. Disease problem. Tea Quarterly, 19:61-64

Gadd CH, Loos CA, 1946. The problem of nematode control in tea plantations. Tea Quarterly, 18:3-11

Gnanapragasam NC, 1981. The influence of cultivating Eragrostis curvula in nematode-infested soils, on the subsequent build-up of populations in replanted tea. Tea Quarterly, 50(4):160-162

Gnanapragasam NC, 1982. Effect of potassium fertilization and of soil temperature on the incidence and pathogenicity of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus loosi Loof, on tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Tea Quarterly, 51(4):169-174

Gnanapragasam NC, 1987. Integrated strategies to manage nematodes in tea. Proceedings of the International Conference on Tea Quality and Human Health. China, Hangzhou, November, 1987:117-183

Gnanapragasam NC, 1988. Limitation to growth and productivity by plant parasitic nematodes. Proceedings of Regional Tea Conference, Tea Research Institute, Sri Lanka, 123-133

Gnanapragasam NC, 1989. Prevention of dissemination of nematodes pathogenic to tea into hitherto uninfested tea areas. Tea Bulletin, 9(1):20-22

Gnanapragasam NC, 1991. Influence of soil amendments in reducing pathogenicity to tea by the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus loosi. Proceedings of the International Tea Symposium, Schizuoka, Japan, 684-688

Gnanapragasam NC, 1995. Nematode Pests of Tea. In: Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, Kathiravetpillai A, eds. Field Guide Book, Tea Research Institute, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka, 83-87

Gnanapragasam NC, Manuelpillai MEK, 1981. Relative rates of egg hatch of the root-knot nematode of mature tea, Meloidogyne brevicauda, in relation to other species of this nematode. Tea Quarterly, 50(4):170-171

Gnanapragasam NC, Manuelpillai MEK, 1984. Influence of inoculum level and temperature on the population build-up and pathogenicity of the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus loosi Loof) of tea. Tea Quarterly, 53(1-2):19-22

Gnanapragasam NC, Sivapalan P, 1991. Influence of soil types and storage conditions on the recovery of Pratylenchus loosi from soil samples. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 1(2):150-153; 5 ref

Gotoh A, 1976. A review of the plant-parasitic nematodes in warm and subtropical regions in Japan. Miscellaneous Bulletin of the Kyushu Agricultural Experimental Station, 54:61

Hutchinson MT, 1962. Rehabilitating tea soils - susceptibility of plants now in use to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus loosi. Tea Quarterly, 33:138-14

Hutchinson MT, Vythilingam MK, 1963. The distribution of Pratylenchus loosi among tea estates in Ceylon, with particular reference to altitude. Tea Quarterly, 34:68-84

Inserra R, 1996. Nematology Section. Tri-ology Technical Report, 35(3):10-11

Inserra RN, Vovlas N, Sivapalan P, Lamberti F, 1980. Histopathology of tea roots infested by Pratylenchus loosi in Sri Lanka. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 28(2):75-76

Kaneko T, Ichinohe M, 1963. Notes on the nematode species and their bionomics associated with tea roots in Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 7:165-174

Kasapoglu EB, Imren M, Elekcioglu IH, 2014. Plant parasitic nematode species found on important cultivated plants in Adana. (Adana ilinde önemli kültür bitkilerinde bulunan bitki paraziti nematod türleri.) Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 38(3):333-350. http://entomoloji.ege.edu.tr/files/Arsiv/2014_38_3/2014_38_3_333-350.pdf

Kerr A, Vythilingham MK, 1966. Replanting eelworm infested areas. Tea Quarterly, 37, 67-72

Li DZ, 1985. Description of some species of parasitic nematodes of genus Pratylenchus on plant roots in Sichuan Province. Journal of Southwest Agricultural College (Japan), 2:51

Loof PAA, 1960. Taxonomic studies on the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda). Tijdschr. Plantenziekten, 66:29-90

Loos CA, 1953. Eelworms. Tea Quarterly, 22:34-38

Mirghasemi SN, Seraji A, Jamali S, Choshali AH, 2014. Reported some new species of plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of tea plantation in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 5(9):37-46. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/IJB-V5No9-p37-46.pdf

Mirghasemi T, Seraji A, 2010. Basket grass (Oplismenus compositus) as a new host for tea root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus loosi. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 46(1):Pe91-Pe92, En27. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=342&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Mohotti KM, Bridge J, Gowen SR, 1998. Natural suppression of plant parasitic nematodes in tea soils in Sri Lanka. International Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists , August, 1998

Mukherjee B, Dasgupta MK, 1982. Community analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes in tea plantations of West Bengal, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 10(1):1-7

Nakasono K, Ichinohe M, 1961. Hemicriconemoides kanayaensis n.sp. associated with tea root in Japan (Nematoda:Criconematidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 5:273-276

Nakasono K, Yamamoto T, Kondo T, 1972. Seasonal fluctuation of nematode populations in a citrus orchard having replant problem. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 2:33-39

Park ByeongYong, Choi DongRo, Lee JaeKook, Choi YoungEoun, Shin GilHo, 2002. An unrecorded species of Pratylenchus loosi Loof (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae) from tea in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 41(4):299-303

Pourjam E, Waenberge L, Moens M, Geraert E, 1999. Morphological, Morphometrical and molecular study of Pratylenchus coffeae and P. loosi (Nematoda:Pratylenchudae). Proceedings of 51st International symposium on crop protection Gent, Belgium, 4th May, 1999 Part 1 Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Univeriteit Gent, 64:391-401

Rao GN, 1976. Control of nematodes in nursery soil. Planters' Chronicle, 71(7):257, 259

Reni Varghese, Mohandas C, 2004. Pratylenchus loosi, a new record on Dioscorea rotundata. Indian Journal of Nematology, 34(2):221-222

Rubilar P, Aballay E, 2006. Morphometrics of two Pratylenchus species associated with sugar beet in the Eighth Region (Bio-Bio), Chile. Fitopatología, 41(2):81-85. http://www.fitopatologia.org

Seinhorst JW, 1977. Pratylenchus loosi. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 7(98)

Sethi CL, Swarup G, 1971. Plant parasitic nematodes of North-Western India. III. The genus Pratylenchus. Indian Phytopathology, 24(2):410-412

Silva RA, Oliveira CMG, Inomoto MM, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(3):204-211. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Sivapalan P, 1967. Nematodes and Tea. Tea Quarterly, 38:260-268

Sivapalan P, 1971. The effects of infestation by Pratylenchus loosi and of soil fumigation on the growth of young tea plants in different soil types. Tea Quarterly, 42:131-137

Sivapalan P, 1972. Nematode Pests of Tea. In: Webster JM, ed. Economic Nematology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 285-310

Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, 1975. The effect of soil temperature and of infestation by Pratylenchus loosi on the growth and nutrient status of a susceptible and tolerant variety of young tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Tea Quarterly, 45(1/2):29-35

Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, Jebamalai AS, 1980. Chemical control of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus loosi, in new tea plantings. Tea Quarterly, 49(2):30...36

Sivapalan P, Gnanapragasam NC, Jebamalai AS, 1980. Treatment of nursery soils with dazomet 98% granular ('Basamid') as an alternate method of control of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus loosi, of tea. Tea Quarterly, 49(3/4):134-136

Sivapalan P, Shivanandarajah V, 1974. Polyphenol content in the feeder roots of nematode-tolerant and susceptible tea clones in relation to infestation by Pratylenchus loosi Loof. Tea Quarterly, 44(4):173-176

Takaji K, 1969. Nematodes confronts tea plantations in Japan. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly, 4:27-2

Uehara T, Kushida A, Momota Y, 1999. Rapid and sensitive identification of Pratylenchus spp. using reverse dot blot hybridization. Nematology, 1(5):549-555; 25 ref

Visser T, 1959. Observations on the prevalence and control of parasitic eelworms in tea. Tea Quarterly, 30:96-107

Waeyenberge L et al., 2000. Molecular characterisation of 18 Pratylenchus species using DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nematology, 2:135-142.

Distribution Maps

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